Abstract

Determining the complete optical behavior of anisotropic samples using ptychography is always a difficult problem. We propose a novel birefringence measurement method based on mixed-state ptychography that can simultaneously obtain the azimuth angle and retardation of anisotropic samples in a single scan. By using a reference system transformation, the two mutually orthogonal object states are unambiguously retrieved, and their errors are greatly reduced. The normalized root mean square errors of the obtained azimuth angle and retardation are 0.0011 and 0.0041, respectively. This method offers more rapid data acquisition; compared to interferometric based methods, it has the advantages of unlimited field of view and a simpler, more stable setup. Further, it opens a new possibility for investigating anisotropic samples by means of mixed-state ptychography.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

L. Cheng, Y. Li, Y. Liang, H. Liang, and B. Guan, “Pump induced birefringence in dual-polarization fiber grating lasers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(6), 060602 (2017).

J. Hagemann and T. Salditt, “Reconstructing mode mixtures in the optical near-field,” Opt. Express 25(13), 13973–13989 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

H. Tao, S. P. Veetil, X. Pan, C. Liu, and J. Zhu, “Lens-free coherent modulation imaging with collimated illumination,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14(7), 071203 (2016).

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, K. A. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10013, 1001331 (2016).

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

H. Y. Wang, C. Liu, S. P. Veetil, X. C. Pan, and J. Q. Zhu, “Measurement of the complex transmittance of large optical elements with Ptychographical Iterative Engine,” Opt. Express 22(2), 2159–2166 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39 (2014).

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

2013 (5)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography--a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369 (2013).
[PubMed]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. L. B. Kramer, M. Mello, G. Ravichandran, and K. Bhattacharya, “Phase shifting full-field interferometric methods for determination of in-plane tensorial stress,” Exp. Mech. 49, 303–315 (2009).

2008 (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Yoneyama, Y. Morimoto, and M. Kawamura, “Two-dimensional stress separation using phase-stepping interferometric photoelasticity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1329 (2005).

2004 (1)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Determination of isoclinic and isochromatic parameters using the three-load method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(5), 532 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[PubMed]

1941 (1)

Abbey, B.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, K. A. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10013, 1001331 (2016).

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

Adams, D.

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39 (2014).

Allain, M.

Anthony, N.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, K. A. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10013, 1001331 (2016).

Aquila, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Asundi, A.

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Determination of isoclinic and isochromatic parameters using the three-load method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(5), 532 (2000).

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Phase-shifting method with a normal polariscope,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 5931–5935 (1999).
[PubMed]

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bean, R.

Berenguer, F.

Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bhattacharya, K.

S. L. B. Kramer, M. Mello, G. Ravichandran, and K. Bhattacharya, “Phase shifting full-field interferometric methods for determination of in-plane tensorial stress,” Exp. Mech. 49, 303–315 (2009).

Boay, C. G.

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Determination of isoclinic and isochromatic parameters using the three-load method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(5), 532 (2000).

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Phase-shifting method with a normal polariscope,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 5931–5935 (1999).
[PubMed]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Cadenazzi, G.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, K. A. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10013, 1001331 (2016).

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chamard, V.

Chen, B.

Cheng, L.

Claus, D.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cloetens, P.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

Cullis, A. G.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Diaz, A.

Dierolf, M.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dobson, B. R.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Enders, B.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ferrand, P.

Galloway, B. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

Gardner, D.

Gardner, D. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39 (2014).

Gianoncelli, A.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

Giewekemeyer, K.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Gruner, S. M.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Guan, B.

Hagemann, J.

Horstmeyer, R.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[PubMed]

Humphry, M. J.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14690 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2585–2587 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hurst, A. C.

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Huwald, E.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Johnson, I.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Jones, R. C.

Jr, R. K.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39 (2014).

Karl, R.

Kaulich, B.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kawamura, M.

S. Yoneyama, Y. Morimoto, and M. Kawamura, “Two-dimensional stress separation using phase-stepping interferometric photoelasticity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1329 (2005).

Kirkwood, H.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kramer, S. L. B.

S. L. B. Kramer, M. Mello, G. Ravichandran, and K. Bhattacharya, “Phase shifting full-field interferometric methods for determination of in-plane tensorial stress,” Exp. Mech. 49, 303–315 (2009).

Kraus, B.

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liang, H.

Liang, Y.

Liu, C.

Lopez-Rios, R.

Maiden, A. M.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14690 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2585–2587 (2010).
[PubMed]

Mancini, G. F.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mancuso, A. P.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Marriott, P.

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography--a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369 (2013).
[PubMed]

Marrison, J.

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography--a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mello, M.

S. L. B. Kramer, M. Mello, G. Ravichandran, and K. Bhattacharya, “Phase shifting full-field interferometric methods for determination of in-plane tensorial stress,” Exp. Mech. 49, 303–315 (2009).

Menzel, A.

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

Morimoto, Y.

S. Yoneyama, Y. Morimoto, and M. Kawamura, “Two-dimensional stress separation using phase-stepping interferometric photoelasticity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1329 (2005).

Morrison, G. R.

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39 (2014).

Nugent, K.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, K. A. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10013, 1001331 (2016).

O’Toole, P.

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography--a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369 (2013).
[PubMed]

Oldenbourg, R.

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[PubMed]

Osterhoff, M.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pan, X.

Pan, X. C.

Peterson, I.

Pfeiffer, F.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Philipp, H. T.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Porter, C.

Porter, C. L.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

Räty, L.

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography--a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ravichandran, G.

S. L. B. Kramer, M. Mello, G. Ravichandran, and K. Bhattacharya, “Phase shifting full-field interferometric methods for determination of in-plane tensorial stress,” Exp. Mech. 49, 303–315 (2009).

Reichanadter, J.

Robinson, I. K.

Rodenburg, J. M.

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, F. Berenguer, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2585–2587 (2010).
[PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[PubMed]

Salditt, T.

J. Hagemann and T. Salditt, “Reconstructing mode mixtures in the optical near-field,” Opt. Express 25(13), 13973–13989 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Salmon, E. D.

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[PubMed]

Sarahan, M. C.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14690 (2015).
[PubMed]

Schramm, S. M.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14690 (2015).
[PubMed]

Seaberg, M. D.

Shanblatt, E.

Shanblatt, E. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39 (2014).

Shanks, K. S.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Stagg, M. D.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14690 (2015).
[PubMed]

Stockmar, M.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

Tanksalvala, M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

R. Karl, C. Bevis, R. Lopez-Rios, J. Reichanadter, D. Gardner, C. Porter, E. Shanblatt, M. Tanksalvala, G. F. Mancini, M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, and D. Adams, “Spatial, spectral, and polarization multiplexed ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30250–30258 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tao, H.

Tate, M. W.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Thibault, P.

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

Tong, L.

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Determination of isoclinic and isochromatic parameters using the three-load method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(5), 532 (2000).

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Phase-shifting method with a normal polariscope,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 5931–5935 (1999).
[PubMed]

Tran, P. T.

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[PubMed]

Veetil, S. P.

Vila-Comamala, J.

Wang, H. Y.

Wilke, R. N.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yoneyama, S.

S. Yoneyama, Y. Morimoto, and M. Kawamura, “Two-dimensional stress separation using phase-stepping interferometric photoelasticity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1329 (2005).

Zhang, B.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, X.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, J. Q.

Zozulya, A. V.

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Enders, M. Dierolf, P. Cloetens, M. Stockmar, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Ptychography with broad-bandwidth radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 171104 (2014).

Biophys. J. (1)

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

Exp. Mech. (1)

S. L. B. Kramer, M. Mello, G. Ravichandran, and K. Bhattacharya, “Phase shifting full-field interferometric methods for determination of in-plane tensorial stress,” Exp. Mech. 49, 303–315 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

K. Giewekemeyer, H. T. Philipp, R. N. Wilke, A. Aquila, M. Osterhoff, M. W. Tate, K. S. Shanks, A. V. Zozulya, T. Salditt, S. M. Gruner, and A. P. Mancuso, “High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 21(Pt 5), 1167–1174 (2014).
[PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. Yoneyama, Y. Morimoto, and M. Kawamura, “Two-dimensional stress separation using phase-stepping interferometric photoelasticity,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 1329 (2005).

A. Asundi, L. Tong, and C. G. Boay, “Determination of isoclinic and isochromatic parameters using the three-load method,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(5), 532 (2000).

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. M. Maiden, G. R. Morrison, B. Kaulich, A. Gianoncelli, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy using ptychography with randomly phased illumination,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1669 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. J. Humphry, B. Kraus, A. C. Hurst, A. M. Maiden, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic electron microscopy using high-angle dark-field scattering for sub-nanometre resolution imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 730 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. K. Jr, C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5 nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 259–263 (2017).

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Thibault and A. Menzel, “Reconstructing state mixtures from diffraction measurements,” Nature 494(7435), 68–71 (2013).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-x-ray lensless imaging of extended objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 034801 (2007).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, K. A. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “Optical ptychographic microscopy for quantitative anisotropic phase imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10013, 1001331 (2016).

Sci. Rep. (3)

N. Anthony, G. Cadenazzi, H. Kirkwood, E. Huwald, K. Nugent, and B. Abbey, “A direct approach to in-plane stress separation using photoelastic ptychography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30541 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14690 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Marrison, L. Räty, P. Marriott, and P. O’Toole, “Ptychography--a label free, high-contrast imaging technique for live cells using quantitative phase information,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2369 (2013).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(4), 338–343 (2009).
[PubMed]

D. J. Batey, D. Claus, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Information multiplexing in ptychography,” Ultramicroscopy 138, 13–21 (2014).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Simulated specimen. Color scale indicates the retardation in radians. Superimposed white lines indicate the direction of the fast axis for the birefringent area. (b) Probe with modulus encoded as brightness and phase encoded as hue. (c) One of the diffraction patterns.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Object states. The modulus (a) and phase (b) of Ox, the modulus (c) and phase (d) of Oy.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Two different sets of reconstructions from the same data set using different initial guesses. (a) The first set of raw reconstructions. (b) The second set of raw reconstructions. The color scale applies to all the images.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relationship between reference coordinate systems
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Object states reconstructed using the reference system transformation. The modulus (a) and phase (b) of Or,x, the modulus (c) and phase (d) of Or,y.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Retrieved fast axis orientation (a) and retardation (b). The images have been cropped to show only the specimen.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of true and retrieved azimuth angle (a) and retardation (b) along white dotted lines in Fig. 6(a) and (b), respectively
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Effect of polarization angle α on convergence rate. Changes in intensity deviation S (a) and error Em (b) with number of iterations
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Changes in intensity deviation (a) and object errors (b) with number of iterations for different rotation angles β. The top and bottom plots in (b) correspond to Oy and Ox, respectively.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Comparison of errors of proposed approach at β = π/12 and that of the approach without rotation for different polarization angles α. (a) Error Ex. (b) Error Ey
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Relationship between reconstructed error and number of iterations using different rotation times

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 NRMS errors of obtained azimuth angle and retardation at β = π/12 for different polarization angles

Equations (12)

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P( r )=[ P x ( r,α ) P y ( r,α ) ]=[ p( r )cosα p( r )sinα ],
R=[ cos 2 θ+ sin 2 θ e iδ sinθcosθ( 1 e iδ ) sinθcosθ( 1 e iδ ) sin 2 θ+ cos 2 θ e iδ ].
ψ j ( r )=R( r, s j )P( r )=[ ψ j,x ( r ) ψ j,y ( r ) ],
{ ψ j,x ( r,α )=p( r )cosα[ cos 2 θ+ sin 2 θ e iδ +sinθcosθ( 1 e iδ )tanα ] ψ j,y ( r,α )=p( r )sinα[ sinθcosθ( 1 e iδ )cotα+ sin 2 θ+ cos 2 θ e iδ ] .
ψ j ( r )=O( r, s j )P( r )=[ O x ( r,α ) 0 0 O y ( r,α ) ][ P x ( r,α ) P y ( r,α ) ]=[ ψ j,x ( r,α ) ψ j,y ( r,α ) ].
I j ( q )= | Ψ j,x ( q ) | 2 + | Ψ j,y ( q ) | 2 = | F{ ψ j,x ( r ) } | 2 + | F{ ψ j,y ( r ) } | 2 ,j=1,2,,J,
Ψ ' j,m n ( q )= I j ( q ) Ψ j,m n ( q ) | Ψ j,x n ( q ) | 2 + | Ψ j,y n ( q ) | 2 ,m{ x,y }.
O m n+1 ( r, s j )= O m n ( r, s j )+ | P m n ( r ) | | P m n ( r ) | max P m n* ( r ) [ | P m n ( r ) | 2 +ε ] [ ψ' j,m n ( r ) ψ j,m n ( r ) ].
tanθ= 1 tanα | O r,x |sin φ r,x | O r,y |sin φ r,y ,
tan δ 2 =cot φ r,xy = | O r,y |cos φ r,y | O r,x |cos φ r,x | O r,x |sin φ r,x | O r,y |sin φ r,y ,
P'( r' )=[ p( r )cos( α+β ) p( r )sin( α+β ) ], δ'(r')=δ( r ) θ'(r')s=θ( r )+β
S= [ I j ( | Ψ j,x n ( q ) | 2 + | Ψ j,y n ( q ) | 2 ) ] 2 I j 2 E m = ( | O r,m n | 2 + | O m | 2 2| O m O r,m *n | | O m | 2 ) 1/2 .

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