Abstract

Facile and cost-efficient microcavities, as well as the tuning of the optical modes, especially for the application of top-grade optical devices, have been emerging as attractive research fields. In this work, controllable fabrication of the microfiber laser arrays in polymer matrix is achieved by employing the advanced spiral drawing technique. Besides the high-quality whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing, wavelength tuning is also realized by applying external forces on the polymer matrix, which induce slightly enlarged cavity sizes. Furthermore, the perspectives of utilizing the microfiber arrays as force and strain sensors are discussed and demonstrated.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (5)

Z. Zhou, F. Shu, Z. Shen, C. Dong, and G. C. Guo, “High-Q whispering gallery modes in a polymer microresonator with broad strain tuning,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114208 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Yang, H. Yang, and H. D. Sun, “Quaternary alloy quantum dots: toward low-threshold stimulated emission and all-solution-processed lasers in the green region,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 652–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, V. D. Ta, and H. D. Sun, “Bending-induced bidirectional tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from flexible polymer fibers,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 11–16 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Fiber-optical switch controlled by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(19), 193601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, D. M. Nguyen, and H. D. Sun, “Application of self-assembled hemispherical microlasers as gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031107 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Sajed and C. Rutherglen, “All-printed and transparent single walled carbon nanotube thin film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 143303 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

M. Manzo, T. Ioppolo, U. K. Ayaz, V. Lapenna, and M. V. Ötügen, “A photonic wall pressure sensor for fluid mechanics applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 105003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Chen and H. D. Sun, “Single mode lasing from hybrid hemispherical microresonators,” Sci. Rep. 2, 244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Madugani, Y. Yang, J. M. Ward, J. D. Riordan, S. Coppola, V. Vespini, S. Grilli, A. Finizio, P. Ferraro, and S. Nic Chormaic, “Terahertz tuning of whispering gallery modes in a PDMS stand-alone, stretchable microsphere,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4762–4764 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Monifi, J. Friedlein, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “A robust and tunable add-drop filter using whispering gallery mode microtoroid resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(21), 3306–3315 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Self-assembled flexible microlasers,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP60–OP64 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

G. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, “Whispering gallery mode microresonators: fundamentals and applications,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 34(7), 435–488 (2011).

S. K. Tang, R. Derda, Q. Quan, M. Lončar, and G. M. Whitesides, “Continuously tunable microdroplet-laser in a microfluidic channel,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2204–2215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).

2009 (2)

M. Humar, M. Ravnik, S. Pajk, and I. Muševič, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 595–600 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Ioppolo, U. Ayaz, and M. V. Otügen, “Tuning of whispering gallery modes of spherical resonators using an external electric field,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16465–16479 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

A. Kiraz, A. Kurt, M. Dündar, and A. Demirel, “Simple largely tunable optical microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081118 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

M. G. Allen, M. Mehregany, R. T. Howe, and S. D. Senturia, “Microfabricated structures for the insitu measurement of residual stress, young’s modulus, and ultimate strain of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(4), 241–243 (1987).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, M. Mehregany, R. T. Howe, and S. D. Senturia, “Microfabricated structures for the insitu measurement of residual stress, young’s modulus, and ultimate strain of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(4), 241–243 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ayaz, U.

Ayaz, U. K.

M. Manzo, T. Ioppolo, U. K. Ayaz, V. Lapenna, and M. V. Ötügen, “A photonic wall pressure sensor for fluid mechanics applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 105003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).

Caucheteur, C.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, V. D. Ta, and H. D. Sun, “Bending-induced bidirectional tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from flexible polymer fibers,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 11–16 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, D. M. Nguyen, and H. D. Sun, “Application of self-assembled hemispherical microlasers as gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031107 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen and H. D. Sun, “Single mode lasing from hybrid hemispherical microresonators,” Sci. Rep. 2, 244 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Self-assembled flexible microlasers,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP60–OP64 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coppola, S.

de Vries, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).

Demir, H. V.

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demirel, A.

A. Kiraz, A. Kurt, M. Dündar, and A. Demirel, “Simple largely tunable optical microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Derda, R.

Dong, C.

Z. Zhou, F. Shu, Z. Shen, C. Dong, and G. C. Guo, “High-Q whispering gallery modes in a polymer microresonator with broad strain tuning,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114208 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dumeige, Y.

G. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, “Whispering gallery mode microresonators: fundamentals and applications,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 34(7), 435–488 (2011).

Dündar, M.

A. Kiraz, A. Kurt, M. Dündar, and A. Demirel, “Simple largely tunable optical microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Féron, P.

G. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, “Whispering gallery mode microresonators: fundamentals and applications,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 34(7), 435–488 (2011).

Ferrari, M.

G. Righini, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, G. Nunzi Conti, D. Ristic, and S. Soria, “Whispering gallery mode microresonators: fundamentals and applications,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 34(7), 435–488 (2011).

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Fong, K. E.

Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friedlein, J.

Gao, Y.

Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geluk, E. J.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).

Grilli, S.

Guo, G. C.

Z. Zhou, F. Shu, Z. Shen, C. Dong, and G. C. Guo, “High-Q whispering gallery modes in a polymer microresonator with broad strain tuning,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114208 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, T.

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, T. C.

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howe, R. T.

M. G. Allen, M. Mehregany, R. T. Howe, and S. D. Senturia, “Microfabricated structures for the insitu measurement of residual stress, young’s modulus, and ultimate strain of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(4), 241–243 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hua, S.

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L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).

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M. G. Allen, M. Mehregany, R. T. Howe, and S. D. Senturia, “Microfabricated structures for the insitu measurement of residual stress, young’s modulus, and ultimate strain of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(4), 241–243 (1987).
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J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013).
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Z. Zhou, F. Shu, Z. Shen, C. Dong, and G. C. Guo, “High-Q whispering gallery modes in a polymer microresonator with broad strain tuning,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114208 (2015).
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Spuesens, T.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E. J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010).

Stepaniuk, V.

Sun, H.

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
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Sun, H. D.

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
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Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
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Y. Wang, S. Yang, H. Yang, and H. D. Sun, “Quaternary alloy quantum dots: toward low-threshold stimulated emission and all-solution-processed lasers in the green region,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 652–657 (2015).
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V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 220–225 (2014).
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R. Chen, V. D. Ta, and H. D. Sun, “Bending-induced bidirectional tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from flexible polymer fibers,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 11–16 (2014).
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S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
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S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
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Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
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V. D. Ta, R. Chen, D. M. Nguyen, and H. D. Sun, “Application of self-assembled hemispherical microlasers as gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031107 (2013).
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Volz, J.

D. O’Shea, C. Junge, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Fiber-optical switch controlled by a single atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(19), 193601 (2013).
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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 524–529 (2014).
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S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Yang, H. Yang, and H. D. Sun, “Quaternary alloy quantum dots: toward low-threshold stimulated emission and all-solution-processed lasers in the green region,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 652–657 (2015).
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S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
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Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
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Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
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Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 524–529 (2014).
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Yang, H.

Y. Wang, S. Yang, H. Yang, and H. D. Sun, “Quaternary alloy quantum dots: toward low-threshold stimulated emission and all-solution-processed lasers in the green region,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 652–657 (2015).
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Yang, L.

Yang, S.

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, R. Chen, T. He, H. V. Demir, and H. Sun, “Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, K. E. Fong, S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, Z. Wang, V. Nalla, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Unraveling the ultralow threshold stimulated emission from CdZnS/ZnS quantum dot and enabling high-Q microlasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 507–516 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, S. Yang, H. Yang, and H. D. Sun, “Quaternary alloy quantum dots: toward low-threshold stimulated emission and all-solution-processed lasers in the green region,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 652–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Ying, Y. J.

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 133–139 (2013).
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Young, K.

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, F. Shu, Z. Shen, C. Dong, and G. C. Guo, “High-Q whispering gallery modes in a polymer microresonator with broad strain tuning,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58(11), 114208 (2015).
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ACS Photonics (1)

R. Chen, V. D. Ta, and H. D. Sun, “Bending-induced bidirectional tuning of whispering gallery mode lasing from flexible polymer fibers,” ACS Photonics 1(1), 11–16 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Wang, V. D. Ta, Y. Gao, T. C. He, R. Chen, E. Mutlugun, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Stimulated emission and lasing from CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots by simultaneous three-photon absorption,” Adv. Mater. 26(18), 2954–2961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Self-assembled flexible microlasers,” Adv. Mater. 24(10), OP60–OP64 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (3)

Y. Wang, S. Yang, H. Yang, and H. D. Sun, “Quaternary alloy quantum dots: toward low-threshold stimulated emission and all-solution-processed lasers in the green region,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 652–657 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, and H. D. Sun, “Coupled polymer microfiber lasers for single mode operation and enhanced refractive index sensing,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(3), 220–225 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. G. Allen, M. Mehregany, R. T. Howe, and S. D. Senturia, “Microfabricated structures for the insitu measurement of residual stress, young’s modulus, and ultimate strain of thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(4), 241–243 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, V. D. Ta, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, T. He, R. Chen, H. V. Demir, and H. D. Sun, “Multicolor lasing prints,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Kiraz, A. Kurt, M. Dündar, and A. Demirel, “Simple largely tunable optical microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081118 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Sajed and C. Rutherglen, “All-printed and transparent single walled carbon nanotube thin film transistor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 143303 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, D. M. Nguyen, and H. D. Sun, “Application of self-assembled hemispherical microlasers as gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 031107 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. S. Ilchenko and A. B. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (4)

V. D. Ta, R. Chen, L. Ma, Y. J. Ying, and H. D. Sun, “Whispering gallery mode microlasers and refractive index sensing based on single polymer fiber,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 133–139 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Absorption of the fiber solution due to the capillary effect. (b) Formation of the microfiber precursor by lifting up the dispenser of the microplotter with a certain height. (c) Approaching of the spirally rotating motor with uncured on-substrate PDMS matrix at the center. (d) Fabricated microfiber array buried in the PDMS matrix.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(b) Optical images of the fabricated microfiber arrays with different periods and diameters. (c) The dependence of microfiber diameter on the lifting height of the dispenser. (d) The reproducibility test of the spirally drawing technique. The lifting heights of the dispenser for the three independent sets are all 10 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the excitation and collection system. (b) Spectrum of the microfiber under excitation and mode allocation. Inset shows the microfiber laser under excitation. (c) Single mode lasing in the excited 12-µm microfiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the force applying system. (b) Spectrum of the lasing modes with respect to the stage movement. Redshifting can be seen clearly with the lengthening of the matrix. (c) Enlarged spectrum in (b) with calculated forces and mode shift range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The PMMA: Epoxy mass ratio and diameter dependence on the sensor sensitivities of strain and force.

Equations (4)

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λ TM 2πR n cav m+1.856 m 1 3 +( 1 2 n env 2 n cav n cav 2 n env 2 ) .
( n eff +Δ n eff )[π 2( a 2 + b 2 ) ]=m(λ+Δλ).
Δλ λ = a 2 + b 2 2 R 2 1+ a 2 + b 2 2 R 2 Δn n .
Δλ λ = a 2 + b 2 2 R 2 1.

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