Abstract

We report generation of tunable vortex beams in the blue spectral range, with a 3.3 nm spectral tuning range, by frequency tripling of the near-infrared (IR) wave at around 1.34 um in a LiTaO3 optical superlattice. The nonlinear crystal used in this work has a chirped dual-periodical structure which can provide two expanded reciprocal vectors for tunable performance of the cascaded third harmonic generation (THG). The maximum THG efficiency reaches about 1.4%.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  5. D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
    [PubMed]
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  8. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  12. W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  13. G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  14. X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  15. P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  16. N. Apurv Chaitanya, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Ultrafast optical vortex beam generation in the ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2715–2718 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  17. X. Fang, G. Yang, D. Wei, D. Wei, R. Ni, W. Ji, Y. Zhang, X. Hu, W. Hu, Y. Q. Lu, S. N. Zhu, and M. Xiao, “Coupled orbital angular momentum conversions in a quasi-periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1169–1172 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  18. J. Yang, X. P. Hu, P. Xu, X. J. Lv, C. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. J. Zhou, and S. N. Zhu, “Chirped-quasi-periodic structure for quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14717–14723 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  19. B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).
  20. Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).
  21. S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).
  22. G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).
  23. X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photonics Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).

2017 (1)

A. Forbes, “Controlling light’s helicity at the source: orbital angular momentum states from lasers,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150436 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (5)

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

X. Fang, G. Yang, D. Wei, D. Wei, R. Ni, W. Ji, Y. Zhang, X. Hu, W. Hu, Y. Q. Lu, S. N. Zhu, and M. Xiao, “Coupled orbital angular momentum conversions in a quasi-periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1169–1172 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Apurv Chaitanya, S. Chaitanya Kumar, K. Devi, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Ultrafast optical vortex beam generation in the ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2715–2718 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

2014 (1)

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

2013 (4)

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[PubMed]

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photonics Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).

2012 (1)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. W. Hell, “Toward fluorescence nanoscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1347–1355 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

1995 (1)

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

1992 (2)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17(3), 221–223 (1992).
[PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Apurv Chaitanya, N.

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Chaitanya Kumar, S.

Cheah, K. W.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, B. Q.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Chen, J. H.

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

Chen, P.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, S.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chigrinov, V.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

De Martini, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Devi, K.

Ding, D. S.

D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dudley, A.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

Fang, X.

Feng, L.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Forbes, A.

A. Forbes, “Controlling light’s helicity at the source: orbital angular momentum states from lasers,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150436 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

Ge, C. Z.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[PubMed]

Guo, G. C.

D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[PubMed]

He, J. L.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Heckenberg, N. R.

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, “Toward fluorescence nanoscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1347–1355 (2003).
[PubMed]

Hong, J. F.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Hu, W.

Hu, X.

Hu, X. P.

X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photonics Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).

J. Yang, X. P. Hu, P. Xu, X. J. Lv, C. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. J. Zhou, and S. N. Zhu, “Chirped-quasi-periodic structure for quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14717–14723 (2010).
[PubMed]

Huang, H.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ji, W.

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kang, M.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Karimi, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Lee, C.-H.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Li, Z. Y.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Liang, X. Y.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Lin, T.-H.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Litchinitser, N. M.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Litvin, I.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

Liu, R. J.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Longhi, S.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lu, Y. Q.

X. Fang, G. Yang, D. Wei, D. Wei, R. Ni, W. Ji, Y. Zhang, X. Hu, W. Hu, Y. Q. Lu, S. N. Zhu, and M. Xiao, “Coupled orbital angular momentum conversions in a quasi-periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1169–1172 (2016).
[PubMed]

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

Lu, Y.-Q.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lv, X. J.

Ma, B. Q.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[PubMed]

Marrucci, L.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

McDuff, R.

Miao, P.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ming, N. B.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Ming, Y.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Nagali, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Naidoo, D.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

Ni, R.

O’Brien, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Piccirillo, B.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Pun, E. Y.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Qin, Y. Q.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Ren, M. L.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Roux, F. S.

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

Samanta, G. K.

Santamato, E.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Sciarrino, F.

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Shao, G. H.

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

Sheng, Y.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Shi, B. S.

D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shu, H.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Smith, C. P.

Sorel, M.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Strain, M. J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sun, J.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Thompson, M. G.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[PubMed]

Walasik, W.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, H. F.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Wang, H. T.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Wang, J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wei, D.

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[PubMed]

White, A. G.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Wu, Z. J.

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

Xiao, M.

Xie, G.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Xu, F.

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

Xu, P.

X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photonics Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).

J. Yang, X. P. Hu, P. Xu, X. J. Lv, C. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. J. Zhou, and S. N. Zhu, “Chirped-quasi-periodic structure for quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14717–14723 (2010).
[PubMed]

Xu, Z. Y.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Yang, G.

Yang, J.

Yu, S.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

J. Yang, X. P. Hu, P. Xu, X. J. Lv, C. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. J. Zhou, and S. N. Zhu, “Chirped-quasi-periodic structure for quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14717–14723 (2010).
[PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Zhang, L.

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, S.

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z. Y.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Zhao, G.

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

Zhou, H. J.

Zhou, Z. Y.

D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhu, J.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhu, S. N.

X. Fang, G. Yang, D. Wei, D. Wei, R. Ni, W. Ji, Y. Zhang, X. Hu, W. Hu, Y. Q. Lu, S. N. Zhu, and M. Xiao, “Coupled orbital angular momentum conversions in a quasi-periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1169–1172 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photonics Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).

J. Yang, X. P. Hu, P. Xu, X. J. Lv, C. Zhang, G. Zhao, H. J. Zhou, and S. N. Zhu, “Chirped-quasi-periodic structure for quasi-phase-matching,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14717–14723 (2010).
[PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Zhu, Y. Y.

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3 crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(10), 5481–5483 (1995).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. W. Liu, S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Y. Q. Qin, J. L. He, C. Zhang, H. T. Wang, N. B. Ming, X. Y. Liang, and Z. Y. Xu, “Quasi-CW ultraviolet generation in a dual-periodic LiTaO3 superlattice by frequency tripling,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 6841–6844 (2001).

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

B. Q. Chen, M. L. Ren, R. J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Sheng, B. Q. Ma, and Z. Y. Li, “Simultaneous broadband generation of second and third harmonics from chirped nonlinear photonic crystals,” Light Sci. Appl. 3, e189 (2014).

Nano Lett. (1)

G. Li, M. Kang, S. Chen, S. Zhang, E. Y. Pun, K. W. Cheah, and J. Li, “Spin-Enabled Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Manipulating Orbital Angular Momentum of Light,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4148–4151 (2013).
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Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

S. W. Hell, “Toward fluorescence nanoscopy,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1347–1355 (2003).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

D. S. Ding, Z. Y. Zhou, B. S. Shi, and G. C. Guo, “Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2527 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. Forbes, “Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser,” Nat. Photonics 10, 327–332 (2016).

Nature (2)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

A. Forbes, “Controlling light’s helicity at the source: orbital angular momentum states from lasers,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 375(2087), 20150436 (2017).
[PubMed]

Photonics Res. (1)

X. P. Hu, P. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Engineered quasi-phase-matching for laser techniques,” Photonics Res. 1(4), 171–185 (2013).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. H. Shao, Z. J. Wu, J. H. Chen, F. Xu, and Y. Q. Lu, “Nonlinear frequency conversion of fields with orbital angular momentum using quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063827 (2013).

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Nagali, F. Sciarrino, F. De Martini, L. Marrucci, B. Piccirillo, E. Karimi, and E. Santamato, “Quantum information transfer from spin to orbital angular momentum of photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013601 (2009).
[PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Ji, C.-H. Lee, P. Chen, W. Hu, Y. Ming, L. Zhang, T.-H. Lin, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25528 (2016).
[PubMed]

Science (2)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The Fourier spectrum of the dual-periodical poled LT and the chirped dual-periodical poled LT, (b) Detailed Fourier spectrum of the reciprocal vectors G 3,1 and G 3,1 of the chirped dual-periodical structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Microphotograph of the chirped dual-periodical optical superlattice revealed by etching.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sketch of the experimental setup and the inset on the top right shows the helical phase profiles loaded on the SLM to generate the vortices.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured and (b) Theoretical conversion efficiency of the SHG and THG processes depending on the wavelength of the FW with the topological charge of 1. (c) The measured conversion efficiency of SHG and THG processes depending on the FW with different topological charges.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The intensity profiles of the SH and TH waves, and the converted pattern after using a cylindrical lens, which indicates l = 2 for the SH wave and l = 3 for the TH wave.

Equations (7)

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G m,n = G m + G n = 2πm Λ 1 + 2πn Λ 2 .
f m,n = f m f n = 4 mn π 2 sin(m D 1 π)sin(n D 2 π)
{ G 3,1 (x)=3× 2π Λ 1 2π Λ 2 + φ 1 x L/2 =3× 2π Λ 1 (x) 2π Λ 2 (x) G 3,1 (x)=3× 2π Λ 1 2π Λ 2 φ 2 x L/2 =3× 2π Λ 1 (x) + 2π Λ 2 (x) .
φ 1 =Δ k 1 (1332nm)Δ k 1 (1342nm)=1969.2 m 1 φ 2 =Δ k 2 (1332nm)Δ k 2 (1342nm)=8859.3 m 1 .
{ Λ 1 (x)= 1 1 Λ 1 +( φ 1 + φ 2 ) x 6Lπ Λ 2 (x)= 1 1 Λ 2 +( φ 1 φ 2 ) x 2Lπ .
{ d E 1 dx =2i ω 1 n 1 c f(x) d eff ( E 2 E 1 * e iΔ k 1 x + E 3 E 2 * e iΔ k 2 x ) d E 2 dx =2i ω 2 n 2 c f(x) d eff ( 1 2 E 1 2 e iΔ k 1 x + E 3 E 1 * e iΔ k 2 x ) d E 3 dx =2i ω 3 n 3 c f(x) d eff E 1 E 2 e iΔ k 2 x .
{ f(x)=+1, (x Λ 1 (x) 2 )(x Λ 2 (x) 2 )>0 f(x)=1, (x Λ 1 (x) 2 )(x Λ 2 (x) 2 )<0 .

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