Abstract

We examine the terahertz (THz) emission from air filament driven by two-color lasers with relatively longer wavelengths than 800 nm. The THz energy dependence on the input laser energy increases more rapidly with a longer laser wavelength, and the scaling laws of THz energy as a function of fundamental wavelength vary for different optical powers, which is theoretically validated by considering the optical wavelength-dependent ionization rate. Furthermore, the THz polarization undergoes a continuous rotation as a function of the laser wavelength, since the relative phase and polarization of the two pulses are adjusted through changing the excitation wavelength in the frequency doubling crystal. Our results contribute to the understanding of THz wave generation in a femtosecond laser filament and suggest a practical way to control the polarization of terahertz pulses for potential applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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  7. D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, “THz generation from plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4718–4724 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  12. W. M. Wang, P. Gibbon, Z. M. Sheng, and Y. T. Li, “Tunable circularly polarized terahertz radiation from magnetized gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 253901 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  19. S. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, T. Wu, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Excitation-wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 111104 (2017).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, and J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2608–2610 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
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  28. F. Ilkov, J. Decker, and S. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 183–190 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

S. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, T. Wu, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Excitation-wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 111104 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liu, A. D. Koulouklidis, D. G. Papazoglou, S. Tzortzakis, and X. C. Zhang, “Enhanced terahertz wave emission from air-plasma tailored by abruptly autofocusing laser beams,” Optica 3(6), 605 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2013 (3)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, and J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2608–2610 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, “THz generation from plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4718–4724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K.-Y. Kim, A. Taylor, J. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, H. C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16999–17006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, “Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 026803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

F. Ilkov, J. Decker, and S. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Diagram technique for nonequilibrium processes,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(4), 1018–1026 (1965).

Andreeva, V. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babushkin, I.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, “THz generation from plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4718–4724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-M.

Chen, M.

Chen, W.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S.

F. Ilkov, J. Decker, and S. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dakovski, G. L.

Decker, J.

F. Ilkov, J. Decker, and S. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esaulkov, M. N.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fülöp, J. A.

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gibbon, P.

W. M. Wang, P. Gibbon, Z. M. Sheng, and Y. T. Li, “Tunable circularly polarized terahertz radiation from magnetized gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 253901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glownia, J.

K.-Y. Kim, A. Taylor, J. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glownia, J. H.

González de Alaiza Martínez, P.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendry, E.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, “THz generation from plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4718–4724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hey, R.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirori, H.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
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Hoffmann, M. C.

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: generation and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
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C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunt, N. T.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, “Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 026803 (2007).
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F. Ilkov, J. Decker, and S. Chin, “Ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime with experimental evidence using Hg atoms,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25(19), 4005–4020 (1992).
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D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kadoya, Y.

Karpowicz, N.

H. Zhong, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz emission profile from laser-induced air plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261103 (2006).
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Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, “Diagram technique for nonequilibrium processes,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20(4), 1018–1026 (1965).

Kim, K.

D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. Y.

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.-Y.

K.-Y. Kim, A. Taylor, J. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, C.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koulouklidis, A. D.

Kreß, M.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuk, D.

D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Légaré, F.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, Y. T.

W. M. Wang, P. Gibbon, Z. M. Sheng, and Y. T. Li, “Tunable circularly polarized terahertz radiation from magnetized gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 253901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.-T.

Lindenberg, A. M.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

Löffler, T.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lotti, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lü, Z.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makarov, V. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melloch, M. R.

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meng, C.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H.

D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mima, K.

Morandotti, R.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu, K.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oh, T. I.

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Panov, N. A.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papazoglou, D. G.

Park, S.-G.

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peccianti, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, D. Faccio, L. Caspani, M. Peccianti, E. Rubino, L. Razzari, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, and R. Morandotti, “CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1899–1901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polyushkin, D. K.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, “THz generation from plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4718–4724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, L.-J.

Razzari, L.

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

Rosenthal, E.

D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rubino, E.

Schmidt, B. E.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaby, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, Z. M.

W. M. Wang, P. Gibbon, Z. M. Sheng, and Y. T. Li, “Tunable circularly polarized terahertz radiation from magnetized gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 253901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, H. C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16999–17006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, Z.-M.

Shipilo, D. E.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shkurinov, A. P.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sider, C.

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sider, J.

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(7), 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solyankin, P. M.

V. A. Andreeva, O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. E. Shipilo, P. M. Solyankin, M. N. Esaulkov, P. González de Alaiza Martínez, A. P. Shkurinov, V. A. Makarov, L. Bergé, and S. L. Chin, “Ultrabroad terahertz spectrum generation from an air-based filament plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(6), 063902 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, E. K.

D. K. Polyushkin, E. Hendry, E. K. Stone, and W. L. Barnes, “THz generation from plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4718–4724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

Tanaka, K.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

Taylor, A.

K.-Y. Kim, A. Taylor, J. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser–gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M.

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 1(4), 349–368 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tzortzakis, S.

Wang, H.

Wang, W. M.

W. M. Wang, P. Gibbon, Z. M. Sheng, and Y. T. Li, “Tunable circularly polarized terahertz radiation from magnetized gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(25), 253901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Wang, Z. M. Sheng, H. C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, and K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16999–17006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.-M.

Wang, X.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A.

S.-G. Park, A. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. Sider, J. Sider, and A. J. Taylor, “High-power narrow-band terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1257–1268 (1999).
[Crossref]

Welsh, G. H.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, “Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 026803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, H.

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Nonlinear terahertz response of -type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(18), 187402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H. C.

Wu, T.

S. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, T. Wu, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Excitation-wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 111104 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, K. Mu, J. Zhao, T. Wu, H. Wang, C. Zhang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Intense thermal terahertz-to-infrared emission from random metallic nanostructures under femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14211–14218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wynne, K.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, “Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 026803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, Y.

D. Kuk, Y. Yoo, E. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. Milchberg, and K. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

You, Y. S.

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

S. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, T. Wu, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Excitation-wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 111104 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, K. Mu, J. Zhao, T. Wu, H. Wang, C. Zhang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Intense thermal terahertz-to-infrared emission from random metallic nanostructures under femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14211–14218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

C. Meng, W. Chen, X. Wang, Z. Lü, Y. Huang, J. Liu, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Enhancement of terahertz radiation by using circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(13), 131105 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

S. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, T. Wu, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Excitation-wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 111104 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, K. Mu, J. Zhao, T. Wu, H. Wang, C. Zhang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Intense thermal terahertz-to-infrared emission from random metallic nanostructures under femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14211–14218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Zhao, T. Wu, C. Zhang, and Y. Zhao, “Excitation-wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(11), 111104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. C.

Zhang, X.-C.

L. Zhang, K. Mu, J. Zhao, T. Wu, H. Wang, C. Zhang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Intense thermal terahertz-to-infrared emission from random metallic nanostructures under femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14211–14218 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 183–190 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Normalized free electron density and electron current as a function of time at three fundamental wavelengths (800 nm, 1600 nm and 2000 nm) superposed with their second harmonics. (b) Simulated ionization rate as a function of the pump power for five fundamental wavelengths superposed with their second harmonics. (c) Simulated THz energy dependence on the fundamental laser wavelength for four optical powers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of THz wave generation from air plasma induced by a two-color laser field with tunable excitation wavelengths. SWL + SHS: The shorter wavelength laser superposed with its second harmonic. LWL + SHL: The longer wavelength laser superposed with its second harmonic.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated and (b) measured THz energy as a function of the pump power. The result for the 800-nm-laser is also plotted for comparison. The measured data corresponds to the excitation wavelengths of 1200 nm, 1300 nm, 1500 nm and 1600 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The calculated relative phase between the two-color fields as a function of the excitation wavelength. (b) Simulation of transmitted THz energy as a function of the THz polarizer angle and excitation wavelength. The THz energy is normalized at each wavelength. (c) Normalized THz transmission (dots) as a function of the THz polarizer angle with the sinusoidal fit (solid line) for the excitation wavelengths of 1200 nm (red) and 1600 nm (blue). (d) Experimental result corresponding to case (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional images of the THz beam profile for wavelengths of (a) 1300 nm and (b) 1500 nm. (c) Measured and (d) calculated profiles of the center lines corresponding to the images.

Equations (3)

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W ( E ) H ( 2 2n * n * Γ ( n * + l * + 1 ) Γ ( n * l * ) ) U i 2U H × 6 π ( 2E 0 E ) exp ( 2E 0 3E ( 1 γ 2 10 + 9 γ 4 280 ) )
E L ( t ) =E ω ( t ) [ cos (ωt + φ ) cos α x ^ ' + cos (ωt ) sin α y ^ ' ] + E ( t ) cos (2ωt + θ ) ( cos α x ^ ' + sin α y ^ ' )
θ= ω ( n ω n ) d / c + θ 0

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