Abstract

We report spatially and temporally resolved measurements of photocarrier transfer process in van der Waals heterostructures. Graphene-WS2 hetero-bilayers were fabricated by manually stacking monolayers of graphene and WS2 obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Photocarriers were excited in WS2 by an ultrafast laser pulse. Their transfer to graphene was monitored by measuring the differential reflection signal as a function of both time and space. Surprisingly, we found that the width of the photocarrier profile in graphene decreases with time. This counter-intuitive phenomenon suggests that the Coulomb field of the holes transferred from WS2 to graphene can effectively drag the electrons to speed up their transfer. This effect illustrates that an externally applied electric field can be used to control the ambipolar photocarrier transfer in van der Waals heterostructures.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (13)

R. Long and O. V. Prezhdo, “Quantum coherence facilitates efficient charge separation at a MoS2/MoSe2 van der Waals junction,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1996–2003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, J. Bang, Y. Y. Sun, L. B. Liang, D. West, V. Meunier, and S. B. Zhang, “The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photo. 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tian, M. L. Chin, S. Najmaei, Q. S. Guo, F. N. Xia, H. Wang, and M. Dubey, “Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Res. 9(6), 1543–1560 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photon. 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. Duan, H.-C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(9), 16042 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), 461 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, W. S. Xu, and J. H. Warner, “Ultrathin 2D photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown WS2 with graphene electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7866–7873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Guo and J. Robertson, “Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(23), 233104 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Peng, G. Yu, X. Liu, B. Liu, X. Liang, L. Bi, L. Deng, T. C. Sum, and K. P. Loh, “Ultrafast charge transfer in MoS2/WSe2 p-n heterojunction,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 025020 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

2015 (7)

M. Z. Bellus, F. Ceballos, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Tightly bound trions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6459–6464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Probing charge transfer excitons in a MoSe2-WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Nanoscale 7(41), 17523–17528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Franklin, “Nanomaterials in transistors: From high-performance to thin-film applications,” Science 349(6249), 704 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Allain, J. H. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (12)

J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shanmugam, R. Jacobs-Gedrim, E. S. Song, and B. Yu, “Two-dimensional layered semiconductor/graphene heterostructures for solar photovoltaic applications,” Nanoscale 6(21), 12682–12689 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-L. Liu, C.-C. Shen, S.-H. Su, C.-L. Hsu, M.-Y. Li, and L.-J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Furchi, A. Pospischil, F. Libisch, J. Burgdorfer, and T. Mueller, “Photovoltaic effect in an electrically tunable van der Waals heterojunction,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4785–4791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Shih, Q. H. Wang, Y. Son, Z. Jin, D. Blankschtein, and M. S. Strano, “Tuning on-off current ratio and field-effect mobility in a MoS2-graphene heterostructure via Schottky barrier modulation,” ACS Nano 8(6), 5790–5798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast charge separation and indirect exciton formation in a MoS2-MoSe2 van der waals heterostructure,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12717–12724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (7)

K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 826–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. Zhou, A. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(12), 952–958 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 246–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Addou, R.

Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aivazian, G.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Akinwande, D.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alem, N.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allain, A.

A. Allain, J. H. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arefe, G.

C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, K.

A. Allain, J. H. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, J.

H. Wang, J. Bang, Y. Y. Sun, L. B. Liang, D. West, V. Meunier, and S. B. Zhang, “The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbone, M.

D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battaglia, C.

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belle, B. D.

T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellus, M. Z.

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Bellus, F. Ceballos, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Tightly bound trions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6459–6464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Probing charge transfer excitons in a MoSe2-WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Nanoscale 7(41), 17523–17528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast charge separation and indirect exciton formation in a MoS2-MoSe2 van der waals heterostructure,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12717–12724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhimanapati, G. R.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, L.

B. Peng, G. Yu, X. Liu, B. Liu, X. Liang, L. Bi, L. Deng, T. C. Sum, and K. P. Loh, “Ultrafast charge transfer in MoS2/WSe2 p-n heterojunction,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 025020 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blankschtein, D.

C. J. Shih, Q. H. Wang, Y. Son, Z. Jin, D. Blankschtein, and M. S. Strano, “Tuning on-off current ratio and field-effect mobility in a MoS2-graphene heterostructure via Schottky barrier modulation,” ACS Nano 8(6), 5790–5798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boulesbaa, A.

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Britnell, L.

T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruna, M.

D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brus, L. E.

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgdorfer, J.

M. M. Furchi, A. Pospischil, F. Libisch, J. Burgdorfer, and T. Mueller, “Photovoltaic effect in an electrically tunable van der Waals heterojunction,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4785–4791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carraro, C.

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carvalho, A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), 461 (2016).
[Crossref]

Casiraghi, C.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), 461 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ceballos, F.

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Bellus, F. Ceballos, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Tightly bound trions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6459–6464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Probing charge transfer excitons in a MoSe2-WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Nanoscale 7(41), 17523–17528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast charge separation and indirect exciton formation in a MoS2-MoSe2 van der waals heterostructure,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12717–12724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast laser spectroscopy of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” Adv. Funct. Mater., in press (2016).
[Crossref]

Cha, J.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

H. J. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, W. S. Xu, and J. H. Warner, “Ultrathin 2D photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown WS2 with graphene electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7866–7873 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 246–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.-C.

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. Duan, H.-C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(9), 16042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chin, M. L.

H. Tian, M. L. Chin, S. Najmaei, Q. S. Guo, F. N. Xia, H. Wang, and M. Dubey, “Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Res. 9(6), 1543–1560 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiu, H. Y.

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Probing charge transfer excitons in a MoSe2-WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Nanoscale 7(41), 17523–17528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Ultrafast charge separation and indirect exciton formation in a MoS2-MoSe2 van der waals heterostructure,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12717–12724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, H.-Y.

M. Z. Bellus, F. Ceballos, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Tightly bound trions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6459–6464 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M. S.

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
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Clark, G.

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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
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H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
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H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
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Fazio, D. D.

D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
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D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
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L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

Georgiou, T.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
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T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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Gholinia, A.

T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
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Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
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X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
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T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
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L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
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Goswami, S.

K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 826–830 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goykhman, I.

D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der waals heterostructures,” Nature 499(7459), 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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H. Tian, M. L. Chin, S. Najmaei, Q. S. Guo, F. N. Xia, H. Wang, and M. Dubey, “Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Res. 9(6), 1543–1560 (2016).
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Y. Z. Guo and J. Robertson, “Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(23), 233104 (2016).
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T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
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C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
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J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
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K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
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C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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Hong, X.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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Hsu, C.-L.

H.-L. Liu, C.-C. Shen, S.-H. Su, C.-L. Hsu, M.-Y. Li, and L.-J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

Huang, Y.

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. Duan, H.-C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(9), 16042 (2016).
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W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. Zhou, A. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(12), 952–958 (2013).
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W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 246–252 (2013).
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M. Shanmugam, R. Jacobs-Gedrim, E. S. Song, and B. Yu, “Two-dimensional layered semiconductor/graphene heterostructures for solar photovoltaic applications,” Nanoscale 6(21), 12682–12689 (2014).
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L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
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T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
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L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
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Jaszczak, J. A.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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Javey, A.

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
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Ji, J.

S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
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Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, C.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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C. J. Shih, Q. H. Wang, Y. Son, Z. Jin, D. Blankschtein, and M. S. Strano, “Tuning on-off current ratio and field-effect mobility in a MoS2-graphene heterostructure via Schottky barrier modulation,” ACS Nano 8(6), 5790–5798 (2014).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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Jung, Y.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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Kang, J.

S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

A. Allain, J. H. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
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Kang, J. S.

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsnelson, M. I.

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
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Kim, M. J.

Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
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Kim, P.

C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-J.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
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Kis, A.

D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Allain, J. H. Kang, K. Banerjee, and A. Kis, “Electrical contacts to two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 14(12), 1195–1205 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klement, P.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koldemir, U.

S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kronast, F.

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, N.

J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, S.

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. H.

C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. Y.

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G. H.

C. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leist, J.

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. J.

Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.-J.

H.-L. Liu, C.-C. Shen, S.-H. Su, C.-L. Hsu, M.-Y. Li, and L.-J. Li, “Optical properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(20), 201905 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-Y.

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B. Peng, G. Yu, X. Liu, B. Liu, X. Liang, L. Bi, L. Deng, T. C. Sum, and K. P. Loh, “Ultrafast charge transfer in MoS2/WSe2 p-n heterojunction,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 025020 (2016).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
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X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
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T. Georgiou, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, Y. J. Kim, A. Gholinia, S. J. Haigh, O. Makarovsky, L. Eaves, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and A. Mishchenko, “Vertical field-effect transistor based on graphene-WS2 heterostructures for flexible and transparent electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(2), 100–103 (2013).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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M. M. Furchi, A. Pospischil, F. Libisch, J. Burgdorfer, and T. Mueller, “Photovoltaic effect in an electrically tunable van der Waals heterojunction,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4785–4791 (2014).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
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H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
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L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), 461 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y.-J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. C. Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. V. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. I. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. V. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335(6071), 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
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H. Wang, J. Bang, Y. Y. Sun, L. B. Liang, D. West, V. Meunier, and S. B. Zhang, “The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11504 (2016).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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Wang, Z.

K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
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Warner, J. H.

H. J. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, W. S. Xu, and J. H. Warner, “Ultrathin 2D photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown WS2 with graphene electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7866–7873 (2016).
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X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
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Wu, J.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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S. Tongay, W. Fan, J. Kang, J. Park, U. Koldemir, J. Suh, D. S. Narang, K. Liu, J. Ji, J. Li, R. Sinclair, and J. Wu, “Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-Grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3185–3190 (2014).
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Wu, S.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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Xia, F. N.

H. Tian, M. L. Chin, S. Najmaei, Q. S. Guo, F. N. Xia, H. Wang, and M. Dubey, “Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Res. 9(6), 1543–1560 (2016).
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G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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Xiao, D.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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Xiao, K.

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

Xu, W. S.

H. J. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, W. S. Xu, and J. H. Warner, “Ultrathin 2D photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown WS2 with graphene electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7866–7873 (2016).
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Xu, X.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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Yablonovitch, E.

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Yan, J.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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Yao, W.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6242 (2015).
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Yin, A.

W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. Zhou, A. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(12), 952–958 (2013).
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Yoo, W. J.

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
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Yoon, D.

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Yoon, M.

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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Yu, G.

B. Peng, G. Yu, X. Liu, B. Liu, X. Liang, L. Bi, L. Deng, T. C. Sum, and K. P. Loh, “Ultrafast charge transfer in MoS2/WSe2 p-n heterojunction,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 025020 (2016).
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Yu, W. J.

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 246–252 (2013).
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W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. Zhou, A. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(12), 952–958 (2013).
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Yu, Y. J.

M. S. Choi, G. H. Lee, Y. J. Yu, D. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, P. Kim, J. Hone, and W. J. Yoo, “Controlled charge trapping by molybdenum disulphide and graphene in ultrathin heterostructured memory devices,” Nat. Commun. 4(3), 1624 (2013).
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Yu, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
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Zhang, Y.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS2/WS2 heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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Zhao, H.

M. Z. Bellus, M. Li, S. Lane, F. Ceballos, Q. Cui, X. C. Zeng, and H. Zhao, “Type-I van der Waals heterostructure formed by MoS2 and ReS2 monolayers,” Nanoscale Horiz. 2(1), 31–36 (2017).
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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WSe2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 1486 (2016).

K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
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J. He, N. Kumar, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Electron transfer and coupling in graphene-tungsten disulfide van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5622 (2014).
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Zhao, L.

K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 026803 (2014).
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Zhao, Y.

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, H.

W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. Zhou, A. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(12), 952–958 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, H. L.

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 246–252 (2013).
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Zhou, W.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y. Q.

H. J. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, W. S. Xu, and J. H. Warner, “Ultrathin 2D photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown WS2 with graphene electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7866–7873 (2016).
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Zhu, H.

X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
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Y. C. Lin, C. Y. Chang, R. K. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L. J. Li, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6936–6941 (2014).
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Zhu, J.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. B. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. N. Xia, Y. L. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent advances in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, N. R. Monahan, Z. Gong, H. Zhu, K. W. Williams, and C. A. Nelson, “Charge transfer excitons at van der Waals interfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(26), 8313–8320 (2015).
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2D Mater. (1)

B. Peng, G. Yu, X. Liu, B. Liu, X. Liang, L. Bi, L. Deng, T. C. Sum, and K. P. Loh, “Ultrafast charge transfer in MoS2/WSe2 p-n heterojunction,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 025020 (2016).
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ACS Nano (8)

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K. Wang, B. Huang, M. Tian, F. Ceballos, M.-W. Lin, M. Mahjouri-Samani, A. Boulesbaa, A. A. Puretzky, C. M. Rouleau, M. Yoon, H. Zhao, K. Xiao, G. Duscher, and D. B. Geohegan, “Interlayer coupling in twisted WSe2/WS2 bilayer heterostructures revealed by optical spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 10(7), 6612–6622 (2016).
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D. D. Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area Graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8252–8262 (2016).
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H. J. Tan, Y. Fan, Y. Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, W. S. Xu, and J. H. Warner, “Ultrathin 2D photodetectors utilizing chemical vapor deposition grown WS2 with graphene electrodes,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7866–7873 (2016).
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C. J. Shih, Q. H. Wang, Y. Son, Z. Jin, D. Blankschtein, and M. S. Strano, “Tuning on-off current ratio and field-effect mobility in a MoS2-graphene heterostructure via Schottky barrier modulation,” ACS Nano 8(6), 5790–5798 (2014).
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M. Z. Bellus, F. Ceballos, H.-Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Tightly bound trions in transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures,” ACS Nano 9(6), 6459–6464 (2015).
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Y. Z. Guo and J. Robertson, “Band engineering in transition metal dichalcogenides: Stacked versus lateral heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(23), 233104 (2016).
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H. Tian, M. L. Chin, S. Najmaei, Q. S. Guo, F. N. Xia, H. Wang, and M. Dubey, “Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Res. 9(6), 1543–1560 (2016).
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F. Ceballos, M. Z. Bellus, H. Y. Chiu, and H. Zhao, “Probing charge transfer excitons in a MoSe2-WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Nanoscale 7(41), 17523–17528 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the heterostructure sample formed by graphene and monolayer WS2. (b) Band alignment of graphene and WS2 monolayers. (c) Raman spectrum of the graphene monolayer used to fabricate the heterostructure. (d) Photoluminescence spectrum of the WS2 monolayer used to fabricate the heterostructure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Differential reflection signal as a function of probe delay with pump fluencs of (from top to bottom) 0.9, 0.6, 0.45, 0.3, 0.2, and 0.05 μJ cm−2, respectively. The red curves are fits of Gaussian integral (rising part) and exponential (decay part). (b) Peak values of differential reflection as a function of the pump fluence. The black line is a linear fit. (c) The decay time constants (blue) and rising time (red) deduced from the fits as a function of the pump fluence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential reflection signal as a function of the probe delay and probe position. The upper and right panels are line scans at a fixed position and time, respectively, as indicated in thee lower-left panel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spatial profiles of the differential reflection signal at different probe delays before (a) and after (b) the peak time. The curves are Gaussian fits. (c) The black squares show the FWHM of the profiles shown in (a) and (b) as a function of the probe delay. The red circles are from a repeated measurement with a slightly smaller pump laser spot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of space charge field on charge transfer. (a) The initial nonuniform Gaussian distribution of electrons (e) and holes (h) in WS2 injected by the pump pulse. (b) Once holes transferred to graphene, a space charge field (red lines) is developed, with the same Gaussian profile. (c) The stronger field in the middle region can increase the transfer rate of electrons in that region, causing the appearance of narrowing of the carrier density profile.

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