Abstract

A double-layer polarization-independent liquid crystal (LC) phase modulator is demonstrated and characterized. Using two-photon polymerization process, an ultra-thin partition polymeric film to separate the LC cell into two layers with orthogonal alignment directions is fabricated. Such a thin partition film also helps to reduce the voltage shielding effect. Using a high birefringence and low viscosity LC mixture, 2π phase change at merely 10 V for a He-Ne laser beam is achieved, while keeping a fast response time. Simulation result agrees reasonably well with experimental data.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. Choi and J. Choi, “Universal phase-only spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 25(19), 22253–22267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S.-T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

R. M. Hyman, A. Lorenz, S. M. Morris, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a blue-phase liquid crystal over silicon device,” Appl. Opt. 53(29), 6925–6929 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, M.-S. Chen, W.-C. Lin, and Y.-S. Tsou, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulation using polymer-network liquid crystals in a 90 degree twisted cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 024505 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C.-H. Lee, H. Yoshida, Y. Miura, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Local liquid crystal alignment on patterned micrograting structures photofabricated by two photon excitation direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173509 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

D. E. Lucchetta, R. Karapinar, A. Manni, and F. Simoni, “Phase-only modulation by nanosized polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 6060–6065 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. A. Forber, A. Au, U. Efron, K. Sayyah, S.-T. Wu, and G. C. Goldsmith, “Dynamic IR scene projection using the Hughes liquid crystal light valve,” Proc. SPIE 1665, 259–273 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. S. Patel, “Polarization insensitive tunable liquid-crystal etalon filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(11), 1314–1316 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. J. Sansone, G. Khanarian, T. M. Leslie, M. Stiller, J. Altman, and P. Elizondo, “Large Kerr effects in transparent encapsulated liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(9), 4253–4259 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1971 (1)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Aggelopoulos, A.

D. Karalekas and A. Aggelopoulos, “Study of shrinkage strains in a stereolithography cured acrylic photopolymer resin,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 136(1–3), 146–150 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Altman, J.

M. J. Sansone, G. Khanarian, T. M. Leslie, M. Stiller, J. Altman, and P. Elizondo, “Large Kerr effects in transparent encapsulated liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(9), 4253–4259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Au, A.

R. A. Forber, A. Au, U. Efron, K. Sayyah, S.-T. Wu, and G. C. Goldsmith, “Dynamic IR scene projection using the Hughes liquid crystal light valve,” Proc. SPIE 1665, 259–273 (1992).
[Crossref]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boroumand, J.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bostwick, A. E.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanda, D.

Y.-H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S.-T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Chen, M.-S.

Y.-H. Lin, M.-S. Chen, W.-C. Lin, and Y.-S. Tsou, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulation using polymer-network liquid crystals in a 90 degree twisted cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 024505 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B. N.

Choi, J.

Choi, M.

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cronauer, C.

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Domann, G.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Efron, U.

R. A. Forber, A. Au, U. Efron, K. Sayyah, S.-T. Wu, and G. C. Goldsmith, “Dynamic IR scene projection using the Hughes liquid crystal light valve,” Proc. SPIE 1665, 259–273 (1992).
[Crossref]

Egbert, A.

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Elizondo, P.

M. J. Sansone, G. Khanarian, T. M. Leslie, M. Stiller, J. Altman, and P. Elizondo, “Large Kerr effects in transparent encapsulated liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(9), 4253–4259 (1990).
[Crossref]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.-H.

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fang, J.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Forber, R. A.

R. A. Forber, A. Au, U. Efron, K. Sayyah, S.-T. Wu, and G. C. Goldsmith, “Dynamic IR scene projection using the Hughes liquid crystal light valve,” Proc. SPIE 1665, 259–273 (1992).
[Crossref]

Franklin, D.

Y.-H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S.-T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fröhlich, L.

Fujii, A.

C.-H. Lee, H. Yoshida, Y. Miura, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Local liquid crystal alignment on patterned micrograting structures photofabricated by two photon excitation direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Goldsmith, G. C.

R. A. Forber, A. Au, U. Efron, K. Sayyah, S.-T. Wu, and G. C. Goldsmith, “Dynamic IR scene projection using the Hughes liquid crystal light valve,” Proc. SPIE 1665, 259–273 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gou, F.

Y.-H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S.-T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398(6722), 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, “Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(4), 127–128 (1971).
[Crossref]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical Phased Array Technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holz, M.

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H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Sharp, R. C.

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M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
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M. J. Sansone, G. Khanarian, T. M. Leslie, M. Stiller, J. Altman, and P. Elizondo, “Large Kerr effects in transparent encapsulated liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 67(9), 4253–4259 (1990).
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Y.-H. Lin, M.-S. Chen, W.-C. Lin, and Y.-S. Tsou, “A polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulation using polymer-network liquid crystals in a 90 degree twisted cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 024505 (2012).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Vazquez-Guardado, A.

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Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Wu, S.-T.

Y.-H. Lee, D. Franklin, F. Gou, G. Liu, F. Peng, D. Chanda, and S.-T. Wu, “Two-photon polymerization enabled multi-layer liquid crystal phase modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 16260 (2017).
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D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
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H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
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H. Ren, Y.-H. Lin, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Wu, Y.-H.

Xu, D.

D. Franklin, Y. Chen, A. Vazquez-Guardado, S. Modak, J. Boroumand, D. Xu, S.-T. Wu, and D. Chanda, “Polarization-independent actively tunable colour generation on imprinted plasmonic surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7337 (2015).
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H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4000 (2014).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
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C.-H. Lee, H. Yoshida, Y. Miura, A. Fujii, and M. Ozaki, “Local liquid crystal alignment on patterned micrograting structures photofabricated by two photon excitation direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173509 (2008).
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N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed structure, and (b-d) SEM images of a 360 by 360 µm2 sample. The series illustrate more details of the structure. The red arrows in (d) denote that the alignment on the top of the pillars and under the partition layer is perpendicular to the alignment on the top of the partition layer. Scale bars: 100 µm (b), 10 µm (c), and 1 µm (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 POM images under crossed polarizers. Bottom layer alignment is (a) parallel, (b) 45°, (c) perpendicular to the polarizer. (d) Pillar arrays which control the total cell gap. Scale bar: 100 µm for all.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated and measured voltage-phase responses of the two-layer LC cell under different input polarizations. Black dashed line denotes 2π phase change. (b) Measured transient phase relaxation curve of the test cell where an unpolarized He-Ne laser beam is employed. Red dashed lines indicating the decay time (100% to 10%) is 8.85 ms at the room temperature (23°C).

Equations (2)

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δ=2πdΔ n eff /λ.
τ= γ 1 K 11 d 2 π 2 .

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