Abstract

Precision measurement of the morphology of macroscopic objects has played an important role in many areas including the manufacturing, navigation, and safety fields. In some applications, objects of interest are often masked by scattering and/or applying turbid layers such that they remain invisible for existing methodologies. Here, we present a high depth-resolution three-dimensional (3D) macroscopy working through a scattering layer. In this implementation, we combined time-gated detection with synthetic aperture imaging to enhance single-scattered waves containing the object information above the background level set by the multiple scattering. We demonstrated the 3D mapping of the macroscopic object through a 13-scattering-mean-free-path thick scattering layer, where conventional digital holographic imaging failed to work, with the depth resolution of 400 μm and view field of 30 × 30 mm2. Our work is expected to broaden the range of applications covered by 3D macroscopy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Extended focused imaging for digital holograms of macroscopic three-dimensional objects

Conor P. McElhinney, Bryan M. Hennelly, and Thomas J. Naughton
Appl. Opt. 47(19) D71-D79 (2008)

Three-dimensional temporal image reconstruction of an object hidden in highly scattering media by time-gated optical tomography

L. L. Kalpaxis, L. M. Wang, P. Galland, X. Liang, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano
Opt. Lett. 18(20) 1691-1693 (1993)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  4. J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105(1), 41–48 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  6. P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  7. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  8. K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  9. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  10. W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  11. Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  12. T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).
  13. G. K. M. Cheung, T. Kanade, J. Y. Bouguet, and M. Holler, “A real time system for robust 3D voxel reconstruction of human motions,” in Proceedings IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. CVPR 2000 (Cat. No.PR00662), 714–720, 712 (2000).
  14. S. Malassiotis, N. Aifanti, and M. G. Strintzis, “A gesture recognition system using 3D data,” in Proceedings. First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, 190–193 (2002).
  15. M. Hebert and E. Krotkov, “3-D measurements from imaging laser radars: how good are they?” in Intelligent Robots and Systems '91. 'Intelligence for Mechanical Systems, Proceedings IROS '91. IEEE/RSJ International Workshop on, 359–364, 351 (1991).
  16. J. W. Weingarten, G. Gruener, and R. Siegwart, “A state-of-the-art 3D sensor for robot navigation,” in 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37566), 2155–2160, 2153 (2004).
  17. V. Ganapathi, C. Plagemann, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, “Real time motion capture using a single time-of-flight camera,” in 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 755–762 (2010).
  18. M. V. d. Bergh and L. V. Gool, “Combining RGB and ToF cameras for real-time 3D hand gesture interaction,” in 2011 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), 66–72 (2011).
  19. T. Oggier, M. Lehmann, R. Kaufmann, M. Schweizer, M. Richter, P. Metzler, G. Lang, F. Lustenburger, and N. Blanc, “An all-solid-state optical range camera for 3D real-time imaging with sub-centimeter depth resolution (SwissRanger),” in Optical Systems Design, SPIE, (2004).
  20. S. Lee, “Depth camera image processing and applications,” in 2012 19th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 545–548 (2012).
  21. J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3, 128–160 (2011).
  22. H. Nguyen, D. Nguyen, Z. Wang, H. Kieu, and M. Le, “Real-time, high-accuracy 3D imaging and shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 54(1), A9–A17 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  23. L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 530–532 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  24. K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J.-F. Le Gargasson, and C. Boccara, “In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6286–6295 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  25. C. P. McElhinney, B. M. Hennelly, and T. J. Naughton, “Extended focused imaging for digital holograms of macroscopic three-dimensional objects,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D71–D79 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  26. M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(P2), 82–87 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  27. E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).
  28. I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  29. V. Mico, Z. Zalevsky, P. Garcia-Martinez, and J. Garcia, “Single-step superresolution by interferometric imaging,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2589–2596 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  30. N. Verrier and M. Atlan, “Off-axis digital hologram reconstruction: some practical considerations,” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H136–H146 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  31. A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  32. O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).
  33. A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  34. J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  35. M. Mounaix, H. Defienne, and S. Gigan, “Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a time-resolved transmission matrix approach,” PRA 94, 041802 (2016).
  36. Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  37. M. Locatelli, E. Pugliese, M. Paturzo, V. Bianco, A. Finizio, A. Pelagotti, P. Poggi, L. Miccio, R. Meucci, and P. Ferraro, “Imaging live humans through smoke and flames using far-infrared digital holography,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5379–5390 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  38. S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).
  39. S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).
  40. A. W. Lohmann, D. Mendlovic, and Z. Zalevsky, “Fractional Hilbert transform,” Opt. Lett. 21(4), 281–283 (1996).
    [PubMed]

2016 (3)

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

M. Mounaix, H. Defienne, and S. Gigan, “Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a time-resolved transmission matrix approach,” PRA 94, 041802 (2016).

2015 (2)

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

H. Nguyen, D. Nguyen, Z. Wang, H. Kieu, and M. Le, “Real-time, high-accuracy 3D imaging and shape measurement,” Appl. Opt. 54(1), A9–A17 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

2013 (2)

M. Locatelli, E. Pugliese, M. Paturzo, V. Bianco, A. Finizio, A. Pelagotti, P. Poggi, L. Miccio, R. Meucci, and P. Ferraro, “Imaging live humans through smoke and flames using far-infrared digital holography,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5379–5390 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).

2011 (3)

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3, 128–160 (2011).

N. Verrier and M. Atlan, “Off-axis digital hologram reconstruction: some practical considerations,” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H136–H146 (2011).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 530–532 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(P2), 82–87 (2000).
[PubMed]

1997 (2)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105(1), 41–48 (1987).
[PubMed]

Ahlgren, U.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Allain, M.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Amos, W. B.

J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105(1), 41–48 (1987).
[PubMed]

Atlan, M.

Aubry, A.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

Aulbach, J.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Badon, A.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

Baldock, R.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Belkebir, K.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Bergh, M. V. d.

M. V. d. Bergh and L. V. Gool, “Combining RGB and ToF cameras for real-time 3D hand gesture interaction,” in 2011 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), 66–72 (2011).

Bianco, V.

Boccara, A. C.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, “Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 530–532 (2002).
[PubMed]

Boccara, C.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Choi, W.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Davidson, D.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Defienne, H.

M. Mounaix, H. Defienne, and S. Gigan, “Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a time-resolved transmission matrix approach,” PRA 94, 041802 (2016).

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[PubMed]

Dubois, A.

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Fink, M.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Fordham, M.

J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105(1), 41–48 (1987).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ganapathi, V.

V. Ganapathi, C. Plagemann, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, “Real time motion capture using a single time-of-flight camera,” in 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 755–762 (2010).

Garcia, J.

Garcia-Martinez, P.

Gaus, K.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gelissen, I.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3, 128–160 (2011).

Gigan, S.

M. Mounaix, H. Defienne, and S. Gigan, “Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a time-resolved transmission matrix approach,” PRA 94, 041802 (2016).

Girard, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Gjonaj, B.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Gool, L. V.

M. V. d. Bergh and L. V. Gool, “Combining RGB and ToF cameras for real-time 3D hand gesture interaction,” in 2011 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), 66–72 (2011).

Gratton, E.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Grieve, K.

Gupta, O.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(P2), 82–87 (2000).
[PubMed]

Haskó, G.

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hawkins, B. J.

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hecksher-Sørensen, J.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hennelly, B. M.

Hill, B.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Jeong, S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Jessup, W.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Johnson, P. M.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Jones, A. S.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Joo, J. H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Kable, E. P.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kang, S.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).

Kieu, H.

Kim, T.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Ko, H.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Koller, D.

V. Ganapathi, C. Plagemann, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, “Real time motion capture using a single time-of-flight camera,” in 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 755–762 (2010).

Kritharides, L.

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Le, M.

Le Gargasson, J.-F.

Le Moal, E.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Lee, J.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Lerosey, G.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

Li, D.

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lim, Y.-S.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Locatelli, M.

Lohmann, A. W.

Lue, N.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Madesh, M.

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

McElhinney, C. P.

Mendlovic, D.

Meucci, R.

Miccio, L.

Mico, V.

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Mosk, A. P.

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mounaix, M.

M. Mounaix, H. Defienne, and S. Gigan, “Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a time-resolved transmission matrix approach,” PRA 94, 041802 (2016).

Mudry, E.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Mukhopadhyay, P.

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

Naughton, T. J.

Nguyen, D.

Nguyen, H.

Nicoletti, C.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Pacher, P.

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

Paques, M.

Park, Q. H.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Paturzo, M.

Pelagotti, A.

Perry, P.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

Plagemann, C.

V. Ganapathi, C. Plagemann, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, “Real time motion capture using a single time-of-flight camera,” in 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 755–762 (2010).

Poggi, P.

Popescu, G.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Pugliese, E.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rajesh, M.

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

Raskar, R.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ross, A.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sahel, J.

Savatier, J.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Sentenac, A.

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

Sharpe, J.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).

Simonutti, M.

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).

So, P. T. C.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Thrun, S.

V. Ganapathi, C. Plagemann, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, “Real time motion capture using a single time-of-flight camera,” in 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 755–762 (2010).

Vabre, L.

Veeraraghavan, A.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Velten, A.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Verrier, N.

Wang, Z.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[PubMed]

White, J. G.

J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105(1), 41–48 (1987).
[PubMed]

Willwacher, T.

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Woo, S.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

Yamaguchi, I.

Yang, T. D.

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

Yaqoob, Z.

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yoon, C.

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhang, T.

Zhou, R.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Geng, “Structured-light 3D surface imaging: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3, 128–160 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Cell Biol. (1)

J. G. White, W. B. Amos, and M. Fordham, “An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 105(1), 41–48 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(P2), 82–87 (2000).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Velten, T. Willwacher, O. Gupta, A. Veeraraghavan, M. G. Bawendi, and R. Raskar, “Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 745 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, “Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 1(9), 970–972 (1995).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods (2)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

E. Mudry, K. Belkebir, J. Girard, J. Savatier, E. Le Moal, C. Nicoletti, M. Allain, and A. Sentenac, “Structured illumination microscopy using unknown speckle patterns,” Nat. Photonics 6, 312–315 (2012).

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6, 549–553 (2012).

S. Kang, S. Jeong, W. Choi, H. Ko, T. D. Yang, J. H. Joo, J.-S. Lee, Y.-S. Lim, Q. H. Park, and W. Choi, “Imaging deep within a scattering medium using collective accumulation of single-scattered waves,” Nat. Photonics 9, 253–258 (2015).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Nat. Protoc. (1)

P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, G. Haskó, B. J. Hawkins, M. Madesh, and P. Pacher, “Simultaneous detection of apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy,” Nat. Protoc. 2(9), 2295–2301 (2007).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Woo, S. Kang, C. Yoon, H. Ko, and W. Choi, “Depth-selective imaging of macroscopic objects hidden behind a scattering layer using low-coherence and wide-field interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 372, 210–214 (2016).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Choi, T. R. Hillman, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, P. T. C. So, W. Choi, and Z. Yaqoob, “Measurement of the Time-Resolved Reflection Matrix for Enhancing Light Energy Delivery into a Scattering Medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 243901 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Aulbach, B. Gjonaj, P. M. Johnson, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Control of Light Transmission through Opaque Scattering Media in Space and Time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 103901 (2011).
[PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-Free Quantification of Chromosomes in Live Cells Using Regularized Tomographic Phase Microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[PubMed]

PRA (1)

M. Mounaix, H. Defienne, and S. Gigan, “Deterministic light focusing in space and time through multiple scattering media with a time-resolved transmission matrix approach,” PRA 94, 041802 (2016).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. Gaus, E. Gratton, E. P. Kable, A. S. Jones, I. Gelissen, L. Kritharides, and W. Jessup, “Visualizing lipid structure and raft domains in living cells with two-photon microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(26), 15554–15559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sci. Adv. (1)

A. Badon, D. Li, G. Lerosey, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, and A. Aubry, “Smart optical coherence tomography for ultra-deep imaging through highly scattering media,” Sci. Adv. 2(11), e1600370 (2016).
[PubMed]

Science (4)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276(5321), 2037–2039 (1997).
[PubMed]

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, “Optical projection tomography as a tool for 3D microscopy and gene expression studies,” Science 296(5567), 541–545 (2002).
[PubMed]

Other (8)

G. K. M. Cheung, T. Kanade, J. Y. Bouguet, and M. Holler, “A real time system for robust 3D voxel reconstruction of human motions,” in Proceedings IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. CVPR 2000 (Cat. No.PR00662), 714–720, 712 (2000).

S. Malassiotis, N. Aifanti, and M. G. Strintzis, “A gesture recognition system using 3D data,” in Proceedings. First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, 190–193 (2002).

M. Hebert and E. Krotkov, “3-D measurements from imaging laser radars: how good are they?” in Intelligent Robots and Systems '91. 'Intelligence for Mechanical Systems, Proceedings IROS '91. IEEE/RSJ International Workshop on, 359–364, 351 (1991).

J. W. Weingarten, G. Gruener, and R. Siegwart, “A state-of-the-art 3D sensor for robot navigation,” in 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37566), 2155–2160, 2153 (2004).

V. Ganapathi, C. Plagemann, D. Koller, and S. Thrun, “Real time motion capture using a single time-of-flight camera,” in 2010 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 755–762 (2010).

M. V. d. Bergh and L. V. Gool, “Combining RGB and ToF cameras for real-time 3D hand gesture interaction,” in 2011 IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), 66–72 (2011).

T. Oggier, M. Lehmann, R. Kaufmann, M. Schweizer, M. Richter, P. Metzler, G. Lang, F. Lustenburger, and N. Blanc, “An all-solid-state optical range camera for 3D real-time imaging with sub-centimeter depth resolution (SwissRanger),” in Optical Systems Design, SPIE, (2004).

S. Lee, “Depth camera image processing and applications,” in 2012 19th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, 545–548 (2012).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Laser diode: 637 nm in wavelength. BS1, 3: cube beam splitters, L1 – L5: lenses, BS2: plate beam splitter, CCD: Camera, scattering layer: PDMS mixed with ZnO particles. The thickness of the scattering layer was 720.0 ± 0.5 μm, and its scattering mean free path was l s = 55.9 ± 4.6 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Single-shot images taken with and without a scattering layer. (a) Raw interference image of the Julian plaster model in the absence of a scattering layer. Sample beam was normally incident to the target object. Inset: magnified image of the content in the small red box. (b) Reconstructed image using interference pattern of the single-shot raw image in (a). (c) and (d): Same as (a) and (b), respectively, but with the insertion of a scattering layer. Scale bar, 5 mm. Color bars in (a) and (c) indicate intensity in arbitrary units and those in (b) and (d) indicate amplitude in arbitrary units.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Aperture synthesis of multiple images taken at a fixed depth after the insertion of a scattering layer. (a) and (b) Amplitude maps of reflected waves in the ( k x , k y ) space under a normal illumination and an oblique illumination corresponding to incident wave vector of k i = ( k 0 α ill , 0), respectively. Scale bar, k 0 α col . The radius of the black and blue circles is k 0 α col . (d) and (e) Amplitude maps of the 2D inverse Fourier transformed images of (a) and (b), respectively. Scale bar, 5 mm. Color bar, amplitude in arbitrary units. (c) Angular spectrum after the aperture synthesis of all 200 images taken at various illumination angles. The radius of the red circle is 1.8× k 0 α col . (f) 2D inverse Fourier transformed image of (c), showing the synthetic aperture image reconstructed by adding all 200 complex images. All angular spectra are represented in log scale for better visibility.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between incoherent imaging and synthetic aperture imaging. (a) and (b) Incoherent image and synthetic aperture image, respectively, without the scattering layer. Scale bar, 5 mm. Color bars indicate intensity in arbitrary units, but in the same scale for (a) and (b). (c) and (d) Same as (a) and (b), respectively, but with the insertion of the scattering layer. Color bars, intensity in arbitrary units.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signal growth versus the number of incidence angles used for image reconstruction. Ssyn and Sinc were normalized by the average signal intensity S. The red curve represents the results obtained by the aperture synthesis, and the blue curve represents those by the incoherent addition for the cases without (a) and with (b) the scattering layer. Dashed and dashed-dot lines show growth by N2 and N for the visual guidance for the ideal aperture synthesis and incoherent addition, respectively. Graphs are represented in log-log scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of 3D reconstructed images between incoherent imaging and synthetic aperture imaging. (a) and (b) 3D reconstruction images using incoherent imaging and synthetic aperture imaging, respectively, in the absence of the scattering layer. (c) and (d) Same as (a) and (b), respectively, but in the presence of the scattering layer.

Metrics