Abstract

We present a three-layer silicon nitride on silicon platform for constructing very large photonic integrated circuits. Efficient interlayer transitions are enabled by the close spacing between adjacent layers, while ultra-low-loss crossings are enabled by the large spacing between the topmost and bottommost layers. We demonstrate interlayer taper transitions with losses < 0.15 dB for wavelengths spanning from 1480 nm to 1620 nm. Our overpass waveguide crossings exhibit insertion loss < 2.1 mdB and crosstalk below −56 dB in the wavelength range between 1480 nm and 1620 nm with losses as low as 0.28 mdB. Our platform architecture is suited to meet the demands of large-scale photonic circuits which contain hundreds of crossings.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Shao, Y. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Zhang, F. Zhang, J. Jian, Z. Fan, L. Liu, C. Yang, L. Zhou, and S. Yu, “Ultra-low temperature silicon nitride photonic integration platform,” Opt. Express 24, 1865–1872 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (4)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

1987 (1)

Abediasl, H.

Amemiya, T.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aroca, R. A.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21, 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Baets, R.

Baeyens, Y.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barton, J.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” in “Advanced Photonics 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013). IT2A.4.
[Crossref]

Belt, M.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” in “Advanced Photonics 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013). IT2A.4.
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Bernier, E.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Blumenthal, D.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” in “Advanced Photonics 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013). IT2A.4.
[Crossref]

Bock, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bois, A.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Buckley, S.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cappuzzo, M.

Celo, D.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Cheben, P.

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

L. Chen and Y. Chen, “Compact, low-loss and low-power 8×8 broadband silicon optical switch,” Opt. Express 20, 18977–18985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Y.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiles, J.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

DeRose, C.

Ding, R.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21, 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Doerr, C. R.

L. Chen, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically Integrated 40-Wavelength Demultiplexer and Photodetector Array on Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869–871 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dumais, P.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Dumon, P.

Earnshaw, M.

Fan, Z.

Ferrari, C.

Fontaine, N. K.

Geng, D.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Goodwill, D.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Goodwill, D. J.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Gould, M.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Guan, B.

Guo-Qiang Lo, P.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hall, T.

Han, S.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with MEMS-actuated adiabatic couplers,” in “2015 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC),” (2015). Paper M2B.4.

Hashemi, H.

Hayashi, Y.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Henry, C. H.

Hochberg, M.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21, 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Hojo, N.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hossein, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hossein, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, A.

Hu, X.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Huffman, T.

R. Moreira, J. Barton, M. Belt, T. Huffman, and D. Blumenthal, “Optical interconnect for 3D integration of ultra-low loss planar lightwave circuits,” in “Advanced Photonics 2013,” (Optical Society of America, 2013). IT2A.4.
[Crossref]

Ikeda, K.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Janz, S.

Jeong, J.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Jian, J.

Jiang, J.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Jones, A.

Katz, L. E.

Kawashima, H.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

Kazarinov, R. F.

Keller, B.

Klemens, F.

Konoike, R.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

Kuno, Y.

K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.

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Li, Q.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

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Lim, A. E. J.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

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X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
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D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

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Y. Liu, J. Shainline, X. Zeng, and M. A. Popović, “Ultra-low-loss CMOS-compatible waveguide crossing arrays based on multimode Bloch waves and imaginary coupling,” Opt. Lett. 39, 335–338 (2014).
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Lo, G.

Lo, G. Q.

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platforms and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 901–910 (2015).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Luo, X.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
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W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21, 29374–29382 (2013).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Mak, J. C. C.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Matsuura, H.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

Mehrvar, H.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

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J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
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J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
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J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
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K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

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K. Itoh, Y. Kuno, Y. Hayashi, J. Suzuki, N. Hojo, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Crystalline/Amorphous Si Integrated Optical Couplers for 2D/3D Interconnection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 255–263 (2016).
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Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21, 29374–29382 (2013).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Orlowsky, K. J.

Padmaraju, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

Pathak, S.

Poon, J. K. S.

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platforms and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 901–910 (2015).
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W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

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Qin, C.

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T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with MEMS-actuated adiabatic couplers,” in “2015 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC),” (2015). Paper M2B.4.

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W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, G. Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platforms and devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 901–910 (2015).
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W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

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Scott, R. P.

Seok, T. J.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with MEMS-actuated adiabatic couplers,” in “2015 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC),” (2015). Paper M2B.4.

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Shainline, J. M.

J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
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Shao, Z.

Song, J.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
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Su, T.

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K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hossein, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
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Tu, X.

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Wang, H.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
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X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hossein, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
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D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

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T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with MEMS-actuated adiabatic couplers,” in “2015 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC),” (2015). Paper M2B.4.

Xu, D.

Xu, X.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hossein, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
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Yan, S.

D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

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Yang, S.

Yang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

Yong, Z.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

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Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, M.

X. Luo, Y. Cao, J. Song, X. Hu, Y. Cheng, C. Li, C. Liu, T. Y. Liow, M. Yu, H. Wang, Q. J. Wang, and P. Guo-Qiang Lo, “High-throughput multiple dies-to-wafer bonding technology and III/V-on-Si hybrid lasers for heterogeneous integration of optoelectronic integrated circuits,” Frontiers in Materials 2, 1–21 (2015).
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D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

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Zhang, Y.

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D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

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J. Chiles, S. Buckley, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. M. Shainline, “Multi-planar amorphous silicon photonics with compact interplanar couplers, cross talk mitigation, and low crossing loss,” APL Photonics 2, 116101 (2017).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. J. Lim, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in “10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics,” (2013), pp. 7–8.

W. D. Sacher, Z. Yong, J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, Y. Yang, J. C. C. Mak, P. Dumais, D. Goodwill, C. Ma, J. Jeong, E. Bernier, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multilayer silicon nitride-on-silicon integrated photonic platform for 3D photonic circuits,” in “2016 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO),” (2016), pp. 1–2.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Ultralow-Crosstalk and Broadband Multi-Port Optical Switch Using SiN/Si Double-Layer Platform,” in “Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC),” (2017), PDP3.

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D. Celo, D. J. Goodwill, J. Jiang, P. Dumais, C. Zhang, F. Zhao, X. Tu, C. Zhang, S. Yan, J. He, M. Li, W. Liu, Y. Wei, D. Geng, H. Mehrvar, and E. Bernier, “32×32 silicon photonic switch,” in “2016 21st OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) held jointly with 2016 International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS),” (2016). Paper WF1-4.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the proposed three layer SiN-on-Si platform with the thicknesses labelled. SiN1 refers to the lower SiN layer, and SiN2 refers to the upper SiN layer. The buried oxide thickness is 2 µm. (b) Illustration of adiabatic interlayer transitions in the platform for transferring light between the three layers. (c) Illustration of low-loss waveguide crossings in the platform, in which SiN2 waveguides pass over Si rib waveguides with a contiguous partially etched Si slab. (d),(e): X-TEM images of (d) a fabricated SiN1 waveguide atop a Si waveguide and (e) a fabricated SiN2 waveguide atop a SiN1 waveguide in the platform.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Top-down schematics of the Si-SiN1 and SiN1-SiN2 interlayer transitions. Mode intensity profiles of the fundamental TE mode at a 1550 nm wavelength are shown at multiple points along the transitions. (b) 3D-FDTD simulated insertion loss (IL) of the interlayer transitions for the TE polarization.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Top-down schematic view of overpass and underpass waveguide crossings using the Si and SiN2 layers. (b) Simulated overpass and underpass crossing insertion loss (IL) for the TE-polarization with and without the Si slab layer (i.e., using partially-etched Si rib waveguides versus fully-etched Si strip waveguides); < 1 mdB crossing losses are achieved for both overpass and underpass crossings when using partially-etched Si rib waveguides.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured TE propagation loss for SiN1 and SiN2 single-mode waveguides in the SCL-bands. Inset: Cutback measurement for a SiN1 single-mode waveguide for TE-polarized light at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Optical micrograph of the three-layer transitions. (b) Cutback measurement for the SiN1-SiN2 interlayer transition for the TE polarization at a 1550 nm wavelength. (c),(d): Interlayer transition loss spectra for the (c) TE and (d) TM polarizations. (e),(f): TE interlayer transition loss spectra of multiple dies from the same wafer for (e) Si-SiN1 and (f) SiN1-SiN2 transitions. Die 1 refers to the die measured in (a)–(d), and unless otherwise stated, all other measurements in this paper refer to die 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a),(b) TE and (c),(d) TM insertion loss spectra for (a),(c) Si-SiN1 and (b),(d) SiN1-SiN2 interlayer transitions for lithographically defined −60 nm, 0 nm, and +60 nm interlayer offsets. Offsets are defined relative to the SiN1 layer and are in the direction perpendicular to the optical propagation axis.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Optical micrograph of a portion of an overpass crossing cutback structure. (b) TE overpass crossing loss measurements for multiple dies from the same wafer; the overpasses used a 1.5 µm SiN2 width. (c),(d): Die 1 overpass crossing losses for the (c) TE and (d) TM polarizations; overpass losses with 0.9 µm and 1.5 µm SiN2 widths are shown. (e),(f): TE cutback measurements for a 1.5 µm SiN2 width for (e) dies 2 and 4 at a wavelength of 1550 nm and (f) die 4 at a wavelength of 1582.76 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Extracted overpass and underpass crosstalk per crossing for the (a) TE and (b) TM polarizations.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance comparison of waveguide crossings (TE polarization)

Equations (1)

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T S i N 2 S i = η S i N 2 η S i N κ S i N 2 S i ,

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