Abstract

Interface disbond in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key issues that cause their premature failure. In general, blind hole defects are often used as substitutes in transient thermography. The linear laser fast scanning thermography (LLFST) method was developed in this study and combined with several post-processing algorithms to accurately detect blind hole defects in TBCs. Through numerical simulation and experimental verification, a unique thermal response characteristic of blind holes in the cooling phase, namely a distinct “tailing” phenomenon, was summarized and utilized to recognize small defects. Validation tests indicated that blind holes with diameters of 1, 2, and 3 mm and artificial disbonds with diameters of 2 and 3 mm in TBCs are detected with high efficiency.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2014 (2)

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

2013 (2)

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems,” NDT Int. 59, 48–56 (2013).

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

2012 (2)

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Artificial disbonds for calibration of transient thermography inspection of thermal barrier coating systems,” NDT Int. 45, 71–78 (2012).

N. Biju, N. Ganesan, C. V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, “Defect Sizing Simulation Studies for the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography Using Genetic Algorithm Based Inversion,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31, 342–348 (2012).

2011 (5)

S. B. Zhao, C. L. Zhang, W. U. Nai-Ming, and H. M. Wang, “Quality evaluation for air plasma spray thermal barrier coatings with pulsed thermography,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 301–306 (2011).

L. Teng, D. P. Almond, and D. A. S. Rees, “Crack imaging by scanning pulsed laser spot thermography,” NDT Int. 44, 216–225 (2011).

Y. K. Zhu, G. Y. Tian, R. S. Lu, and H. Zhang, “A review of optical NDT technologies,” Sensors (Basel) 11(8), 7773–7798 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. I. Li-Yong, W. U. Zi-Long, and C. G. Zhou, “Effects of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of HVOF-sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 173–179 (2011).

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

2010 (1)

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

2007 (3)

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

S. E. Burrows, A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, and S. Dixon, “Combined laser spot imaging thermography and ultrasonic measurements for crack detection,” Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 22, 217–227 (2007).

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. G. Sun, “Analysis of Pulsed Thermography Method for Defect Depth Prediction,” J. Heat Transfer 128, 329–338 (2006).

2005 (2)

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

H. B. Guo, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver, “Thermophysical properties and thermal cycling behavior of plasma sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 192, 48–56 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. F. Woolard and K. E. Cramer, “The thermal photocopier: a new concept for thermal NDT,” Proc. SPIE 5405, 366–373 (2004).

1999 (1)

W. Beele, G. Marijnissen, and A. van Lieshout, “The evolution of thermal barrier coatings — status and upcoming solutions for today’s key issues,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 120–121, 61–67 (1999).

1982 (1)

V. P. Vavilov and R. Taylor, “Theoretical and practical aspects of the thermal nondestructive testing of bonded structures,” Academic Press, Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing 5, 239–279 (1982).

Almond, D.

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems,” NDT Int. 59, 48–56 (2013).

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Artificial disbonds for calibration of transient thermography inspection of thermal barrier coating systems,” NDT Int. 45, 71–78 (2012).

Almond, D. P.

L. Teng, D. P. Almond, and D. A. S. Rees, “Crack imaging by scanning pulsed laser spot thermography,” NDT Int. 44, 216–225 (2011).

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

S. E. Burrows, A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, and S. Dixon, “Combined laser spot imaging thermography and ultrasonic measurements for crack detection,” Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 22, 217–227 (2007).

Apiñaniz, E.

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

Balasubramaniam, K.

N. Biju, N. Ganesan, C. V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, “Defect Sizing Simulation Studies for the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography Using Genetic Algorithm Based Inversion,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31, 342–348 (2012).

Batsale, J. C.

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

Beele, W.

W. Beele, G. Marijnissen, and A. van Lieshout, “The evolution of thermal barrier coatings — status and upcoming solutions for today’s key issues,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 120–121, 61–67 (1999).

Biju, N.

N. Biju, N. Ganesan, C. V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, “Defect Sizing Simulation Studies for the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography Using Genetic Algorithm Based Inversion,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31, 342–348 (2012).

Bison, P.

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

Bragança, L.

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

Burrows, S.

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

Burrows, S. E.

S. E. Burrows, A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, and S. Dixon, “Combined laser spot imaging thermography and ultrasonic measurements for crack detection,” Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 22, 217–227 (2007).

Cawley, P.

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems,” NDT Int. 59, 48–56 (2013).

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Artificial disbonds for calibration of transient thermography inspection of thermal barrier coating systems,” NDT Int. 45, 71–78 (2012).

Cernuschi, F.

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

Chen, L.

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

Chen, X.

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

Cheng, L.

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

Chu, T. P.

Y. P. Pan, R. A. Miller, T. P. Chu, and P. Filip, “Detection of defects in commercial C/C composites using infrared thermography,” in SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2009).

Cramer, K. E.

D. F. Woolard and K. E. Cramer, “The thermal photocopier: a new concept for thermal NDT,” Proc. SPIE 5405, 366–373 (2004).

Deng, X.

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

Dixon, S.

S. E. Burrows, A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, and S. Dixon, “Combined laser spot imaging thermography and ultrasonic measurements for crack detection,” Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 22, 217–227 (2007).

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

Filip, P.

Y. P. Pan, R. A. Miller, T. P. Chu, and P. Filip, “Detection of defects in commercial C/C composites using infrared thermography,” in SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2009).

Franke, B.

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

Ganesan, N.

N. Biju, N. Ganesan, C. V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, “Defect Sizing Simulation Studies for the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography Using Genetic Algorithm Based Inversion,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31, 342–348 (2012).

Ghiassi, B.

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

Grinzato, E.

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

Guo, H. B.

H. B. Guo, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver, “Thermophysical properties and thermal cycling behavior of plasma sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 192, 48–56 (2005).

Hao, S.

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

Jarligo, M. O.

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

Krishnamurthy, C. V.

N. Biju, N. Ganesan, C. V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, “Defect Sizing Simulation Studies for the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography Using Genetic Algorithm Based Inversion,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31, 342–348 (2012).

Liu, J.

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

Li-Yong, N. I.

N. I. Li-Yong, W. U. Zi-Long, and C. G. Zhou, “Effects of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of HVOF-sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 173–179 (2011).

Lourenço, P. B.

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

Lu, R. S.

Y. K. Zhu, G. Y. Tian, R. S. Lu, and H. Zhang, “A review of optical NDT technologies,” Sensors (Basel) 11(8), 7773–7798 (2011).
[PubMed]

Mack, D. E.

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

Marijnissen, G.

W. Beele, G. Marijnissen, and A. van Lieshout, “The evolution of thermal barrier coatings — status and upcoming solutions for today’s key issues,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 120–121, 61–67 (1999).

Marinetti, S.

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

Mei, H.

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

Mendioroz, A.

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

Miller, R. A.

Y. P. Pan, R. A. Miller, T. P. Chu, and P. Filip, “Detection of defects in commercial C/C composites using infrared thermography,” in SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2009).

Mutasim, Z.

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

Nai-Ming, W. U.

S. B. Zhao, C. L. Zhang, W. U. Nai-Ming, and H. M. Wang, “Quality evaluation for air plasma spray thermal barrier coatings with pulsed thermography,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 301–306 (2011).

Noël, F.

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

Oliveira, D. V.

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

Pan, Y. P.

Y. P. Pan, R. A. Miller, T. P. Chu, and P. Filip, “Detection of defects in commercial C/C composites using infrared thermography,” in SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2009).

Pickering, S.

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems,” NDT Int. 59, 48–56 (2013).

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Artificial disbonds for calibration of transient thermography inspection of thermal barrier coating systems,” NDT Int. 45, 71–78 (2012).

Pradere, C.

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

Price, J.

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

Ptaszek, G.

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems,” NDT Int. 59, 48–56 (2013).

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Artificial disbonds for calibration of transient thermography inspection of thermal barrier coating systems,” NDT Int. 45, 71–78 (2012).

Rashed, A.

S. E. Burrows, A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, and S. Dixon, “Combined laser spot imaging thermography and ultrasonic measurements for crack detection,” Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 22, 217–227 (2007).

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

Rees, D. A. S.

L. Teng, D. P. Almond, and D. A. S. Rees, “Crack imaging by scanning pulsed laser spot thermography,” NDT Int. 44, 216–225 (2011).

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

Robba, D.

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

Salazar, A.

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

Silva, S. M.

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

Sohn, Y.

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

Steinke, T.

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

Stöver, D.

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

H. B. Guo, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver, “Thermophysical properties and thermal cycling behavior of plasma sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 192, 48–56 (2005).

Sun, J. G.

J. G. Sun, “Analysis of Pulsed Thermography Method for Defect Depth Prediction,” J. Heat Transfer 128, 329–338 (2006).

Tang, Q.

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

Taylor, R.

V. P. Vavilov and R. Taylor, “Theoretical and practical aspects of the thermal nondestructive testing of bonded structures,” Academic Press, Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing 5, 239–279 (1982).

Teng, L.

L. Teng, D. P. Almond, and D. A. S. Rees, “Crack imaging by scanning pulsed laser spot thermography,” NDT Int. 44, 216–225 (2011).

Tian, G. Y.

Y. K. Zhu, G. Y. Tian, R. S. Lu, and H. Zhang, “A review of optical NDT technologies,” Sensors (Basel) 11(8), 7773–7798 (2011).
[PubMed]

van Lieshout, A.

W. Beele, G. Marijnissen, and A. van Lieshout, “The evolution of thermal barrier coatings — status and upcoming solutions for today’s key issues,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 120–121, 61–67 (1999).

Vaßen, R.

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

H. B. Guo, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver, “Thermophysical properties and thermal cycling behavior of plasma sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 192, 48–56 (2005).

Vavilov, V. P.

V. P. Vavilov and R. Taylor, “Theoretical and practical aspects of the thermal nondestructive testing of bonded structures,” Academic Press, Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing 5, 239–279 (1982).

Wang, H. M.

S. B. Zhao, C. L. Zhang, W. U. Nai-Ming, and H. M. Wang, “Quality evaluation for air plasma spray thermal barrier coatings with pulsed thermography,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 301–306 (2011).

Wang, Y.

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

Woolard, D. F.

D. F. Woolard and K. E. Cramer, “The thermal photocopier: a new concept for thermal NDT,” Proc. SPIE 5405, 366–373 (2004).

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

Zhang, C. L.

S. B. Zhao, C. L. Zhang, W. U. Nai-Ming, and H. M. Wang, “Quality evaluation for air plasma spray thermal barrier coatings with pulsed thermography,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 301–306 (2011).

Zhang, H.

Y. K. Zhu, G. Y. Tian, R. S. Lu, and H. Zhang, “A review of optical NDT technologies,” Sensors (Basel) 11(8), 7773–7798 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhao, S. B.

S. B. Zhao, C. L. Zhang, W. U. Nai-Ming, and H. M. Wang, “Quality evaluation for air plasma spray thermal barrier coatings with pulsed thermography,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 301–306 (2011).

Zhou, C. G.

N. I. Li-Yong, W. U. Zi-Long, and C. G. Zhou, “Effects of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of HVOF-sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 173–179 (2011).

Zhu, Y. K.

Y. K. Zhu, G. Y. Tian, R. S. Lu, and H. Zhang, “A review of optical NDT technologies,” Sensors (Basel) 11(8), 7773–7798 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zi-Long, W. U.

N. I. Li-Yong, W. U. Zi-Long, and C. G. Zhou, “Effects of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of HVOF-sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 173–179 (2011).

Academic Press, Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing (1)

V. P. Vavilov and R. Taylor, “Theoretical and practical aspects of the thermal nondestructive testing of bonded structures,” Academic Press, Research Techniques in Nondestructive Testing 5, 239–279 (1982).

Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica (1)

Z. Xu, L. Cheng, H. Mei, X. Chen, and X. Deng, “Thermographic measurement methods for depths of the blind holes drilled in C/SiC composites,” Acta Materiae Compositae Sinica 34, 937–956 (2011).

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, D. A. S. Rees, S. Burrows, and S. Dixon, “Crack detection by laser spot imaging thermography,” AIP Conf. Proc. 894, 500–506 (2007).

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

S. Marinetti, D. Robba, F. Cernuschi, P. Bison, and E. Grinzato, “Thermographic inspection of TBC coated gas turbine blades: Discrimination between coating over-thicknesses and adhesion defects,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 49, 281–285 (2007).

Q. Tang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Hao, and L. Chen, “Experimental study of inspection on SiC coated high-temperature alloy plates with defects using pulsed thermographic technique,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 57, 21–27 (2013).

J. Heat Transfer (1)

J. G. Sun, “Analysis of Pulsed Thermography Method for Defect Depth Prediction,” J. Heat Transfer 128, 329–338 (2006).

Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation (2)

B. Ghiassi, S. M. Silva, D. V. Oliveira, P. B. Lourenço, and L. Bragança, “FRP-to-masonry bond durability assessment with infrared thermography method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 33, 427–437 (2014).

N. Biju, N. Ganesan, C. V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, “Defect Sizing Simulation Studies for the Tone-Burst Eddy Current Thermography Using Genetic Algorithm Based Inversion,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation 31, 342–348 (2012).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Salazar, A. Mendioroz, E. Apiñaniz, C. Pradere, F. Noël, and J. C. Batsale, “Extending the flash method to measure the thermal diffusivity of semitransparent solids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 035604 (2014).

NDT Int. (3)

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Transient thermography testing of unpainted thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems,” NDT Int. 59, 48–56 (2013).

G. Ptaszek, P. Cawley, D. Almond, and S. Pickering, “Artificial disbonds for calibration of transient thermography inspection of thermal barrier coating systems,” NDT Int. 45, 71–78 (2012).

L. Teng, D. P. Almond, and D. A. S. Rees, “Crack imaging by scanning pulsed laser spot thermography,” NDT Int. 44, 216–225 (2011).

Nondestruct. Test. Eval. (1)

S. E. Burrows, A. Rashed, D. P. Almond, and S. Dixon, “Combined laser spot imaging thermography and ultrasonic measurements for crack detection,” Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 22, 217–227 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. F. Woolard and K. E. Cramer, “The thermal photocopier: a new concept for thermal NDT,” Proc. SPIE 5405, 366–373 (2004).

Progress in Natural Science: Materials International (2)

S. B. Zhao, C. L. Zhang, W. U. Nai-Ming, and H. M. Wang, “Quality evaluation for air plasma spray thermal barrier coatings with pulsed thermography,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 301–306 (2011).

N. I. Li-Yong, W. U. Zi-Long, and C. G. Zhou, “Effects of surface modification on isothermal oxidation behavior of HVOF-sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings,” Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 21, 173–179 (2011).

Sensors (Basel) (1)

Y. K. Zhu, G. Y. Tian, R. S. Lu, and H. Zhang, “A review of optical NDT technologies,” Sensors (Basel) 11(8), 7773–7798 (2011).
[PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (4)

B. Franke, Y. Sohn, X. Chen, J. Price, and Z. Mutasim, “Monitoring damage evolution in thermal barrier coatings with thermal wave imaging,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200, 1292–1297 (2005).

W. Beele, G. Marijnissen, and A. van Lieshout, “The evolution of thermal barrier coatings — status and upcoming solutions for today’s key issues,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 120–121, 61–67 (1999).

H. B. Guo, R. Vaßen, and D. Stöver, “Thermophysical properties and thermal cycling behavior of plasma sprayed thick thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 192, 48–56 (2005).

R. Vaßen, M. O. Jarligo, T. Steinke, D. E. Mack, and D. Stöver, “Overview on advanced thermal barrier coatings,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 938–942 (2010).

Other (5)

M. Choi, J. Park, H. Park, K. Kwon, and W. Kim, “Study of micro crack detection using a variable ultrasound Infrared thermography.” 6th Pan American Conference for NDT 12-14 August 2015, Cartagena, Colombia (2015).

P. G. Bison, E. G. Grinzato, and V. P. Vavilov, “Inspecting thermal barrier coatings by IR thermography,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5073, 318–327 (2003).

Y. P. Pan, R. A. Miller, T. P. Chu, and P. Filip, “Detection of defects in commercial C/C composites using infrared thermography,” in SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (2009).

China Aviation Materials Handbook (China Standard, 2002).

S. M. Shepard and J. R. Lhota, “Thermographic measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 5782, 407–410 (2005).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of linear laser scanning: (a) TBCs model with an FBH and (b) TBCs model with an artificial disbond.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results: (a) scanning process of sample with a blind hole defect, (b) scanning process of sample with an artificial disbond.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Abaqus simulation of the post-processing algorithm: (a) raw temperature field image for linear laser scanning over a defect, (b) oriented carrier temperature field reconstructed by using the developed algorithm, and (c) thermal response image of the defect obtained by subtracting (b) from (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the three-moment windowing amplitude method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diagram of the FBH defect specimen.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Thermal image of a TBC with an FBH for linear laser scanning: (a) raw thermal image and (b) temperature–time curves of the defect region (red) and normal region (blue).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Process of constructing and subtracting an oriented carrier temperature field post-processing algorithm: (a) raw thermal image after subtracting pre-excitation image; (b) fitting a linear laser center line; (c) thermal image clipping the temperature field above the center line; (d) oriented carrier temperature image; (e) thermal response image obtained by using the raw thermal image minus the constructed carrier image; (f) superposing all such subtraction images at all moments; (g) resultant thermal image with the defects in the whole field (unit: °C); (h) threshold extraction result.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Process of the three-moment windowing amplitude method: (a) amplitude image with thermal response of the defect obtained by subtracting the oriented amplitude carrier; (b) superposing such subtraction amplitude images at all moments; (c) resultant thermal image with the defects in the whole field (unit: °C); (d) threshold extraction result.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Manufacturing process of artificial disbonds with screws.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

TBC samples with two kinds of defects and detection results: (a) blind hole defects; (b) artificial disbond defects; (c) surface of the ceramic coating in both samples; (d) NDT result of the TBC sample with blind holes (unit: °C); (e) NDT result of the TBC sample with artificial disbands (unit: °C).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Thermal and physical parameters of TBCs

Equations (4)

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T a(t) (x,y)={ ( T (t t 0 ) (x,y) T (t) (x,y)) 2 + ( T (t) (x,y)T (x,y) (t+ t 0 ) ) 2 (x,y)inwindow null outwindow ,
T fita(t) (x,y)={ x i =1, y j =1 m,n T a(t) ( x i , y j ) N ( x i , y j )in-window null out-window ,
T result (x,y)= t= t 0 t n [ T a(t) (x,y) T fita(t) (x,y) ] ,
T result (x,y)= t= t 0 t n { T a (t) (x,y)[ T a (t) (x,y)W(x,y)+ T fita(t) (x,y)(1W(x,y))]} ,