Abstract

Applying extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy, the dynamics of the two laser dressed transitions 3d5/2-to-5p3/2 and 3p3/2-to-5s1/2 at photon energies of 91.3 eV and 210.4 eV were examined with attosecond temporal resolution. The dressing process was modeled with density matrix equations which are found to describe very accurately both the experimentally observed transmission dynamics and the linear and nonlinear dressing oscillations at 0.75 PHz and 1.5 PHz frequencies. Furthermore, using Fourier transform XUV spectroscopy, quantum beats from the 3d5/2-3d3/2 and 3p3/2-3p1/2 sublevels at 0.3 PHz and 2.0 PHz were experimentally identified and resolved.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Attosecond chirp effect on the transient absorption spectrum of laser-dressed helium atom

Haiwen Zhao, Candong Liu, Yinghui Zheng, Zhinan Zeng, and Ruxin Li
Opt. Express 25(7) 7707-7718 (2017)

Comparison between transparencies of 5S1/2-5P3/2-4D5/2 and 5S1/2-5P3/2-5D5/2 transitions of 87Rb atoms

Han Seb Moon and Heung-Ryoul Noh
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(7) 1557-1562 (2012)

Extreme ultraviolet transient absorption of solids from femtosecond to attosecond timescales [Invited]

Lauren J. Borja, M. Zürch, C. D. Pemmaraju, Martin Schultze, Krupa Ramasesha, Andrey Gandman, James S. Prell, David Prendergast, Daniel M. Neumark, and Stephen R. Leone
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(7) C57-C64 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).
  2. J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).
  3. J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  4. C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  5. E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).
  6. T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  8. O. Kwon and D. Kim, “PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191112 (2016).
  9. M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  10. E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).
  11. M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  12. M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).
  13. M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).
  14. E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).
  15. Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  16. X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).
  17. Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).
  18. A. N. Pfeiffer and S. R. Leone, “Transmission of an isolated attosecond pulse in a strong-field dressed atom,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053422 (2012).
  19. Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).
  20. M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).
  21. H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  22. C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  23. E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  24. E. R. Hosler and S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023420 (2013).
  25. A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
    [PubMed]
  26. Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
    [PubMed]
  27. E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).
  28. E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).
  29. E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96, 43–50 (2009).
  30. G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).
  31. O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
    [PubMed]
  32. J. Lang and W. S. Watson, “The photoabsorption coefficients of krypton and xenon from 48 Å to 210 Å,” J. Phys. B 8(14), L339–L343 (1975).
  33. J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 349, 397–421 (1976).
  34. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
  35. M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  36. I. J. Afa and C. Serrat, “Quantum Control of Population Transfer and Vibrational States via Chirped Pulses in Four Level Density Matrix Equations,” Appl. Sci. 6, 351 (2016).
  37. M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).
  38. J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).
  39. D. Bauer and P. Mulser, “Exact field ionization rates in the barrier-suppression regime from numerical time-dependent Schrodinger-equation calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 569–577 (1999).
  40. Y. Kobayashi, N. Hirayama, A. Ozawa, T. Sukegawa, T. Seki, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Watanabe, “10-MHz, Yb-fiber chirped-pulse amplifier system with large-scale transmission gratings,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12865–12873 (2013).
    [PubMed]

2017 (4)

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (9)

I. J. Afa and C. Serrat, “Quantum Control of Population Transfer and Vibrational States via Chirped Pulses in Four Level Density Matrix Equations,” Appl. Sci. 6, 351 (2016).

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

O. Kwon and D. Kim, “PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191112 (2016).

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

2014 (4)

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (5)

Y. Kobayashi, N. Hirayama, A. Ozawa, T. Sukegawa, T. Seki, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Watanabe, “10-MHz, Yb-fiber chirped-pulse amplifier system with large-scale transmission gratings,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12865–12873 (2013).
[PubMed]

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

E. R. Hosler and S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023420 (2013).

2012 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. N. Pfeiffer and S. R. Leone, “Transmission of an isolated attosecond pulse in a strong-field dressed atom,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053422 (2012).

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).

2010 (3)

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96, 43–50 (2009).

2008 (1)

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).

2007 (1)

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).

2006 (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).

1999 (1)

D. Bauer and P. Mulser, “Exact field ionization rates in the barrier-suppression regime from numerical time-dependent Schrodinger-equation calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 569–577 (1999).

1996 (1)

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).

1977 (1)

G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).

1976 (1)

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 349, 397–421 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. Lang and W. S. Watson, “The photoabsorption coefficients of krypton and xenon from 48 Å to 210 Å,” J. Phys. B 8(14), L339–L343 (1975).

Afa, I. J.

I. J. Afa and C. Serrat, “Quantum Control of Population Transfer and Vibrational States via Chirped Pulses in Four Level Density Matrix Equations,” Appl. Sci. 6, 351 (2016).

Aksela, H.

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

Aksela, S.

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

Alisauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Argenti, L.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Attar, A. R.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Aurand, B.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

Austin, D. R.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Averbukh, V.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bagnoud, V.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer and P. Mulser, “Exact field ionization rates in the barrier-suppression regime from numerical time-dependent Schrodinger-equation calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 569–577 (1999).

Baykusheva, D.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bhattacherjee, A.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Blättermann, A.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Borja, L. J.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bradford, R. C.

G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Budesca, J. M.

Buth, C.

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).

Calegari, F.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Camp, S.

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

Chang, Z.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chauvet, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.-J.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chini, M.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Chipperfield, L.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Chu, S.-I.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

Closser, K. D.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).

Ding, T.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Diveki, Z.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Dong, W.

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Dubrouil, A.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Ecker, B.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

Frassetto, F.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Gaarde, M. B.

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).

Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Gandman, A.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gao, C.

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Gessner, O.

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gonzalez-Castrillo, A.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).

Hagstotz, S.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

He, F.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Heck, R.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).

Hernández-García, C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Hirayama, N.

Hochhaus, D.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

Hoffmann, A.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hosler, E. R.

E. R. Hosler and S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023420 (2013).

Hummert, J.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Huppert, M.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Hutchinson, S. E. E.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kaldun, A.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kasmi, L.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

Keller, U.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Kim, D.

O. Kwon and D. Kim, “PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191112 (2016).

King, G. C.

G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).

Kivimäki, A.

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

Y. Kobayashi, N. Hirayama, A. Ozawa, T. Sukegawa, T. Seki, Y. Kuramoto, and S. Watanabe, “10-MHz, Yb-fiber chirped-pulse amplifier system with large-scale transmission gratings,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12865–12873 (2013).
[PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kuehl, T.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

Kuramoto, Y.

Kwon, O.

O. Kwon and D. Kim, “PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191112 (2016).

Landgraf, B.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lang, J.

J. Lang and W. S. Watson, “The photoabsorption coefficients of krypton and xenon from 48 Å to 210 Å,” J. Phys. B 8(14), L339–L343 (1975).

Laux, M.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Leone, S. R.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. R. Hosler and S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023420 (2013).

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. N. Pfeiffer and S. R. Leone, “Transmission of an isolated attosecond pulse in a strong-field dressed atom,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053422 (2012).

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lin, M.-F.

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

Locher, R.

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Loh, Z.-H.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lucchini, M.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ludwig, A.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

Madroñero, J.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Marr, G. V.

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 349, 397–421 (1976).

Martin, F.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

Martín, F.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Matthews, M.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Meyer, K.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Miseikis, L.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Mücke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mulser, P.

D. Bauer and P. Mulser, “Exact field ionization rates in the barrier-suppression regime from numerical time-dependent Schrodinger-equation calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 569–577 (1999).

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Namba, S.

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

Neumark, D. M.

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Nõmmiste, E.

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

Ott, C.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ozawa, A.

Pabst, S.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Palacios, A.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

Pemmaraju, C. D.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pertot, Y.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Pfeiffer, A. N.

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. N. Pfeiffer and S. R. Leone, “Transmission of an isolated attosecond pulse in a strong-field dressed atom,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053422 (2012).

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Poletto, L.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Prell, J. S.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Prendergast, D.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Pymer, A. K.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Raith, P.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ramasesha, K.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Read, F. H.

G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).

Reduzzi, M.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Riviere, P.

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Roca, D.

Rohringer, N.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rost, J.-M.

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Ruberti, M.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Saalmann, U.

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Sabbar, M.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

Sairanen, O.

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Sansone, G.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Santra, R.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sato, S. A.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sayres, S. G.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Schafer, K.

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Schafer, K. J.

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).

Schmidt, C.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Schnorr, K.

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Seki, T.

Seres, E.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96, 43–50 (2009).

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).

Seres, J.

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96, 43–50 (2009).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).

Serrat, C.

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).

I. J. Afa and C. Serrat, “Quantum Control of Population Transfer and Vibrational States via Chirped Pulses in Four Level Density Matrix Equations,” Appl. Sci. 6, 351 (2016).

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

Shinohara, Y.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

Siegel, T.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Simpson, E. R.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Spielmann, C.

C. Serrat, D. Roca, J. M. Budesca, J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Avalanche of stimulated forward scattering in high harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8028–8044 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96, 43–50 (2009).

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).

Strüber, C. S.

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Sukegawa, T.

Svoboda, V.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).

Tehlar, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Telnov, D. A.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

Thumm, U.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Timmers, H.

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

Tong, X.-M.

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

Tronct, M.

G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).

Volkov, M.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

von Conta, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wang, X.

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

Watanabe, S.

Watson, W. S.

J. Lang and W. S. Watson, “The photoabsorption coefficients of krypton and xenon from 48 Å to 210 Å,” J. Phys. B 8(14), L339–L343 (1975).

Weger, M.

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

West, J. B.

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 349, 397–421 (1976).

Whitmore, D.

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Winkler, G.

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wörner, H. J.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

Wu, Y.

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yabana, K.

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Yuan, J.

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zeng, J.

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.-H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, D.

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

Zhao, Z.

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

Zimmer, D.

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181919 (2006).

O. Kwon and D. Kim, “PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 191112 (2016).

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Ultrafast soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-20-fs resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121919 (2007).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, and C. Spielmann, “Time resolved spectroscopy with femtosecond soft-x-ray pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96, 43–50 (2009).

Appl. Sci. (1)

I. J. Afa and C. Serrat, “Quantum Control of Population Transfer and Vibrational States via Chirped Pulses in Four Level Density Matrix Equations,” Appl. Sci. 6, 351 (2016).

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M.-F. Lin, A. N. Pfeiffer, D. M. Neumark, S. R. Leone, and O. Gessner, “Strong-field induced XUV transmission and multiplet splitting in 4d-16p core-excited Xe studied by femtosecond XUV transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 137(24), 244305 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Seres and C. Spielmann, “Time-resolved optical pump X-ray absorption probe spectroscopy in the range up to 1 keV with 20 fs resolution,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2643–2651 (2008).

J. Phys. B (3)

G. C. King, M. Tronct, F. H. Read, and R. C. Bradford, “An investigation of the structure near the L2,3 edges of argon, the M4,5 edges of krypton and the N4,5 edges of xenon, using electron impact with high resolution,” J. Phys. B 10(12), 2479–2495 (1977).

J. Lang and W. S. Watson, “The photoabsorption coefficients of krypton and xenon from 48 Å to 210 Å,” J. Phys. B 8(14), L339–L343 (1975).

M. Wu, S. Chen, S. Camp, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Theory of strong- field attosecond transient absorption,” J. Phys. B 49, 062003 (2016).

Nat. Phys. (2)

J. Seres, E. Seres, D. Hochhaus, B. Ecker, D. Zimmer, V. Bagnoud, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Laser-driven amplification of soft X-rays by parametric stimulated emission in neutral gases,” Nat. Phys. 6, 455–461 (2010).

M. Sabbar, H. Timmers, Y.-J. Chen, A. K. Pymer, Z.-H. Loh, S. G. Sayres, S. Pabst, R. Santra, and S. R. Leone, “State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields,” Nat. Phys. 13, 472–478 (2017).

Nature (2)

C. Ott, A. Kaldun, L. Argenti, P. Raith, K. Meyer, M. Laux, Y. Zhang, A. Blättermann, S. Hagstotz, T. Ding, R. Heck, J. Madroñero, F. Martín, and T. Pfeifer, “Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet,” Nature 516(7531), 374–378 (2014).
[PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

E. R. Simpson, A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. R. Austin, Z. Diveki, S. E. E. Hutchinson, T. Siegel, M. Ruberti, V. Averbukh, L. Miseikis, C. S. Strüber, L. Chipperfield, and J. P. Marangos, “Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold,” New J. Phys. 18, 083032 (2016).

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (10)

M. Reduzzi, J. Hummert, A. Dubrouil, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, S. Chen, M. Wu, M. B. Gaarde, K. Schafer, and G. Sansone, “Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033408 (2015).

X. Wang, M. Chini, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, X.-M. Tong, and Z. Chang, “Subcycle laser control and quantum interferences in attosecond photoabsorption of neon,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063413 (2013).

Y. Cheng, M. Chini, X. Wang, A. Gonzalez-Castrillo, A. Palacios, L. Argenti, F. Martın, and Z. Chang, “Reconstruction of an excited-state molecular wave packet with attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 94, 023403 (2016).

A. N. Pfeiffer and S. R. Leone, “Transmission of an isolated attosecond pulse in a strong-field dressed atom,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 053422 (2012).

Y. Kobayashi, H. Timmers, M. Sabbar, S. R. Leone, and D. M. Neumark, “Attosecond transient-absorption dynamics of xenon core-excited states in a strong driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 95, 031401(R) (2017).

E. R. Hosler and S. R. Leone, “Characterization of vibrational wave packets by core-level high-harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 023420 (2013).

O. Sairanen, A. Kivimäki, E. Nõmmiste, H. Aksela, and S. Aksela, “High-resolution pre-edge structure in the inner-shell ionization threshold region of rare gases Xe, Kr, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 2834–2839 (1996).
[PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, C. Buth, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Transient absorption and reshaping of ultrafast XUV light by laser-dressed helium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 013419 (2011).

J. Herrmann, M. Weger, R. Locher, M. Sabbar, P. Riviere, U. Saalmann, J.-M. Rost, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Virtual single-photon transition interrupted: Time-gated optical gain and loss,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 043843 (2013).

D. Bauer and P. Mulser, “Exact field ionization rates in the barrier-suppression regime from numerical time-dependent Schrodinger-equation calculations,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 569–577 (1999).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

E. Seres, J. Seres, C. Serrat, and S. Namba, “Core-level attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of laser-dressed solid films of Si and Zr,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 165125 (2016).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond Time-Resolved Autoionization of Argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. (1)

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 349, 397–421 (1976).

Sci. Rep. (4)

Y. Li, C. Gao, W. Dong, J. Zeng, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Coherence and resonance effects in the ultra-intense laser-induced ultrafast response of complex atoms,” Sci. Rep. 6, 18529 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4234 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Chini, X. Wang, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, D. Zhao, D. A. Telnov, S.-I. Chu, and Z. Chang, “Sub-cycle Oscillations in Virtual States Brought to Light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1105 (2013).

J. Seres, E. Seres, B. Landgraf, B. Ecker, B. Aurand, A. Hoffmann, G. Winkler, S. Namba, T. Kuehl, and C. Spielmann, “Parametric amplification of attosecond pulse trains at 11 nm,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4254 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (5)

M. Lucchini, S. A. Sato, A. Ludwig, J. Herrmann, M. Volkov, L. Kasmi, Y. Shinohara, K. Yabana, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect in polycrystalline diamond,” Science 353(6302), 916–919 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Schultze, K. Ramasesha, C. D. Pemmaraju, S. A. Sato, D. Whitmore, A. Gandman, J. S. Prell, L. J. Borja, D. Prendergast, K. Yabana, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast dynamics. Attosecond band-gap dynamics in silicon,” Science 346(6215), 1348–1352 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright Coherent Ultrahigh Harmonics in the keV X-ray Regime from Mid-Infrared Femtosecond Lasers,” Science 336(6086), 1287–1291 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. R. Attar, A. Bhattacherjee, C. D. Pemmaraju, K. Schnorr, K. D. Closser, D. Prendergast, and S. R. Leone, “Femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy of an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction,” Science 356(6333), 54–59 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017).
[PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) In the experimental setup, a concentric mirror pair focused the inner and outer parts of the laser beam to two longitudinally separated gas jets, the first used to generate the HHG probe beam and the second used to perform pump/probe measurement of Kr. The insets show the measured beam profiles of the XUV beam and pump laser beam. (b) The high harmonic spectrum generated for probe covered the spectral range from about 70 eV to 230 eV. (c) The average transmission change (ΔT) along a delay scan shows the two spectral ranges where the effect on the Kr gas was observed, namely between 85 and 100 eV and 205-230 eV. (d) Within these spectral ranges two laser dressed transitions: the transition from 3p3/2 to the dressed 5s1/2 at 210.4 eV and the transition from 3d5/2 to the dressed 5p3/2 at 91.3 eV furthermore (e) beating between 3p and 3d sublevels were examined. The few occupied (solid lines) and unoccupied (dashed lines) states of the krypton atom being within our interest are given.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beat signals were calculated from the measurements by applying a Fourier window on the (a), (b) 0.3 PHz beat frequency in the case of 3d levels and (c), (d) on the 2 PHz beat frequency for 3p levels at laser intensities of (a), (c) 4 × 1013 W/cm2 and (b), (d) 8 × 1013 W/cm2. In panels (e) and (f), the delay dependence of the transmission changes were compared at two nearby photon energies at the 3p1/2 – 5s-1/2 transition at around 218.2 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated XUV transmission change [T-1, see Eq. (4)] of the (upper row) 3d−15p and (lower row) 3p−15s dressed transitions at intensities of (a, d) 4 × 1013, (b, e) 1 × 1014 and (c, f) 6 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Femtosecond dynamics of the dressed Kr was resolved at laser intensity of 6 × 1014 W/cm2. The measurements showed strong transmission change around zero delay at the core transitions of (a) 3p−15s at 210.4 eV noted with white dashed lines, (c) at 3d−15p and 3d−16p transitions between 91.3 eV and 92.6 eV. The dashed frames show the windows where higher resolution measurements were performed. (b), (d) Comparison of the theoretical calculations (thin lines) with the measurements (thick lines) gave good agreement for both spectral ranges. The curves were shifted vertically for better visibility. Black dashed lines note the shape of the laser pulse used for the calculations. The measured transmission changes are given in arbitrary unit in this and every later figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b) The 2D Fourier transform of the modelled and the measured 2D spectra-delay data sets (normalized), for the (a), (c) 3d−15p and (b), (d) 3p−15s transitions, show the peaks of the laser (black arrows) dressing and (yellow arrow) the beating. (c), (d) Averaged Fourier spectra of the (orange/light-blue) measurement and (red/blue) calculation. Possible transitions are noted with arrows where beating can be observed from 3d and 3p levels, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Attosecond dynamics of the dressed Kr was resolved at laser intensity of 6 × 1014 W/cm2. The measurements and calculations of (a), (c) 3d−15p and (b), (d) 3p−15s dressed transitions showed the fast transmission change caused by the electric field of the dressing laser pulse beyond the slow change. (e), (f) At certain photon energies, the comparison of the measurements and the calculations shows very good agreements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Attosecond dynamics of the dressed Kr was resolved at laser intensity of (a) 8 × 1013 W/cm2 at 3d−15p and (c) 4 × 1013 W/cm2 at 3p−15s transitions. In panels (b) and (d), the delay dependence of the transmission changes were compared at two nearby photon energies.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Attosecond dynamics of the dressed Kr was resolved at laser intensity of 8 × 1013 W/cm2. The calculations (a), (c) and measurements (b), (d) of (a), (b) 3d−15p and (c), (d) 3p−15s dressed transitions showed the dense periodic change of the transmission caused by the electric field of the dressing laser pulse. The split of the absorption lines and the appearance of the dressed states are highlighted with black dashed lines.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Attosecond dynamics of the dressed Kr is plotted (light colors) at four laser intensities of the calculation and (dark colors) two intensities of the measurement at few photon energies. For better visibility, the curves were shifted vertically with integers in the case of the calculations and with half-integers in the case of the measurements.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ ˙ 22 =i E ¯ [ μ 23 ( ρ 23 ρ 32 )+ μ 24 ( ρ 24 ρ 42 ) ] ρ ˙ 33 =i E ¯ [ μ 13 ( ρ 13 ρ 31 )+ μ 23 ( ρ 23 ρ 32 ) ] ρ ˙ 44 =i E ¯ [ μ 14 ( ρ 14 ρ 41 )+ μ 24 ( ρ 24 ρ 42 ) ] ρ ˙ 11 = ρ ˙ 22 ρ ˙ 33 ρ ˙ 44 ρ ˙ 12 =i ω 12 ρ 12 +i E ¯ [ μ 13 ρ 32 μ 23 ρ 13 + μ 14 ρ 42 μ 24 ρ 14 ] ρ ˙ 13 =i ω 13 ρ 13 +i E ¯ [ μ 13 ( ρ 33 ρ 11 )+ μ 14 ρ 43 μ 23 ρ 12 ] ρ ˙ 14 =i ω 14 ρ 14 +i E ¯ [ μ 14 ( ρ 44 ρ 11 )+ μ 24 ρ 12 μ 13 ρ 34 ] ρ ˙ 23 =i ω 23 ρ 23 +i E ¯ [ μ 23 ( ρ 33 ρ 22 )+ μ 24 ρ 43 μ 13 ρ 21 ] ρ ˙ 24 =i ω 24 ρ 24 +i E ¯ [ μ 24 ( ρ 44 ρ 22 )+ μ 23 ρ 34 μ 14 ρ 21 ] ρ ˙ 34 =i ω 34 ρ 34 +i E ¯ [ μ 13 ρ 14 μ 14 ρ 31 + μ 23 ρ 24 μ 24 ρ 32 ]
E(t)= E IR e 2ln2 (t/ t IR ) 2 cos( ω IR t)+ E XUV e 2ln2 [ (t t 0 )/ t XUV ] 2 cos[ ω XUV (t t 0 ) ]
P=2[ μ 13 Re( ρ 13 )+ μ 14 Re( ρ 14 ) ].
T=exp[ 4πωNL c Im( P ˜ (ω) E ˜ XUV (ω) ) ],
ΔT I 0 (τ) cos 2 (2π ν 0 τ) cos 4 ( 2π ν B τ ),
ΔT I 0 (τ)[ 1+cos(4π ν 0 τ) ][ 3+4cos( 4π ν B τ )+cos( 8π ν B τ ) ].