Abstract

Generation of nonclassical light is an essential tool for quantum optics research and applications in quantum information technology. We present realization of the source of nonclassically correlated photon pairs based on the process of spontaneous four-wave-mixing in warm atomic vapor. Atoms are excited only by a single laser beam in retro-reflected configuration and narrowband frequency filtering is employed for selection of correlated photon pairs. Nonclassicality of generated light fields is proved by analysis of their statistical properties. Measured parameters of the presented source promise further applicability for efficient interaction with atomic ensembles.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

X. Chu, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “A single molecule as a high-fidelity photon gun for producing intensity-squeezed light,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 58–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, X. Guo, C. Shu, H. Jeong, and S. Du, “Bright narrowband biphoton generation from a hot rubidium atomic vapor cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 161101 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wolters, G. Buser, A. Horsley, L. Beguin, A. Jöckel, J.-P. Jahn, R. J. Warburton, and P. Treutlein, “Simple atomic quantum memory suitable for semiconductor quantum dot single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

Y. S. Lee, S. M. Lee, H. Kim, and H. S. Moon, “Highly bright photon-pair generation in Doppler-broadened ladder-type atomic system,” Opt. Express 24(24), 28083–28091 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Shu, P. Chen, T. K. A. Chow, L. Zhu, Y. Xiao, M.M.T. Loy, and S. Du, “Subnatural-linewidth biphotons from a Doppler-broadened hot atomic vapour cell,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rambach, A. Nikolova, T. J. Weinhold, and A. G. White, “Sub-megahertz single photon source,” Appl. Photonics 1(9), 096101 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. B. Higginbottom, L. Slodička, G. Araneda, L. Lachman, R. Filip, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Pure single photons from a trapped atom source,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093038 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Farrera, G. Heinze, B. Albrecht, M. Ho, M. Chávez, C. Teo, N. Sangouard, and H. de Riedmatten, “Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic ensemble,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13556 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

R. Albrecht, A. Bommer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and C. Becher, “Coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a fiber-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(24), 243602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeater based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(1), 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. T. Willis, F. E. Becerra, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Correlated photon pairs generated from a warm atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053842 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

B. Blauensteiner, I. Herbauts, S. Bettelli, A. Poppe, and H. Hübel, “Photon bunching in parametric down-conversion with continuous-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063846 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Mercadier, W. Guerin, M. Chevrollier, and R. Kaiser, “Lévy flights of photons in hot atomic vapours,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 602–605 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Q.-F. Chen, B.-S. Shi, M. Feng, Y.-S. Zhang, and G.-C. Guo, “Non-degenerate nonclassical photon pairs in a hot atomic ensemble,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21708–21713 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 183603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and J. G. Rarity, “High brightness single mode source of correlated photon pairs using a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7572–7582 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, “Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, “Deterministic single-photon source for distributed quantum networking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(6), 067901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. W. Mitchell, C. I. Hancox, and R. Y. Chiao, “Dynamics of atom-mediated photon-photon scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 62(4), 043819 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

B. Yurke and M. Potasek, “Obtainment of thermal noise from a pure quantum state,” Phys. Rev. A,  36(7), 3464–3466 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences,” Europhys. Lett. 1(4), 173 (1986).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, B.

P. Farrera, G. Heinze, B. Albrecht, M. Ho, M. Chávez, C. Teo, N. Sangouard, and H. de Riedmatten, “Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic ensemble,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13556 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albrecht, R.

R. Albrecht, A. Bommer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and C. Becher, “Coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a fiber-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(24), 243602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alibart, O.

Almeida, M. P.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

André, A.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antón, C.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Araneda, G.

D. B. Higginbottom, L. Slodička, G. Araneda, L. Lachman, R. Filip, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Pure single photons from a trapped atom source,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aspect, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences,” Europhys. Lett. 1(4), 173 (1986).
[Crossref]

Auffeves, A.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Becerra, F. E.

R. T. Willis, F. E. Becerra, L. A. Orozco, and S. L. Rolston, “Correlated photon pairs generated from a warm atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. A 82(5), 053842 (2010).
[Crossref]

Becher, C.

R. Albrecht, A. Bommer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and C. Becher, “Coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a fiber-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(24), 243602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beguin, L.

J. Wolters, G. Buser, A. Horsley, L. Beguin, A. Jöckel, J.-P. Jahn, R. J. Warburton, and P. Treutlein, “Simple atomic quantum memory suitable for semiconductor quantum dot single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belthangady, C.

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 183603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettelli, S.

B. Blauensteiner, I. Herbauts, S. Bettelli, A. Poppe, and H. Hübel, “Photon bunching in parametric down-conversion with continuous-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063846 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blatt, R.

D. B. Higginbottom, L. Slodička, G. Araneda, L. Lachman, R. Filip, M. Hennrich, and R. Blatt, “Pure single photons from a trapped atom source,” New J. Phys. 18(9), 093038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

B. Blauensteiner, I. Herbauts, S. Bettelli, A. Poppe, and H. Hübel, “Photon bunching in parametric down-conversion with continuous-wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. A 79(6), 063846 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bommer, A.

R. Albrecht, A. Bommer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and C. Becher, “Coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a fiber-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(24), 243602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brecht, B.

K. T. Kaczmarek, P. M. Ledingham, B. Brecht, S. E. Thomas, G. S. Thekkadath, O. Lazo-Arjona, J. H. D. Munns, E. Poem, A. Feizpour, D. J. Saunders, J. Nunn, and I. A. Walmsley, “A room-temperature noise-free quantum memory for broadband light,” arXiv:1704.00013 (2017).

Buser, G.

J. Wolters, G. Buser, A. Horsley, L. Beguin, A. Jöckel, J.-P. Jahn, R. J. Warburton, and P. Treutlein, “Simple atomic quantum memory suitable for semiconductor quantum dot single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(6), 060502 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chávez, M.

P. Farrera, G. Heinze, B. Albrecht, M. Ho, M. Chávez, C. Teo, N. Sangouard, and H. de Riedmatten, “Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic ensemble,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13556 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

C. Shu, P. Chen, T. K. A. Chow, L. Zhu, Y. Xiao, M.M.T. Loy, and S. Du, “Subnatural-linewidth biphotons from a Doppler-broadened hot atomic vapour cell,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.-F.

Chevrollier, M.

N. Mercadier, W. Guerin, M. Chevrollier, and R. Kaiser, “Lévy flights of photons in hot atomic vapours,” Nat. Phys. 5(8), 602–605 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiao, R. Y.

M. W. Mitchell, C. I. Hancox, and R. Y. Chiao, “Dynamics of atom-mediated photon-photon scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 62(4), 043819 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, S. V. Polyakov, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, “Single-photon generation from stored excitation in an atomic ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(21), 213601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, T. K. A.

C. Shu, P. Chen, T. K. A. Chow, L. Zhu, Y. Xiao, M.M.T. Loy, and S. Du, “Subnatural-linewidth biphotons from a Doppler-broadened hot atomic vapour cell,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, X.

X. Chu, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “A single molecule as a high-fidelity photon gun for producing intensity-squeezed light,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 58–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J. I.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

P. Farrera, G. Heinze, B. Albrecht, M. Ho, M. Chávez, C. Teo, N. Sangouard, and H. de Riedmatten, “Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic ensemble,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13556 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeater based on atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(1), 33–80 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Santis, L.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Demory, J.

N. Somaschi, V. Giesz, L. De Santis, J. C. Loredo, M. P. Almeida, G. Hornecker, S. L. Portalupi, T. Grange, C. Antón, J. Demory, C. Gómez, I. Sagnes, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, A. Lemaítre, A. Auffeves, A. G. White, L. Lanco, and P. Senellart, “Near-optimal single-photon sources in the solid state,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 340–345 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, C.

R. Albrecht, A. Bommer, C. Deutsch, J. Reichel, and C. Becher, “Coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond to a fiber-based microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(24), 243602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, D. S.

Du, S.

L. Zhu, X. Guo, C. Shu, H. Jeong, and S. Du, “Bright narrowband biphoton generation from a hot rubidium atomic vapor cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 161101 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shu, P. Chen, T. K. A. Chow, L. Zhu, Y. Xiao, M.M.T. Loy, and S. Du, “Subnatural-linewidth biphotons from a Doppler-broadened hot atomic vapour cell,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12783 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(18), 183603 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kolchin, S. Du, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of narrow-bandwidth paired photons: use of a single driving laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(11), 113602 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, L. M.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438(7069), 837–841 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrera, P.

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Appl. Photonics (1)

M. Rambach, A. Nikolova, T. J. Weinhold, and A. G. White, “Sub-megahertz single photon source,” Appl. Photonics 1(9), 096101 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Zhu, X. Guo, C. Shu, H. Jeong, and S. Du, “Bright narrowband biphoton generation from a hot rubidium atomic vapor cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 161101 (2017).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

P. Farrera, G. Heinze, B. Albrecht, M. Ho, M. Chávez, C. Teo, N. Sangouard, and H. de Riedmatten, “Generation of single photons with highly tunable wave shape from a cold atomic ensemble,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13556 (2016).
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X. Chu, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “A single molecule as a high-fidelity photon gun for producing intensity-squeezed light,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 58–62 (2017).
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K. T. Kaczmarek, P. M. Ledingham, B. Brecht, S. E. Thomas, G. S. Thekkadath, O. Lazo-Arjona, J. H. D. Munns, E. Poem, A. Feizpour, D. J. Saunders, J. Nunn, and I. A. Walmsley, “A room-temperature noise-free quantum memory for broadband light,” arXiv:1704.00013 (2017).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The employed experimental setup and energy level scheme. Laser beam with frequency locked to resonance with the |e〉 ↔ |a2〉 transition passes polarization beam splitter (PBS) and excites 87Rb atoms in retro-reflected configuration. Its focus position is set precisely to coincide with the mirror plane (M1). The photons emitted under small angle from the spatial region close to the cell back-face are polarization and frequency filtered using pairs of Glan-Thompson polarizers (G-T) and Fabry-Pérot etalons (FP). The lenses (L1, L2) select and collimate the generated photons to optimize their coupling into opposite single-mode fibers (SMF) which guide them to the detection setups consisting of single photon detectors (APDs).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Second order correlation function between Stokes and anti-Stokes optical fields g S , A S ( 2 ) ( τ ). The inset shows the second-order correlations on individual Stokes g S , S ( 2 ) ( τ ) (blue circles) and anti-Stokes g A S , A S ( 2 ) ( τ ) (yellow squares) modes. The error bars are too small to be visible on the scales of the presented plots. b) Measured power dependence of the second order correlations g S , A S ( 2 ) ( τ ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured rates of Stokes and anti-Stokes singles and coincidences detections as a function of power a) and optical density b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured conditional correlation function g C ( 2 ) ( τ ). The error bars correspond to a single standard deviation.