Abstract

Photonic crystal nanocavities that simultaneously possess small modal volumes and high quality (Q) factors have opened up novel research areas in photonics during this decade. Here, we present an important key for the increase of Q factors to ranges beyond ten million. A systematic investigation on photon lifetimes of air-bridge-type heterostructure nanocavities fabricated from silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates indicated the importance of cleaning the bottom side (buried oxide side) of the nanaocavites. Repeated thermal oxidation and an oxide removal process applied after the removal of the buried oxide layer underneath the nanocavities realized an experimental Q factor greater than eleven million, which is the highest experimental Q ever recorded. The results provide important information not only for Si PC nanocavities but also for general Si nanophotonic devices and photonic electronic convergence systems.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 248–252 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. Konoike, H. Nakagawa, M. Nakadai, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “On-demand transfer of trapped photons on a chip,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501690 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. R. Terawaki, Y. Takahashi, M. Chihara, Y. Inui, and S. Noda, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities in wide optical telecommunication bands,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22743–22752 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  41. E. Yablonovitch, D. L. Allara, C. C. Chang, T. Gmitter, and T. B. Bright, “Unusually low surface-recombination velocity on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(2), 249–252 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. T. Takahagi, I. Nagai, A. Ishitani, H. Kuroda, and Y. Nagasawa, “The formation of hydrogen passivated silicon single-crystal surfaces using ultraviolet cleaning and HF etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(7), 3516–3521 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  43. L. Ling, Z. J. Radzimski, T. Abe, and F. Shimura, “The effect of bonded interface on electrical properties of bonded silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3610–3616 (1992).
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    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

2014 (4)

U. P. Dharanipathy, M. Minkov, M. Tonin, V. Savona, and R. Houdré, “High-Q silicon photonic crystal cavity for enhanced optical nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101101 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. K. Mehta, J. S. Orcutt, O. Tehar-Zahav, Z. Sternberg, R. Bafrali, R. Meade, and R. J. Ram, “High-Q CMOS-integrated photonic crystal microcavity devices,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, S. Pirotta, G. Urbinati, D. Gerace, M. Minkov, V. Savona, A. Badolato, and M. Galli, “Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(24), 241101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Minkov, U. P. Dharanipathy, R. Houdré, and V. Savona, “Statistics of the disorder-induced losses of high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28233–28245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, and M. Notomi, “Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 248–252 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Terawaki, Y. Takahashi, M. Chihara, Y. Inui, and S. Noda, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities in wide optical telecommunication bands,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22743–22752 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, Y. Sato, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Statistical studies of photonic heterostructure nanocavities with an average Q factor of three million,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11916–11921 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-S. Song, S.-W. Jeon, and S. Noda, “Symmetrically glass-clad photonic crystal nanocavities with ultrahigh quality factors,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 91–93 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Han, X. Checoury, L.-D. Haret, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor in a two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1749–1751 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Spontaneous two-photon emission from a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, A. Majumdar, D. Englund, E. Kim, M. Bajcsy, and J. Vučković, “Integrated quantum optical networks based on quantum dots and photonic crystals,” New J. Phys. 13(5), 055025 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, X. Checoury, D. Néel, S. David, M. El Kurdi, and P. Boucaud, “Optimized design for 2×106 ultra-high Q silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4387–4391 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and M. Notomi, “High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13 fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Kuramochi, H. Taniyama, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal slab nanocavities in very thin barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111112 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Ee, K.-Y. Jeong, M.-K. Seo, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Ultrasmall square-lattice zero-cell photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(1), 011104 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Refractive index sensing utilizing a cw photonic crystal nanolaser and its array configuration,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8174–8180 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 862–865 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, Y. Tanaka, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17206–17213 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gui, Y. N. Hua, Z. X. Xing, and S. P. Zhao, “Investigation of potassium contamination in SOI wafer using dynamic SIMS,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 7(2), 369–372 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 131114 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1996–2002 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh- Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vucković, “General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 13(16), 5961–5975 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang and M. Qiu, “Small-volume waveguide-section high Q microcavities in 2D photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3988–3995 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature 407(6804), 608–610 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, “Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(9), 4753–4755 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Ling, Z. J. Radzimski, T. Abe, and F. Shimura, “The effect of bonded interface on electrical properties of bonded silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3610–3616 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

T. Takahagi, I. Nagai, A. Ishitani, H. Kuroda, and Y. Nagasawa, “The formation of hydrogen passivated silicon single-crystal surfaces using ultraviolet cleaning and HF etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 64(7), 3516–3521 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, D. L. Allara, C. C. Chang, T. Gmitter, and T. B. Bright, “Unusually low surface-recombination velocity on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(2), 249–252 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abe, T.

L. Ling, Z. J. Radzimski, T. Abe, and F. Shimura, “The effect of bonded interface on electrical properties of bonded silicon-on-insulator wafers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(8), 3610–3616 (1992).
[Crossref]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alerhand, O. L.

R. D. Meade, A. Devenyi, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. L. Alerhand, D. A. Smith, and K. Kash, “Novel applications of photonic band gap materials: Low-loss bends and high Q cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(9), 4753–4755 (1994).
[Crossref]

Allara, D. L.

E. Yablonovitch, D. L. Allara, C. C. Chang, T. Gmitter, and T. B. Bright, “Unusually low surface-recombination velocity on silicon and germanium surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(2), 249–252 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, “Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(12), 127404 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Ota, S. Iwamoto, N. Kumagai, and Y. Arakawa, “Spontaneous two-photon emission from a single quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(23), 233602 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191108 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

R. Konoike, H. Nakagawa, M. Nakadai, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “On-demand transfer of trapped photons on a chip,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1501690 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakamura, Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Improvement in the quality factors for photonic crystal nanocavities via visualization of the leaky components,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9541–9549 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Han, Z.

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

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Science (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Structure of the heterostructure nanocavity used in the experiment. (b) Optical measurement setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Decay curves of photons in a nanocavity (#6 presented in Table 2) just after the fabrication (black solid line), after the first oxidization process (blue solid line), and after the subsequent oxide removal (DHF) process (red solid line). The cavity is excited by an input pulse with a width of 10 ns (gray dashed line). The small dip at around 20 ns is attributed to the influence of the tail of the input pulse. We evaluated photon lifetimes (τ) from the later part (>25 ns) of the decay curves.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Decay curve of photons in a nanocavity (#8) just after the 4th oxidization/DHF process. The cavity is excited by an input pulse with a width of 10 ns at various powers. We evaluated photon lifetimes from the later part (>25 ns) of the decay curves. The longest photon lifetime observed is 9.2 ns. Peak power of the input light within the excitation waveguide Pin0 = 30 ~300 nW which depends on uncertain coupling efficiency at the input facet of the excitation waveguide.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Change of experimental Q factor (Qexp), resonant wavelength, and shift of resonant wavelength of a nanocavity through four cycles of oxidization (OX) and DHF processing. The maximum Qexp measured after the process is shown. The sample is nanocavity #6 presented in Table 2.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental Q factors of 9 nanocavities measured 2 days after the 2nd oxidization (OX)/DHF process and 5 days after the 4th OX/DHF process. Statistical evaluations of losses are also shown. The labels Avg. and S.D. refer to the average and standard deviation, respectively. The mark “-” indicates that the resonance of the cavity could not be measured.

Equations (4)

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1 Q exp = 1 Q des + 1 Q imp
1 Q imp = 1 Q scat + 1 Q abs
Avg.(1/ Q scat )=7.5× 10 7 × σ hole 2
S.D.(1/ Q scat )=3.0× 10 7 × σ hole 2

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