Abstract

We demonstrate a plasmonic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator with a flat frequency response exceeding 170 GHz. The modulator comprises two phase modulators exploiting the Pockels effect of an organic electro-optic material in plasmonic slot waveguides. We further show modulation at 100 GBd NRZ and 60 GBd PAM-4. The electrical drive signals were generated using a 100 GSa/s digital to analog converter (DAC). The high-speed and small-scale devices are relevant for next-generation optical interconnects.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos
Opt. Express 23(8) 9938-9946 (2015)

Design, analysis, and transmission system performance of a 41 GHz silicon photonic modulator

David Patel, Samir Ghosh, Mathieu Chagnon, Alireza Samani, Venkat Veerasubramanian, Mohamed Osman, and David V. Plant
Opt. Express 23(11) 14263-14287 (2015)

High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold
Opt. Express 23(23) 29746-29757 (2015)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, “Flat frequency comb generation with an integrated dual-parallel modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1011–1013 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Urata, H. Liu, L. Verslegers, and C. Johnson, “Silicon photonics technologies: gaps analysis for datacenter interconnects,” in Silicon Photonics III: Systems and Applications, L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016), pp. 473–488.
  6. S. G. Kipp, “The 2016 Ethernet Roadmap” (Ethernet Alliance), retrieved 2016, http://www.ethernetalliance.org/roadmap/ .
  7. “IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Task Force”, retrieved 2016, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/ .
  8. D. M. Kuchta, “Directly modulated VCSELs at ≥ 50 Gb/s for short reach data communications,” in 2016 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (2016), pp. 12–13.
  9. P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” in Nanophotonics (2014), pp. 215.
  10. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4839–4842 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, T. Nakamura, and Y. Ming-Bin, Z. ShiYang, D. Liang, P. L. Guo-Qiang, and D.-L. Kwong, “25 GHz Operation of Silicon Optical Modulator with Projection MOS Structure,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), OMI3.
    [Crossref]
  14. V. M. N. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, “Scaling and Optimization of MOS Optical Modulators in Nanometer SOI Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 401–408 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.
  21. W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “100 Gbit/s OOK using a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator,” in ECOC 2015 (2015), pp. 1–3.
  22. C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in ECOC 2016 (2016).
  25. A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1999–2002 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4839–4842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhang and F. R. Kschischang, “Staircase codes with 6% to 33% overhead,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(10), 1999–2002 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. M. N. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, “Scaling and Optimization of MOS Optical Modulators in Nanometer SOI Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 401–408 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, “Flat frequency comb generation with an integrated dual-parallel modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1011–1013 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baeuerle, B.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Benight, S. J.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonjour, R.

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Dalir, H.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Dalton, L. R.

Daniel Lee, Y.-H.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dell’Olio, F.

V. M. N. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, “Scaling and Optimization of MOS Optical Modulators in Nanometer SOI Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 401–408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dordevic, N.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Ducry, F.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Emboras, A.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fournier, M.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gheorma, I. L.

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, “Flat frequency comb generation with an integrated dual-parallel modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1011–1013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, “Flat frequency comb generation with an integrated dual-parallel modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1011–1013 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosse, P.

Haffner, C.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Hafner, C.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heni, W.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Hillerkuss, D.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Hoessbacher, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Hu, Y.

Izhaky, N.

Josten, A.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juchli, L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, U.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Koeber, S.

Koehnle, K.

Kohl, M.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kschischang, F. R.

Lauermann, M.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leuchtmann, P.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Leuthold, J.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melikyan, A.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mousel, P.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

Niegemann, J.

W. Heni, C. Haffner, B. Baeuerle, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “108 Gbit/s Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Modulator with > 70-GHz Electrical Bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(2), 393–400 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pahl, K. P.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, “Scaling and Optimization of MOS Optical Modulators in Nanometer SOI Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 401–408 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

Robinson, B. H.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

Salamin, Y.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Heni, C. Hoessbacher, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, Y. Salamin, R. Bonjour, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, D. L. Elder, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High speed plasmonic modulator array enabling dense optical interconnect solutions,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29746–29757 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Tian, J.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandt, P. C. Schindler, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, W. Heni, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Hillerkuss, M. Sommer, L. R. Dalton, D. Van Thourhout, W. Freude, M. Kohl, J. Leuthold, and C. Koos, “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 23(8), 9938–9946 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

Xia, Y.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

Zhang, X.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 013504 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater. 26(2), 872–874 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

I. L. Gheorma and G. K. Gopalakrishnan, “Flat frequency comb generation with an integrated dual-parallel modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1011–1013 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. (1)

V. M. N. Passaro and F. Dell’Olio, “Scaling and Optimization of MOS Optical Modulators in Nanometer SOI Waveguides,” IEEE Trans. NanoTechnol. 7(4), 401–408 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

R. Urata, H. Liu, L. Verslegers, and C. Johnson, “Silicon photonics technologies: gaps analysis for datacenter interconnects,” in Silicon Photonics III: Systems and Applications, L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016), pp. 473–488.

S. G. Kipp, “The 2016 Ethernet Roadmap” (Ethernet Alliance), retrieved 2016, http://www.ethernetalliance.org/roadmap/ .

“IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Task Force”, retrieved 2016, http://www.ieee802.org/3/bs/ .

D. M. Kuchta, “Directly modulated VCSELs at ≥ 50 Gb/s for short reach data communications,” in 2016 IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (2016), pp. 12–13.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” in Nanophotonics (2014), pp. 215.

J. Fujikata, J. Ushida, T. Nakamura, and Y. Ming-Bin, Z. ShiYang, D. Liang, P. L. Guo-Qiang, and D.-L. Kwong, “25 GHz Operation of Silicon Optical Modulator with Projection MOS Structure,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), OMI3.
[Crossref]

K. Schuh, F. Buchali, W. Idler, Q. Hu, W. Templ, A. Bielik, L. Altenhain, H. Langenhagen, J. Rupeter, U. Dümler, T. Ellermeyer, R. Schmid, and M. Möller, “100 GSa/s BiCMOS DAC Supporting 400 Gb/s Dual Channel Transmission,” in ECOC 2016 (2016).

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Josten, B. Baeuerle, C. Hoessbacher, Y. Salamin, U. Koch, N. Dordevic, P. Mousel, R. Bonjour, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, P. Leuchtmann, D. L. Elder, L. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonic Organic Hybrid Modulators,” in Proc. IEEE PP (2016), pp. 1–18.

W. Hartmann, M. Lauermann, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, Y. Kutuvantavida, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, W. Freude, and C. Koos, “100 Gbit/s OOK using a silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) modulator,” in ECOC 2015 (2015), pp. 1–3.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Colorized optical microscopy image of the imbalanced silicon photonic MZI with MMIs to split and combine the light. Each arm of the MZI contains a plasmonic phase modulator [27]. The zoom-in shows a colorized scanning electron microscopy image of a typical plasmonic phase modulator. The phase modulator consists of two gold electrodes separated by a 75 nm wide and 20 µm long slot. The slot is filled with an organic EO optical material (not shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum for an RF frequency of 170 GHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured electro-optic response up to 170 GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of the data modulation experiment. The electrical signal was generated using Micram’s DAC4 prototype. The modulated signal was received in a direct detection scheme by a photodiode and a real-time scope. At the receiver, post-equalization was applied to compensate for frequency limitations of the electronics. In the upper right hand corner we show eye diagrams of the electrical signal at 100 GBd NRZ measured with a digital sampling oscilloscope: (a) after the DAC and (b) after the RF amplifier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams and BERs measured at (a) 100 GBd NRZ, (b) 50 GBd PAM-4 (line rate 100 Gbit/s) and (c) 60 GBd PAM-4 (line rate 120 Gbit/s). The eye diagrams were resampled after equalization with a raised cosine shape that resembles the low-pass characteristic of the system.

Metrics