Abstract

We report on a chiral gap-nanostructure, which we term a “butterfly nanoantenna,” that offers full vectorial control over nonlinear emission. The field enhancement in its gap occurs for only one circular polarization but for every incident linear polarization. As the polarization, phase and amplitude of the linear field in the gap are highly controlled, the linear field can drive nonlinear emitters within the gap, which behave as an idealized Huygens source. A general framework is thereby proposed wherein the butterfly nanoantennas can be arranged in a metasurface, and the nonlinear Huygens sources exploited to produce a highly structured far-field optical beam. Nonlinearity allows us to shape the light at shorter wavelengths, not accessible by linear plasmonics, and resulting in high purity beams. The chirality of the butterfly allows us to create orbital angular momentum states using a linearly polarized excitation. A third harmonic Laguerre-Gauss beam carrying an optical orbital angular momentum of 41 is demonstrated as an example, through large-scale simulations on a high-performance computing platform of the full plasmonic metasurface with an area large enough to contain up to 3600 nanoantennas.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (11)

E. Almeida, G. Shalem, and Y. Prior, “Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10367 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Keren-Zur, O. Avayu, L. Michaeli, and T. Ellenbogen, “Nonlinear beam shaping with plasmonic metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3, 117–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wolf, T. Schumacher, and M. Lippitz, “Shaping the nonlinear near field,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10361 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Linnenbank, Y. Grynko, J. Förstner, and S. Linden, “Second harmonic generation spectroscopy on hybrid plasmonic/dielectric nanoantennas,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16013 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Hakobyan, H. Magallanes, G. Seniutinas, S. Juodkazis, and E. Brasselet, “Tailoring orbital angular momentum of light in the visible domain with metallic metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 306–312 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Ye, F. Zeuner, X. Li, B. Reineke, S. He, C.-W. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography,” Nat. Comm. 7, 11930 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352, 795–797 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Shaltout, N. Kinsey, J. Kim, R. Chandrasekar, J. C. Ndukaife, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Development of optical metasurfaces: emerging concepts and new materials,” Proc. IEEE 104, 2270–2287 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Mehmood, S. Mei, S. Hussain, K. Huang, S. Y. Siew, L. Zhang, T. Zhang, X. Ling, H. Liu, J. Teng, A. Danner, S. Zhang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Visible-frequency metasurface for structuring and spatially multiplexing optical vortices,” Adv. Mater. 28, 2533–2539 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Byrnes, A. Lenef, F. Aieta, and F. Capasso, “Designing large, high-efficiency, high-numerical-aperture, transmissive meta-lenses for visible light,” Opt. Express 24, 5110 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (15)

A. Calà Lesina, A. Vaccari, P. Berini, and L. Ramunno, “On the convergence and accuracy of the FDTD method for nanoplasmonics,” Opt. Express 23, 10481 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Calà Lesina, L. Ramunno, and P. Berini, “Dual-polarization plasmonic metasurface for nonlinear optics,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2874 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Minovich, A. E. Miroshnichenko, A. Y. Bykov, T. V. Murzina, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Functional and nonlinear optical metasurfaces,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 195–213 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Harris, V. Grillo, E. Mafakheri, G. C. Gazzadi, S. Frabboni, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Structured quantum waves,” Nat. Phys. 11, 629–634 (2015).
[Crossref]

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by metasurface nanomixer and nanocavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1000–1006 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Bliokh, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, F. Nori, and A. V. Zayats, “Spin-orbit interactions of light,” Nat. Photonics 4, 607 (2015).

X. Ma, M. Pu, X. Li, C. Huang, Y. Wang, W. Pan, B. Zhao, J. Cui, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, and X. Luo, “A planar chiral meta-surface for optical vortex generation and focusing,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10365 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Rui, Q. Zhan, and Y. Cui, “Tailoring optical complex field with spiral blade plasmonic vortex lens,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13732 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chen, C.-T. Ku, Y.-H. Tai, P.-K. Wei, H.-N. Lin, and C.-B. Huang, “Creating optical near-field orbital angular momentum in a gold metasurface,” Nano Lett. 15, 2746–2750 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Segal, S. Keren-Zur, N. Hendler, and T. Ellenbogen, “Controlling light with metamaterial-based nonlinear photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9, 180–184 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tymchenko, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. Lee, N. Nookala, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Gradient nonlinear Pancharatnam-Berry metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 207403 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear Fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, S. Chen, N. Pholchai, B. Reineke, P. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations,” Nat. Mater. 14, 607–612 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O’Brien, H. Suchowski, J. Rho, A. Salandrino, B. Kante, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Predicting nonlinear properties of metamaterials from the linear response,” Nat. Mater. 14, 379–383 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (10)

H. Aouani, M. Rahmani, M. Navarro-Cía, and S. A. Maier, “Third-harmonic-upconversion enhancement from a single semiconductor nanoparticle coupled to a plasmonic antenna,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 290–294 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Metzger, M. Hentschel, T. Schumacher, M. Lippitz, X. Ye, C. B. Murray, B. Knabe, K. Buse, and H. Giessen, “Doubling the efficiency of third harmonic generation by positioning ITO nanocrystals into the hot-spot of plasmonic gap-antennas,” Nano Lett. 14, 2867–2872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14, 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ling, X. Zhou, W. Shu, H. Luo, and S. Wen, “Realization of tunable photonic spin Hall effect by tailoring the Pancharatnam-Berry phase,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5557 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bouchard, I. De Leon, S. A. Schulz, J. Upham, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 1–5 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Lassiter, X. Chen, X. Liu, C. Ciracì, T. B. Hoang, S. Larouche, S. H. Oh, M. H. Mikkelsen, and D. R. Smith, “Third-harmonic generation enhancement by film-coupled plasmonic stripe resonators,” ACS Photonics 1, 1212–1217 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8, 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. W. Boyd, S. Zhimin, and I. De Leon, “The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of gold,” Opt. Commun. 326, 74–79 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial Huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. P. Prokopidis and D. C. Zografopoulos, “A Unified FDTD/PML Scheme Based on Critical Points for Accurate Studies of Plasmonic Structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(15), 2467–2476 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y.-B. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-enabled plasmonic metasurfaces for manipulating orbital angular momentum of light,” Nano Lett. 13, 4148–4151 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

M. Duocastella and C. Arnold, “Bessel and annular beams for materials processing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 607–621 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ciracì, E. Poutrina, M. Scalora, and D. R. Smith, “Origin of second-harmonic generation enhancement in optical split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201403 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, T. Utikal, H. Giessen, and M. Lippitz, “Quantitative modeling of the third harmonic emission spectrum of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 3778–3782 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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2011 (5)

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A. Vial, T. Laroche, M. Dridi, and L. Le Cunff, “A new model of dispersion for metals leading to a more accurate modeling of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 849–853 (2011).
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2010 (2)

P. Genevet, J.-P. Tetienne, E. Gatzogiannis, R. Blanchard, M. A. Kats, M. O. Scully, and F. Capasso, “Large enhancement of nonlinear optical phenomena by plasmonic nanocavity gratings,” Nano Lett. 10, 4880–4883 (2010).
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2005 (1)

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D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424, 810–816 (2003).
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2001 (1)

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M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5, 343–348 (2011).
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M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352, 795–797 (2016).
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J. Harris, V. Grillo, E. Mafakheri, G. C. Gazzadi, S. Frabboni, R. W. Boyd, and E. Karimi, “Structured quantum waves,” Nat. Phys. 11, 629–634 (2015).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4, 83–91 (2010).
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T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, A. Boulesbaa, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, A. Puretzky, D. Geohegan, and J. Valentine, “Nonlinear Fano-resonant dielectric metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 15, 7388–7393 (2015).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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T. Hanke, J. Cesar, V. Knittel, A. Trügler, U. Hohenester, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Tailoring spatiotemporal light confinement in single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12, 992–996 (2012).
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A. M. Shaltout, N. Kinsey, J. Kim, R. Chandrasekar, J. C. Ndukaife, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Development of optical metasurfaces: emerging concepts and new materials,” Proc. IEEE 104, 2270–2287 (2016).
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M. Z. Alam, I. De Leon, and R. W. Boyd, “Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region,” Science 352, 795–797 (2016).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e167 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (28954 KB)      Movie showing the interaction of an LCP wave with the large metasurface.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top view of the LH butterfly nanoantenna for a gap axis oriented at θ = 45°.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Butterfly nanoantenna with PBCs (gap axis oriented at θ = 45°): (a) field enhancement |Ex|/|Einc| varying λ0 and θinc, (b) phase of Ex varying θinc and λ0, (c) phase difference between the components Ex and Ez, (d) |Ex|/|Ez| ratio.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Butterfly nanoantenna with PBCs: field enhancement |E|/|Einc| at ωc for (a) LCP and (b) RCP excitation, surface charge density at ωc for (c) LCP and (d) RCP excitation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Butterfly nanoantenna without PBCs (gap axis oriented along the z-axis): far-field radiation pattern at 3ωc for (a) LCP and (b) RCP excitation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 γ = 2: (a) linear (n = 1) array, (b) nonlinear (n = 3) array, (c) butterfly metasurface layout.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Frame extracted from Visualization 1.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 γ = 20, nonlinear far-field beam (l = 41): analytical arrangement of dipoles (left) versus numerical modelling (FDTD) of the corresponding arrangement of butterfly nanoantennas (right).

Equations (8)

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1 2 [ 1 1 ] = [ T ] 1 2 [ 1 i ] ,
[ 0 0 ] = [ T ] 1 2 [ 1 i ] .
[ T ] = 1 2 [ 1 i 1 i ] .
1 2 [ e i θ inc e i θ inc ] = [ T ] [ cos θ inc sin θ inc ] ,
E x ( r ) = | E | cos ( θ 0 + γ ϕ ) e i n γ ϕ , E z ( r ) = | E | sin ( θ 0 + γ ϕ ) polarization e in γ ϕ phase ,
l = σ ( 1 γ + n γ ) ,
P x ( t ) = χ x x x x ( 3 ) E x ( t ) | E ( t ) | 2 , P y ( t ) = χ y y y y ( 3 ) E y ( t ) | E ( t ) | 2 , P z ( t ) = χ z z z z ( 3 ) E z ( t ) | E ( t ) | 2 ,
E ( X , Z ) = N x N z E ( x , z ) e i 2 π λ 0 1 R ( X x + Z z ) Δ x Δ z ,

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