Abstract

The internal quantum efficiencies (IQE) and carrier lifetimes of semipolar (202¯1¯) InGaN/GaN LEDs with different active regions are measured using temperature-dependent, carrier-density-dependent, and time-resolved photoluminescence. Three active regions are investigated: one 12-nm-thick single quantum well (SQW), two 6-nm-thick QWs, and three 4-nm-thick QWs. The IQE is highest for the 12-nm-thick SQW and decreases as the well width decreases. The radiative lifetimes are similar for all structures, while the nonradiative lifetimes decrease as the well width decreases. The superior IQE and longer nonradiative lifetime of the SQW structure suggests using thick SQW active regions for high brightness semipolar (202¯1¯) LEDs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  39. G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  41. M. Vening, D. J. Dunstan, and K. P. Homewood, “Thermal quenching and retrapping effects in the photoluminescence of InyGa1-yAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2412–2417 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub-micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(11), 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H.-S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (9)

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Scholz, “Semipolar GaN grown on foreign substrates: A review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024002 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in bitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: Comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193508 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033501 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Vening, D. J. Dunstan, and K. P. Homewood, “Thermal quenching and retrapping effects in the photoluminescence of InyGa1-yAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2412–2417 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. D. Lambkin, J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/ GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 1986–1988 (1990).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aleksiejunas, R.

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
[Crossref]

Asamizu, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banal, R. G.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub-micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(11), 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beaumont, B.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bergman, J. P.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunner, D.

O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cantore, M.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiu, T. L.

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cruz, S. C.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033501 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: Comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193508 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Della Sala, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

Di Carlo, A.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dunstan, D. J.

M. Vening, D. J. Dunstan, and K. P. Homewood, “Thermal quenching and retrapping effects in the photoluminescence of InyGa1-yAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2412–2417 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunstan, J.

J. D. Lambkin, J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/ GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 1986–1988 (1990).
[Crossref]

Emeny, M. T.

J. D. Lambkin, J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/ GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 1986–1988 (1990).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fiorentini, V.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), 10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub-micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(11), 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: Comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193508 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gibart, P.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033501 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, D. P.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H.-S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hautakangas, S.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Homewood, K. P.

M. Vening, D. J. Dunstan, and K. P. Homewood, “Thermal quenching and retrapping effects in the photoluminescence of InyGa1-yAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2412–2417 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Lambkin, J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/ GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 1986–1988 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. M.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Howard, L. K.

J. D. Lambkin, J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/ GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 1986–1988 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. S.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. S.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-Y.

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. C.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, S.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub-micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(11), 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, R.

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Iwata, Y.

Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub-micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(11), 115702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jarasiunas, K.

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
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S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
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C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
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K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H.-S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
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Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H.-S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
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A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
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Li, X.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
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Look, D. C.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
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V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
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Makkonen, I.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
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Malinauskas, T.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
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Marcinkevicius, S.

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
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Masui, H.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matulionis, A.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Melo, T.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Minsky, M. S.

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, E.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Muret, P.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

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G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
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Nakamura, S.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nargelas, S.

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. H.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Okur, S.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Omnès, F.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ozgur, U.

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, C. C.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paskov, P. P.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Paskova, T.

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Philippe, A.

P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Piccardo, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in bitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puska, M. J.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranki, V.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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Saarinen, K.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
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Scajev, P.

K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
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P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
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P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
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Schade, L.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
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Scholz, F.

F. Scholz, “Semipolar GaN grown on foreign substrates: A review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024002 (2012).
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O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. I.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H.-S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shubina, T. V.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
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Sohmer, A.

O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
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C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
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D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
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S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
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J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
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G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
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Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
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Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
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Tanaka, S.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toropov, A. A.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyagi, A.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Usui, A.

B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
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Van de Walle, C. G.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
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Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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M. Vening, D. J. Dunstan, and K. P. Homewood, “Thermal quenching and retrapping effects in the photoluminescence of InyGa1-yAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2412–2417 (1993).
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P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
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Wernicke, T.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

L. Schade, U. T. Schwarz, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Impact of band structure and transition matrix elements on polarization properties of the photoluminescence of semipolar and nonpolar InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 248(3), 638–646 (2011).
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Wraback, M.

G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. R.

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
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Yamada, H.

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
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Yan, Q.

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q. M.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yen, S. H.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
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Yonkee, B. P.

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. J.

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

C. C. Pan, S. Tanaka, F. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and D. Feezell, “High-power, low-efficiency-droop semipolar (20-2-1) single-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(6), 062103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. H. Oh, B. P. Yonkee, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(10), 102102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 053502 (2008).
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A. David and N. F. Gardner, “Droop in III-nitrides: Comparison of bulk and injection contributions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193508 (2010).
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K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H.-S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Influence of polarization fields on carrier lifetime and recombination rates in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 033501 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, L. Y. Kuritzky, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Photoexcited carrier recombination in wide m-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(11), 111107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kawaguchi, C.-Y. Huang, Y. R. Wu, Q. Yan, C. C. Pan, Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Influence of polarity on carrier transport in semipolar (2021) and (2021) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, R. Ivanov, Y. Zhao, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and its dynamics in semipolar (20-2-1)InGaN/GaN quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Marcinkevičius, Y. Zhao, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Near-field investigation of spatial variations of (2021) InGaN quantum well emission spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(13), 131116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zhao, Q. M. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
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J. D. Lambkin, J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/ GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 1986–1988 (1990).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. K. Sun, S. Keller, T. L. Chiu, G. Wang, M. S. Minsky, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “Well-width dependent studies of InGaN–GaN single-quantum wells using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 731–738 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar and semipolar III-nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57(1), 88–100 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

X. Li, S. Okur, F. Zhang, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, S. M. Hong, S. H. Yen, T. S. Hsu, and A. Matulionis, “Impact of active layer design on InGaN radiative recombination coefficient and LED performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063112 (2012).
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P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Carrier dynamics in bulk GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(2), 023702 (2012).
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Y. Iwata, R. G. Banal, S. Ichikawa, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Co-existence of a few and sub-micron inhomogeneities in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(11), 115702 (2015).
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P. Muret, A. Philippe, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, B. Beaumont, F. Omnès, and P. Gibart, “Properties of a hole trap in n-type hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 2998–3001 (2002).
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J. Disp. Technol. (2)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9, 190–198 (2013).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Masui, H. Asamizu, T. Melo, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. C. Cruz, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Effects of piezoelectric fields on optoelectronic properties of InGaN/GaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes prepared on nonpolar (10-10) and semipolar (11-22) orientations,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135106 (2009).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Theoretical study of orientation dependence of piezoelectric effects in wurtzite strained GaInN/GaN heterostructures and quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 413–416 (2000).
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O. Ambacher, D. Brunner, R. Dimitrov, M. Stutzmann, A. Sohmer, and F. Scholz, “Absorption of InGaN single quantum wells determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 3A), 745–752 (1998).
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MRS Bull. (1)

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
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Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Hautakangas, I. Makkonen, V. Ranki, M. J. Puska, K. Saarinen, X. Xu, and D. C. Look, “Direct evidence of impurity decoration of Ga vacancies in GaN from positron annihilation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 193301 (2006).
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V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, and P. Lugli, “Effects of macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8849–8858 (1999).
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Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

M. Vening, D. J. Dunstan, and K. P. Homewood, “Thermal quenching and retrapping effects in the photoluminescence of InyGa1-yAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(4), 2412–2417 (1993).
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Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (3)

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B. Monemar, P. P. Paskov, J. P. Bergman, A. A. Toropov, T. V. Shubina, T. Malinauskas, and A. Usui, “Recombination of free and bound excitons in GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 245(9), 1723–1740 (2008).
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P. Scajev, K. Jarasiunas, S. Okur, U. Ozgur, and H. Morkoc, “Carrier dynamics under two- and single-photon excitation in bulk GaN,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 503–506 (2012).
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J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in bitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
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C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 899–913 (2015).
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S. Marcinkevičius, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Optical properties and carrier dynamics in m-plane InGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 11(3-4), 690–693 (2014).
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G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Tyagi, M. C. Schmidt, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamaura, “Comparison of time-resolved photoluminescence from InGaN single quantum wells grown on nonpolar and semipolar bulk GaN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 6(S2), S800–S803 (2009).
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K. Jarasiunas, P. Scajev, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, J. Leach, T. Paskova, S. Okur, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Recombination and diffusion processes in polar and nonpolar bulk GaN investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence and nonlinear optical techniques,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620G (2012).
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F. Scholz, “Semipolar GaN grown on foreign substrates: A review,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024002 (2012).
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R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
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Other (1)

H. Morkoç, Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Epitaxial layer designs for the three semipolar InGaN LEDs. (b) Example energy band diagram of 3 x 4 nm active region at zero bias.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Integrated PL intensity vs. excitation energy density measured at low temperature and room temperature. The slope at low temperature is 1, indicating that the radiative recombination process dominates at low temperature.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 1x12 nm, 2x6 nm, and 3x4 nm active regions versus carrier density. Inset shows PL spectra measured at the highest excitation level at room temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PL lifetimes for 1x12 nm, 2x6 nm, and 3x4 nm active regions at different carrier densities (excitation levels). Inset shows examples of room-temperature PL transients for active regions of 1x12 nm, 2x6 nm, and 3x4 nm at excitation energy density of 22 µJ/cm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Radiative and (b) nonradiative lifetimes for 1x12 nm, 2x6 nm, and 3x4 nm active regions versus carrier density.

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