Abstract

By analyzing profiles of experimental x-ray spectral lines of Si XIV and Al XIII, we found that both Langmuir and ion acoustic waves developed in plasmas produced via irradiation of thin Si foils by relativistic laser pulses (intensities ~1021 W/cm2). We prove that these waves are due to the parametric decay instability (PDI). This is the first time that the PDI-induced ion acoustic turbulence was discovered by the x-ray spectroscopy in laser-produced plasmas. These conclusions are also supported by PIC simulations. Our results can be used for laboratory modeling of physical processes in astrophysical objects and a better understanding of intense laser-plasma interactions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

25 January 2017: A correction was made to Fig. 4.


OSA Recommended Articles
High resolution X-ray spectra of stainless steel foils irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses with ultra-relativistic intensities

M. A. Alkhimova, A. Ya. Faenov, I. Yu. Skobelev, T. A. Pikuz, M. Nishiuchi, H. Sakaki, A. S. Pirozhkov, A. Sagisaka, N. P. Dover, Ko. Kondo, K. Ogura, Y. Fukuda, H. Kiriyama, K. Nishitani, T. Miyahara, Y. Watanabe, S. A. Pikuz, M. Kando, R. Kodama, and K. Kondo
Opt. Express 25(23) 29501-29511 (2017)

Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd's mirror

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay
Opt. Lett. 24(6) 420-422 (1999)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of energy transport in foil targets heated by petawatt laser pulses

I. Y. Skobelev, S. N. Ryazantsev, D. D. Arich, P. S. Bratchenko, A. Y. Faenov, T. A. Pikuz, P. Durey, L. Doehl, D. Farley, C. D. Baird, K. L. Lancaster, C. D. Murphy, N. Booth, C. Spindloe, P. McKenna, S. B. Hansen, J. Colgan, R. Kodama, N. Woolsey, and S. A. Pikuz
Photon. Res. 6(4) 234-237 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. N. Tsytovich, Theory of Turbulent Plasmas (Springer, 1977).
  2. B. B. Kadomtsev, Plasma Turbulence (Academic, 1965).
  3. W. Ebeling, Transport Properties of Dense Plasmas (Birkhäuser, 1984).
  4. G. Manfredi and R. O. Dendy, “Transport properties of energetic particles in a turbulent electrostatic field,” Phys. Plasmas 4(3), 628–635 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. I. Zhuzhunashvili and E. Oks, “Technique of optical polarization measurements of the plasma Langmuir turbulence spectrum,” Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 1122–1132 (1977).
  6. E. Oks and V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov, “Spectroscopic observation and analysis of plasma turbulence in a Z-pinch,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 50–58 (1980).
  7. L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. A. Oks, S. Böddeker, and H. Kunze, “Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in dense plasmas in the presence of dynamic fields: Intra-Stark spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 44(12), 8338–8347 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. E. Oks, Plasma Spectroscopy: The Influence of Microwave and Laser Fields, Springer Series on Atoms and Plasmas, vol. 9 (Springer, 1995).
  10. A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).
  11. S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).
  12. E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).
  13. M. A. Levine and C. C. Gallagher, “Stark broadening for turbulence studies in a confined plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 32(1), 14–15 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Ben-Yosef and A. G. Rubin, “Optical investigations of electrostatic turbulence in plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 33(4), 222–223 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. B. Berezin, A. V. Dubovoj, and B. V. Ljublin, “Anisotropic electric fields due to ion-acoustic turbulence in a rf discharge,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 16, 1844–1846 (1972).
  16. M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).
  17. J. F. Volkov, V. G. Djatlov, and A. I. Mitina, “Optical investigation of a turbulent plasma,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 19, 905–908 (1975).
  18. A. B. Berezin, B. V. Ljublin, and D. G. Jakovlev, “Study of plasma turbulence in a fast linear theta-pinch by means of Stark broadening of deuterium spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 407–411 (1983).
  19. A. N. Koval and E. Oks, “Some results of searching for low-frequency plasma turbulence in large chromospheric flares,” Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Observatory 67, 78–89 (1983).
  20. A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Pukhov, “Strong field interaction of laser radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(1), 47–101 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. McKenna, D. Neely, R. Bingham, and D. Jaroszynski, Laser-Plasma Interactions and Applications (Springer, 2013).
  23. O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, “Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies,” Nature 433(7026), 604–607 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. B. M. Peterson, An Introduction to Active Galactic Nuclei (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
  27. D. A. Lorimer and M. Kramer, Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
  28. R. T. Gangadhara and V. Krishan, “Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Astrophysical Plasmas,” in Basic Plasma Processes on the Sun, E.R. Priest, and V. Krishan, eds. (Springer, 1990).
  29. A. G. Frank, “Dynamics of current sheets underlying flare-type events in magnetized plasmas,” Phys. Uspekhi 53(9), 941–947 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. V. Bulanov, V. A. Dogiel, and A. G. Frank, “Solar flares and magnetic reconnection experiments,” Phys. Scr. 29(1), 66–67 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  31. B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. I. Musgrave, W. Shaikh, M. Galimberti, A. Boyle, C. Hernandez-Gomez, K. Lancaster, and R. Heathcote, “Picosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier as a preamplifier to generate high-energy seed pulses for contrast enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6558–6562 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Colgan, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Tubman, N. M. H. Butler, J. Abdallah jr., R. J. Dance, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, M. A. Alkhimova, N. Booth, J. Green, C. Gregory, A. Andreev, R. Lӧtz, I. Uschmann, A. Zhidkov, R. Kodama, P. McKenna, and N. Woolsey,.”Evidence of high-n hollow-ion emission from Si ions pumped by ultraintense x-rays from relativistic laser plasma,” Europhys. Lett. 114, 35001 (2016)55.
  38. V. P. Gavrilenko and E. A. Oks, “New effect in the Stark spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen: dynamic resonance,” Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 1122–1127 (1981).
  39. P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of wave motion of an electron plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).
  41. W. Lünow, “On the relativistic non-linear interaction of cold plasma with electro-magnetic waves,” Plasma Phys. 10(9), 879–897 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  43. R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  44. J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  45. H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  46. A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Laser hole boring into overdense plasma and relativistic electron currents for fast ignition of ICF targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(14), 2686–2689 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  47. G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  48. P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  49. P. Gibbon, Short Pulse Laser Interaction with Matter (Imperial College Press, 2003)
  50. V. S. Lisitsa, “Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in plasmas,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 122(7), 449–495 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  51. E. Oks and G. V. Sholin, “On Stark profiles of hydrogen lines in a plasma with low-frequency turbulence,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 144–151 (1976).
  52. E. Oks and E. Dalimier, “Toward diagnostic of ionic sound in laser-produced plasmas,” Intern. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 2, 43–51 (2011).
  53. C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. D. I. Blochinzew, “Zur Theorie des Starkeffektes in Zeitveränderlichen Feld,” Phys. Z. Sow. Union 4, 501–515 (1933).
  55. R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  56. W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser Plasma Interactions (Westview Press, 2003).

2014 (1)

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. Oks and E. Dalimier, “Toward diagnostic of ionic sound in laser-produced plasmas,” Intern. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 2, 43–51 (2011).

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, “Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies,” Nature 433(7026), 604–607 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Pukhov, “Strong field interaction of laser radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(1), 47–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

G. Manfredi and R. O. Dendy, “Transport properties of energetic particles in a turbulent electrostatic field,” Phys. Plasmas 4(3), 628–635 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Laser hole boring into overdense plasma and relativistic electron currents for fast ignition of ICF targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(14), 2686–2689 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

E. A. Oks, S. Böddeker, and H. Kunze, “Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in dense plasmas in the presence of dynamic fields: Intra-Stark spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 44(12), 8338–8347 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. V. Bulanov, V. A. Dogiel, and A. G. Frank, “Solar flares and magnetic reconnection experiments,” Phys. Scr. 29(1), 66–67 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

A. B. Berezin, B. V. Ljublin, and D. G. Jakovlev, “Study of plasma turbulence in a fast linear theta-pinch by means of Stark broadening of deuterium spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 407–411 (1983).

A. N. Koval and E. Oks, “Some results of searching for low-frequency plasma turbulence in large chromospheric flares,” Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Observatory 67, 78–89 (1983).

1981 (1)

V. P. Gavrilenko and E. A. Oks, “New effect in the Stark spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen: dynamic resonance,” Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 1122–1127 (1981).

1980 (1)

E. Oks and V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov, “Spectroscopic observation and analysis of plasma turbulence in a Z-pinch,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 50–58 (1980).

1977 (2)

A. I. Zhuzhunashvili and E. Oks, “Technique of optical polarization measurements of the plasma Langmuir turbulence spectrum,” Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 1122–1132 (1977).

V. S. Lisitsa, “Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in plasmas,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 122(7), 449–495 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

E. Oks and G. V. Sholin, “On Stark profiles of hydrogen lines in a plasma with low-frequency turbulence,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 144–151 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. F. Volkov, V. G. Djatlov, and A. I. Mitina, “Optical investigation of a turbulent plasma,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 19, 905–908 (1975).

1974 (1)

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

1972 (1)

A. B. Berezin, A. V. Dubovoj, and B. V. Ljublin, “Anisotropic electric fields due to ion-acoustic turbulence in a rf discharge,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 16, 1844–1846 (1972).

1971 (2)

S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

1970 (3)

M. A. Levine and C. C. Gallagher, “Stark broadening for turbulence studies in a confined plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 32(1), 14–15 (1970).
[Crossref]

N. Ben-Yosef and A. G. Rubin, “Optical investigations of electrostatic turbulence in plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 33(4), 222–223 (1970).
[Crossref]

A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).

1968 (1)

W. Lünow, “On the relativistic non-linear interaction of cold plasma with electro-magnetic waves,” Plasma Phys. 10(9), 879–897 (1968).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of wave motion of an electron plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).

1933 (1)

D. I. Blochinzew, “Zur Theorie des Starkeffektes in Zeitveränderlichen Feld,” Phys. Z. Sow. Union 4, 501–515 (1933).

Abdallah, J.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. C.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Akhiezer, A. I.

A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of wave motion of an electron plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).

Amiranoff, F.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Antonov, A. S.

A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).

Babykin, M. V.

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baton, S. D.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bellei, C.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Yosef, N.

N. Ben-Yosef and A. G. Rubin, “Optical investigations of electrostatic turbulence in plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 33(4), 222–223 (1970).
[Crossref]

Berezin, A. B.

A. B. Berezin, B. V. Ljublin, and D. G. Jakovlev, “Study of plasma turbulence in a fast linear theta-pinch by means of Stark broadening of deuterium spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 407–411 (1983).

A. B. Berezin, A. V. Dubovoj, and B. V. Ljublin, “Anisotropic electric fields due to ion-acoustic turbulence in a rf discharge,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 16, 1844–1846 (1972).

Blochinzew, D. I.

D. I. Blochinzew, “Zur Theorie des Starkeffektes in Zeitveränderlichen Feld,” Phys. Z. Sow. Union 4, 501–515 (1933).

Böddeker, S.

E. A. Oks, S. Böddeker, and H. Kunze, “Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in dense plasmas in the presence of dynamic fields: Intra-Stark spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 44(12), 8338–8347 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, N.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyle, A.

Brenner, C. M.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brummitt, P. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bryunetkin, B. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bulanov, S. V.

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. V. Bulanov, V. A. Dogiel, and A. G. Frank, “Solar flares and magnetic reconnection experiments,” Phys. Scr. 29(1), 66–67 (1984).
[Crossref]

Burza, M.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carroll, D. C.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M. H.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. K.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clarke, R. J.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Colberg, J.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, S.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colgan, J.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collier, J. L.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Couchman, H.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coury, M.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Croton, D.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culfa, O.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dalimier, E.

E. Oks and E. Dalimier, “Toward diagnostic of ionic sound in laser-produced plasmas,” Intern. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 2, 43–51 (2011).

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dance, R. J.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Danson, C. N.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dendy, R. O.

G. Manfredi and R. O. Dendy, “Transport properties of energetic particles in a turbulent electrostatic field,” Phys. Plasmas 4(3), 628–635 (1997).
[Crossref]

DeWitt, H. E.

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Di Matteo, T.

T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, “Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies,” Nature 433(7026), 604–607 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Djatlov, V. G.

J. F. Volkov, V. G. Djatlov, and A. I. Mitina, “Optical investigation of a turbulent plasma,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 19, 905–908 (1975).

Dogiel, V. A.

S. V. Bulanov, V. A. Dogiel, and A. G. Frank, “Solar flares and magnetic reconnection experiments,” Phys. Scr. 29(1), 66–67 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dromey, B.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubovoj, A. V.

A. B. Berezin, A. V. Dubovoj, and B. V. Ljublin, “Anisotropic electric fields due to ion-acoustic turbulence in a rf discharge,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 16, 1844–1846 (1972).

Dufour, E.

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dyakin, V. M.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Erko, A. I.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. G.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Evrard, A.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faenov, A. Ya.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fell, B.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Förster, E.

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Frackiewicz, A. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Frank, A. G.

A. G. Frank, “Dynamics of current sheets underlying flare-type events in magnetized plasmas,” Phys. Uspekhi 53(9), 941–947 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. V. Bulanov, V. A. Dogiel, and A. G. Frank, “Solar flares and magnetic reconnection experiments,” Phys. Scr. 29(1), 66–67 (1984).
[Crossref]

Frenk, C. S.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuchs, J.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Galimberti, M.

Gallagher, C. C.

M. A. Levine and C. C. Gallagher, “Stark broadening for turbulence studies in a confined plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 32(1), 14–15 (1970).
[Crossref]

Gallant, P.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gavrilenko, V. P.

A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. P. Gavrilenko and E. A. Oks, “New effect in the Stark spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen: dynamic resonance,” Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 1122–1127 (1981).

Gray, R. J.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, J. S.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gremillet, L.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guérin, S.

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hancock, S.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hawkes, S.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heathcote, R.

Helly, J.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Gomez, C.

I. Musgrave, W. Shaikh, M. Galimberti, A. Boyle, C. Hernandez-Gomez, K. Lancaster, and R. Heathcote, “Picosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier as a preamplifier to generate high-energy seed pulses for contrast enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6558–6562 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hernquist, L.

T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, “Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies,” Nature 433(7026), 604–607 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heron, A.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holligan, P.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, W. B.

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Iglesias, C. A.

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanenkov, G. V.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jakovlev, D. G.

A. B. Berezin, B. V. Ljublin, and D. G. Jakovlev, “Study of plasma turbulence in a fast linear theta-pinch by means of Stark broadening of deuterium spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 407–411 (1983).

Jenkins, A.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian, L.

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaempfer, T.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kalinin, J. G.

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

Kar, S.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kidd, A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kneip, S.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koval, A. N.

A. N. Koval and E. Oks, “Some results of searching for low-frequency plasma turbulence in large chromospheric flares,” Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Observatory 67, 78–89 (1983).

Krasniqi, F.

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krushelnick, K.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kunze, H.

E. A. Oks, S. Böddeker, and H. Kunze, “Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in dense plasmas in the presence of dynamic fields: Intra-Stark spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 44(12), 8338–8347 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyrie, N. P.

A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, K.

Lancaster, K. L.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laval, G.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lebowitz, J. L.

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lester, W. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Levine, M. A.

M. A. Levine and C. C. Gallagher, “Stark broadening for turbulence studies in a confined plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 32(1), 14–15 (1970).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. T.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lichters, R.

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lifeng, L.

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, X. X.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lisitsa, V. S.

V. S. Lisitsa, “Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in plasmas,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 122(7), 449–495 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ljublin, B. V.

A. B. Berezin, B. V. Ljublin, and D. G. Jakovlev, “Study of plasma turbulence in a fast linear theta-pinch by means of Stark broadening of deuterium spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 407–411 (1983).

A. B. Berezin, A. V. Dubovoj, and B. V. Ljublin, “Anisotropic electric fields due to ion-acoustic turbulence in a rf discharge,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 16, 1844–1846 (1972).

Lünow, W.

W. Lünow, “On the relativistic non-linear interaction of cold plasma with electro-magnetic waves,” Plasma Phys. 10(9), 879–897 (1968).
[Crossref]

MacGowan, D.

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Malka, G.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Manfredi, G.

G. Manfredi and R. O. Dendy, “Transport properties of energetic particles in a turbulent electrostatic field,” Phys. Plasmas 4(3), 628–635 (1997).
[Crossref]

Markey, K.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKenna, P.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Laser hole boring into overdense plasma and relativistic electron currents for fast ignition of ICF targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(14), 2686–2689 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mingaleev, A. R.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Miquel, J. L.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mitina, A. I.

J. F. Volkov, V. G. Djatlov, and A. I. Mitina, “Optical investigation of a turbulent plasma,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 19, 905–908 (1975).

Mora, P.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morgan, W. L.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G. A.

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Musgrave, I.

Musgrave, I. O.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagel, S. R.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Najmudin, Z.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Navarro, J.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Neville, D. R.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Norreys, P. A.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oks, E.

E. Oks and E. Dalimier, “Toward diagnostic of ionic sound in laser-produced plasmas,” Intern. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 2, 43–51 (2011).

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. N. Koval and E. Oks, “Some results of searching for low-frequency plasma turbulence in large chromospheric flares,” Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Observatory 67, 78–89 (1983).

E. Oks and V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov, “Spectroscopic observation and analysis of plasma turbulence in a Z-pinch,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 50–58 (1980).

A. I. Zhuzhunashvili and E. Oks, “Technique of optical polarization measurements of the plasma Langmuir turbulence spectrum,” Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 1122–1132 (1977).

E. Oks and G. V. Sholin, “On Stark profiles of hydrogen lines in a plasma with low-frequency turbulence,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 144–151 (1976).

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

Oks, E. A.

E. A. Oks, S. Böddeker, and H. Kunze, “Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in dense plasmas in the presence of dynamic fields: Intra-Stark spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 44(12), 8338–8347 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Gavrilenko and E. A. Oks, “New effect in the Stark spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen: dynamic resonance,” Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 1122–1127 (1981).

Peacock, J. A.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearce, F.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepin, N.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pepler, D. A.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pikuz, S. A.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pikuz, T. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Polovin, R. V.

A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of wave motion of an electron plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).

Pukhov, A.

A. Pukhov, “Strong field interaction of laser radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(1), 47–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Laser hole boring into overdense plasma and relativistic electron currents for fast ignition of ICF targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(14), 2686–2689 (1997).
[Crossref]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Qingguo, Y.

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quinn, M. N.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ralchenko, Yu.

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

E. Oks and V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov, “Spectroscopic observation and analysis of plasma turbulence in a Z-pinch,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 50–58 (1980).

Reason, C. J.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Renner, O.

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Riconda, C.

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Romanova, V. M.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rossall, A. L.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rousseaux, C.

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rubin, A. G.

N. Ben-Yosef and A. G. Rubin, “Optical investigations of electrostatic turbulence in plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 33(4), 222–223 (1970).
[Crossref]

Rusanov, V. D.

A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).

Sauvan, P.

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schott, R.

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schulze, K. S.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shaikh, W.

I. Musgrave, W. Shaikh, M. Galimberti, A. Boyle, C. Hernandez-Gomez, K. Lancaster, and R. Heathcote, “Picosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier as a preamplifier to generate high-energy seed pulses for contrast enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 49(33), 6558–6562 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shali, X.

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shapkin, V. V.

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

Shelkovenko, T. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sholin, G. V.

E. Oks and G. V. Sholin, “On Stark profiles of hydrogen lines in a plasma with low-frequency turbulence,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 144–151 (1976).

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).

Simpson, P. T.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skobelev, I. Yu.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skorjupin, V. A.

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

Smolkin, G. E.

S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).

Springel, V.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, “Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies,” Nature 433(7026), 604–607 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Striganova, E. A.

S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).

Tajima, T.

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thacker, R.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Titov, A. V.

A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).

Tresca, O.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Uschmann, I.

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkov, J. F.

J. F. Volkov, V. G. Djatlov, and A. I. Mitina, “Optical investigation of a turbulent plasma,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 19, 905–908 (1975).

Wagenaars, E.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wahlström, C.-G.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weber, S.

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

White, S. D. M.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willingale, L.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winstone, T. B.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Woolsey, N. C.

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyatt, R. W. W.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wyborn, B. E.

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, N.

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. H.

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yufen, W.

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zagorodnikov, S. P.

S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).

Zavojskij, E. K.

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

Zepf, M.

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhidkov, A. G.

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuzhunashvili, A. I.

A. I. Zhuzhunashvili and E. Oks, “Technique of optical polarization measurements of the plasma Langmuir turbulence spectrum,” Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 1122–1132 (1977).

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

Zinov’ev, O. A.

A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Observatory (1)

A. N. Koval and E. Oks, “Some results of searching for low-frequency plasma turbulence in large chromospheric flares,” Bull. Crimean Astrophys. Observatory 67, 78–89 (1983).

High Energy Density Phys. (2)

S. A. Pikuz, A. Ya. Faenov, J. Colgan, R. J. Dance, J. Abdallah, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Measurement and simulations of hollow atom X-ray spectra of solid-density relativistic plasma created by high-contrast PW optical laser pulses,” High Energy Density Phys. 9(3), 560–567 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. K. Chung, M. H. Chen, W. L. Morgan, Yu. Ralchenko, and R. W. Lee, “Generalized population kinetics and spectral model for rapid spectroscopic analysis for all elements,” High Energy Density Phys. 1(1), 3–12 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 398–403 (1988).
[Crossref]

Intern. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. (1)

E. Oks and E. Dalimier, “Toward diagnostic of ionic sound in laser-produced plasmas,” Intern. Rev. Atom. Mol. Phys. 2, 43–51 (2011).

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

P. Sauvan, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, O. Renner, S. Weber, and C. Riconda, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma interaction with an external oscillatory field,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(19), 195501 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. G. Frank, V. P. Gavrilenko, N. P. Kyrie, and E. Oks, “Spectroscopic study of anomalous electric fields in peripheral regions of a current sheet plasma,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(24), 5119–5129 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

L. Jian, X. Shali, Y. Qingguo, L. Lifeng, and W. Yufen, “Spatially-resolved spectra from a new uniform dispersion crystal spectrometer for characterization of Z-pinch plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 116, 41–48 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Renner, E. Dalimier, E. Oks, F. Krasniqi, E. Dufour, R. Schott, and E. Förster, “Experimental evidence of Langmuir-wave caused features in spectral lines of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99(1-3), 439–450 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

V. Springel, S. D. M. White, A. Jenkins, C. S. Frenk, N. Yoshida, L. Gao, J. Navarro, R. Thacker, D. Croton, J. Helly, J. A. Peacock, S. Cole, P. Thomas, H. Couchman, A. Evrard, J. Colberg, and F. Pearce, “Simulations of the formation, evolution and clustering of galaxies and quasars,” Nature 435(7042), 629–636 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Di Matteo, V. Springel, and L. Hernquist, “Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies,” Nature 433(7026), 604–607 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

R. J. Gray, D. C. Carroll, X. H. Yuan, C. M. Brenner, M. Burza, M. Coury, K. L. Lancaster, X. X. Lin, Y. T. Li, D. Neely, M. N. Quinn, O. Tresca, C.-G. Wahlström, and P. McKenna, “Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients,” New J. Phys. 16(11), 113075 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Fusion (1)

C. N. Danson, P. A. Brummitt, R. J. Clarke, J. L. Collier, B. Fell, A. J. Frackiewicz, S. Hancock, S. Hawkes, C. Hernandez-Gomez, P. Holligan, M. H. R. Hutchinson, A. Kidd, W. J. Lester, I. O. Musgrave, D. Neely, D. R. Neville, P. A. Norreys, D. A. Pepler, C. J. Reason, W. Shaikh, T. B. Winstone, R. W. W. Wyatt, and B. E. Wyborn, “Vulcan Petawatt—an ultra-high-intensity interaction facility,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), 5239–5246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

M. A. Levine and C. C. Gallagher, “Stark broadening for turbulence studies in a confined plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 32(1), 14–15 (1970).
[Crossref]

N. Ben-Yosef and A. G. Rubin, “Optical investigations of electrostatic turbulence in plasma,” Phys. Lett. A 33(4), 222–223 (1970).
[Crossref]

Phys. Plasmas (3)

G. Manfredi and R. O. Dendy, “Transport properties of energetic particles in a turbulent electrostatic field,” Phys. Plasmas 4(3), 628–635 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Guérin, P. Mora, J. C. Adam, A. Heron, and G. Laval, “Propagation of ultraintense laser pulses through overdense plasma layers,” Phys. Plasmas 3(7), 2693–2701 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, “Short pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3(9), 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. A. Oks, S. Böddeker, and H. Kunze, “Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in dense plasmas in the presence of dynamic fields: Intra-Stark spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 44(12), 8338–8347 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. (1)

C. A. Iglesias, H. E. DeWitt, J. L. Lebowitz, D. MacGowan, and W. B. Hubbard, “Low-frequency electric microfield distributions in plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A Gen. Phys. 31(3), 1698–1702 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. Fuchs, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, P. Gallant, L. Gremillet, A. Heron, J. C. Kieffer, G. Laval, G. Malka, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, N. Pepin, and C. Rousseaux, “Transmission through highly overdense plasma slabs with a subpicosecond relativistic laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(11), 2326–2329 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Laser hole boring into overdense plasma and relativistic electron currents for fast ignition of ICF targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(14), 2686–2689 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Colgan, J. Abdallah, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Wagenaars, N. Booth, O. Culfa, R. J. Dance, R. G. Evans, R. J. Gray, T. Kaempfer, K. L. Lancaster, P. McKenna, A. L. Rossall, I. Yu. Skobelev, K. S. Schulze, I. Uschmann, A. G. Zhidkov, and N. C. Woolsey, “Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(12), 125001 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dromey, S. Kar, C. Bellei, D. C. Carroll, R. J. Clarke, J. S. Green, S. Kneip, K. Markey, S. R. Nagel, P. T. Simpson, L. Willingale, P. McKenna, D. Neely, Z. Najmudin, K. Krushelnick, P. A. Norreys, and M. Zepf, “Bright multi-keV harmonic generation from relativistically oscillating plasma surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 085001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (2)

S. V. Bulanov, V. A. Dogiel, and A. G. Frank, “Solar flares and magnetic reconnection experiments,” Phys. Scr. 29(1), 66–67 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance X-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[Crossref]

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

A. G. Frank, “Dynamics of current sheets underlying flare-type events in magnetized plasmas,” Phys. Uspekhi 53(9), 941–947 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Z. Sow. Union (1)

D. I. Blochinzew, “Zur Theorie des Starkeffektes in Zeitveränderlichen Feld,” Phys. Z. Sow. Union 4, 501–515 (1933).

Plasma Phys. (1)

W. Lünow, “On the relativistic non-linear interaction of cold plasma with electro-magnetic waves,” Plasma Phys. 10(9), 879–897 (1968).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. Pukhov, “Strong field interaction of laser radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66(1), 47–101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

G. A. Mourou, T. Tajima, and S. V. Bulanov, “Optics in the relativistic regime,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 309–371 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (2)

S. P. Zagorodnikov, G. E. Smolkin, E. A. Striganova, and G. V. Sholin, “Method of measurement of nonequilibrium electric fields in a turbulent plasma from Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 1122–1125 (1971).

E. K. Zavojskij, J. G. Kalinin, V. A. Skorjupin, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Measurement of electric fields in a turbulent plasma by the Stark broadening of the spectral lines of hydrogen,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 823–826 (1971).

Sov. Phys. JETP (6)

A. I. Zhuzhunashvili and E. Oks, “Technique of optical polarization measurements of the plasma Langmuir turbulence spectrum,” Sov. Phys. JETP 46, 1122–1132 (1977).

E. Oks and V. A. Rantsev-Kartinov, “Spectroscopic observation and analysis of plasma turbulence in a Z-pinch,” Sov. Phys. JETP 52, 50–58 (1980).

M. V. Babykin, A. I. Zhuzhunashvili, E. Oks, V. V. Shapkin, and G. V. Sholin, “Polarization spectroscopic analysis of noise produced in a turbulent plasma upon annihilation of oppositely moving magnetic fields,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 86–92 (1974).

A. S. Antonov, O. A. Zinov’ev, V. D. Rusanov, and A. V. Titov, “Broadening of hydrogen spectral lines during turbulent heating of a plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 31, 838–839 (1970).

A. I. Akhiezer and R. V. Polovin, “Theory of wave motion of an electron plasma,” Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 696–705 (1956).

V. P. Gavrilenko and E. A. Oks, “New effect in the Stark spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen: dynamic resonance,” Sov. Phys. JETP 53, 1122–1127 (1981).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (4)

E. Oks and G. V. Sholin, “On Stark profiles of hydrogen lines in a plasma with low-frequency turbulence,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 21, 144–151 (1976).

J. F. Volkov, V. G. Djatlov, and A. I. Mitina, “Optical investigation of a turbulent plasma,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 19, 905–908 (1975).

A. B. Berezin, B. V. Ljublin, and D. G. Jakovlev, “Study of plasma turbulence in a fast linear theta-pinch by means of Stark broadening of deuterium spectral lines,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 28, 407–411 (1983).

A. B. Berezin, A. V. Dubovoj, and B. V. Ljublin, “Anisotropic electric fields due to ion-acoustic turbulence in a rf discharge,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 16, 1844–1846 (1972).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. S. Lisitsa, “Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in plasmas,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 122(7), 449–495 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser Plasma Interactions (Westview Press, 2003).

P. Gibbon, Short Pulse Laser Interaction with Matter (Imperial College Press, 2003)

P. McKenna, D. Neely, R. Bingham, and D. Jaroszynski, Laser-Plasma Interactions and Applications (Springer, 2013).

V. N. Tsytovich, Theory of Turbulent Plasmas (Springer, 1977).

B. B. Kadomtsev, Plasma Turbulence (Academic, 1965).

W. Ebeling, Transport Properties of Dense Plasmas (Birkhäuser, 1984).

E. Oks, Plasma Spectroscopy: The Influence of Microwave and Laser Fields, Springer Series on Atoms and Plasmas, vol. 9 (Springer, 1995).

J. Colgan, A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, E. Tubman, N. M. H. Butler, J. Abdallah jr., R. J. Dance, T. A. Pikuz, I. Yu. Skobelev, M. A. Alkhimova, N. Booth, J. Green, C. Gregory, A. Andreev, R. Lӧtz, I. Uschmann, A. Zhidkov, R. Kodama, P. McKenna, and N. Woolsey,.”Evidence of high-n hollow-ion emission from Si ions pumped by ultraintense x-rays from relativistic laser plasma,” Europhys. Lett. 114, 35001 (2016)55.

B. M. Peterson, An Introduction to Active Galactic Nuclei (Cambridge University Press, 1997).

D. A. Lorimer and M. Kramer, Handbook of Pulsar Astronomy (Cambridge University Press, 2004).

R. T. Gangadhara and V. Krishan, “Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves in Astrophysical Plasmas,” in Basic Plasma Processes on the Sun, E.R. Priest, and V. Krishan, eds. (Springer, 1990).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setup and typical X-ray spectra in the range of 0.485 – 0.535 nm. Experimental setup (a) and profiles (b) of Si XIV spectral lines, obtained in a single laser shot with initial laser intensity at the surface of the target estimated as 1.01x1021 W/cm2 (black trace) and 0.24x1021 W/cm2 (blue trace). In the insets, positions of the dips/depressions in the profiles are marked by vertical lines separated either by pe or pe, where λpe = [λ02/(2πc)]ωpe (λ0 is the unperturbed wavelength of the corresponding line).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental spectra and their comparisons with FLYCHK modeling. (a) Comparison of the experimental profile of Si XIV Lyγ line in shot with initial laser intensity at the surface of the target estimated as 1.01x1021 W/cm2 with a simulation performed using a variation of the code FLYCHK for calculating the Stark broadening, then adding both Doppler and instrument broadening, and, if necessary, opacity. The L-dips phenomenon and the spectral line broadening by LET were not included in the FLYCHK. The plasma parameters for the best fit are Ne = 0.9x1023 cm−3 and Te = 500 eV. b) The same as in (a) but for Si XIV Lyβ line produced in a single laser shot with initial laser intensity at the surface of the target estimated as 0.24x1021 W/cm2 ; Ne = 3x1023 cm−3 and Te = 500 eV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental spectra and their comparisons with a different Stark broadening code including L-dips and the spectral line broadening by LET. a) Experimental spectra of Si XIV Lyγ line in a single laser shot with initial laser intensity at the surface of the target estimated as 1.01x1021 W/cm2 initial laser intensity at the surface of the target. The positions of the dips/depressions in the profiles are marked by vertical lines separated either by pe or pe, where λpe = [λ02/(2πc)]ωpe (λ0 is the unperturbed wavelength of the corresponding line). Also shown is a theoretical profiles at Ne = 3.6x1022 cm−3 allowing, in particular, for a low-frequency electrostatic turbulence (see the text for details). b) Same but for Si XIV Lyβ line in a single laser shot with initial laser intensity at the surface of the target estimated as 0.24x1021 W/cm2 initial laser intensity at the surface of the target. The theoretical profile is shown at Ne = 1.74x1022 cm−3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental spectrum of Al XIII Lyβ and its comparison with the Stark broadening code including L-dips and the spectral line broadening by LET. The experimental spectrum was obtained in a single laser shot with initial laser intensity at the surface of the target estimated as 6.7x1020 W/cm2. The positions of the L-dips in the profiles (the L-dips being very pronounced) are marked by vertical lines separated either by 2λpe or 4λpe, where λpe = [λ02/(2πc)]ωpe0 is the unperturbed wavelength of the corresponding line). Also shown is a theoretical profile at Ne = 2.35x1022 cm−3 allowing, in particular, for L-dips and for a low-frequency electrostatic turbulence. This value of Ne is much lower than Ne obtained from fitting the same experimental spectrum by code FLYCHK that did not include the L-dips phenomenon and the spectral line broadening by LET, and therefore had significant discrepancies with the experimental profile at the locations of the L-dips.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sketch of the interlinked physical processes from plasma physics and atomic physics relevant to the present paper. a) Parametric decay of the laser radiation into a Langmuir wave and an ion acoustic wave at the surface of the relativistic critical density. b) Resonance between the Stark splitting ωF of the levels of Si XIV in the total quasistatic field (F), which is dominated by the field (F)t of the ion acoustic wave, with the plasma electron frequency or its harmonics: sωpe, s = 1,2,.. . c) Magnified part of the experimental profile showing an L-dip resulting from the above resonance (solid line); the dashed line shows the profile at the absence of the above Langmuir waves in the plasma.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PIC simulations of the interaction of a 600 fs pulse of the intense (2.7x1021 W/cm2) linearly-polarized laser radiation with the Si14 plasma layer. The general view of the laser-target interaction at the instant t = 320 fs from the beginning of the interaction (a) and the zoom (b) on the area shown by the black rectangle in (a). The coordinate x is in units of the laser wavelength λ. The initial scaled density profile is presented by the violet line. The scaled electron and ion densities are presented by the red and green lines. They are given in the units of 0.04ZNcr in (a) and in the units of ZNcr in (b); here Ncr = γNc, where Nc is the critical plasma density and γ = aL is the relativistic factor. The calculated scaled transversal electric field aL = eEL/(meωLc) is shown by the black line and the longitudinal one (the Langmuir wave) a l = eE l /(meωLc) – by the blue line.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ d i p ( q , N e ) = λ 0 2 2 π c { q s ω p e + [ 2 ( s ω p e ) 3 27 n 3 Z r Z p ω a t ] 1 / 2 [ n 2 ( n 2 6 q 2 1 ) + 12 n 2 q 2 ] } ,
Δ λ d i p ( | q | , N e ) Δ λ d i p ( | q | , N e ) = [ λ 0 2 / ( π c ) ] | q | s ω p e ( N e ) ,
δ λ 1 / 2 ( 3 2 ) 1 / 2 λ 0 2 n 2 E 0 8 π m e e c Z r
N c r = ( π a / 4 ) m e ω 2 4 π e 2 , a = λ ( μ m ) [ I ( W / c m 2 ) 1.37 x 10 18 ] 1 / 2

Metrics