Abstract

We demonstrate the fabrication of a Vernier effect SU8/PMATRIFE polymer optical biosensor with high homogeneous sensitivity using a standard photolithography process. The sensor is based on one micro-resonator embedded on each arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Measurements are based on the refractive index variation of the optical waveguide superstrate with different concentrations of glucose solutions. The sensitivity of the sensor has been measured as 17558 nm/RIU and the limit of detection has been estimated to 1.1.10−6 RIU.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

2015 (2)

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (4)

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Jiang, Y. Chen, F. Yu, L. Tang, M. Li, and J. J. He, “High-sensitivity optical biosensor based on cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator using Vernier effect,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6363–6366 (2014).
[PubMed]

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

2013 (5)

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “A highly sensitive refractometric sensor based on cascaded SiN microring resonators,” Sensors (Basel) 13(11), 14601–14610 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).

D. Duval and L. M. Lechuga, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: 2012 breakthroughs in lab-on-a-chip and optical biosensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700906 (2013).

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, Y. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Dual-microring-resonator interference sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191112 (2012).

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent silicon-nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended si-nanowires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 842–844 (2011).

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric Rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell syst. Tech. 48, 2071 (1969).

Adrian, J.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Alvarez, M.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

Armenise, M. N.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).

Azuelos, P.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Bienstman, P.

Bodiou, L.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Boeck, R.

Bogaerts, W.

Bosc, D.

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Brynda, E.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Campanella, C. E.

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).

Campanella, C. M.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).

Carré, C.

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

Chakravarty, S.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Charrier, J.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Chartier, T.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Cheben, P.

Chen, R. T.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chin, S. H.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chrostowski, L.

Ciminelli, C.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).

Citrin, D. S.

H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, Y. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Dual-microring-resonator interference sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191112 (2012).

Claes, T.

Claudot, S.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Conteduca, D.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).

Ctyroky, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Dai, D.

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended si-nanowires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 842–844 (2011).

De Leonardis, F.

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

Delâge, A.

Delcourt, E.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Dell’Olio, F.

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, D. Conteduca, C. M. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “High performance SOI microring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 59, 60–67 (2014).

C. Ciminelli, F. Dell’Olio, C. E. Campanella, and M. N. Armenise, “Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 51–107 (2013).

Densmore, A.

Diserens, J. M.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Drabkin, H. A.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dumeige, Y.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Duval, D.

D. Duval and L. M. Lechuga, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: 2012 breakthroughs in lab-on-a-chip and optical biosensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700906 (2013).

Estevez, M. C.

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

Gadonna, M.

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Gao, H.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gemmill, R. M.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Girault, P.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Goujon, J.-M.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Guendouz, M.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Gutierrez-Arroyo, A.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Han, K.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

Hardy, I.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

He, J. J.

Homola, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Hu, J.

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended si-nanowires,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 842–844 (2011).

Hu, Y.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jaeger, N. A.

Janz, S.

Jiang, X.

Kee, J. S.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent silicon-nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[PubMed]

Khokhar, A. Z.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kim, K. W.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

La Notte, M.

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lai, W. C.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

Le, S. D.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Lechuga, L. M.

D. Duval and L. M. Lechuga, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: 2012 breakthroughs in lab-on-a-chip and optical biosensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700906 (2013).

M. C. Estevez, M. Alvarez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated optical devices for lab-on-chip biosensing applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 463–487 (2012).

Lemaitre, J.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Li, M.

Li, Y.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

Lo, G.-Q.

Lopinski, G.

Lorrain, N.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Lützow, P.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “A highly sensitive refractometric sensor based on cascaded SiN microring resonators,” Sensors (Basel) 13(11), 14601–14610 (2013).
[PubMed]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric Rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell syst. Tech. 48, 2071 (1969).

Marco, M. P.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Muciaccia, T.

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nedeljkovic, M.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nekvindova, P.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Park, M. K.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent silicon-nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[PubMed]

Pasche, S.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

Pergande, D.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “A highly sensitive refractometric sensor based on cascaded SiN microring resonators,” Sensors (Basel) 13(11), 14601–14610 (2013).
[PubMed]

Pirasteh, P.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Poffo, L.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

P. Girault, J. Lemaitre, M. Guendouz, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Gadonna, and D. Bosc, “Micro-resonators based on integrated polymer technology for optical sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9141, 914121 (2014).

Post, E.

Quétel, L.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Reynolds, S. A.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

Rochard, P.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Rouger, N.

Sánchez-Baeza, F.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Schmid, J. H.

Schrofel, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Shin, Y.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

Simon, G. R.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Skalsky, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Skvor, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Song, J.

Spirkova, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyroky, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spirkova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on integrated optical waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 76(1–3), 8–12 (2001).

Tang, L.

Thual, M.

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

Troia, B.

B. Troia, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Hu, G. Z. Mashanovich, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design procedure and fabrication of reproducible silicon Vernier devices for high-performance refractive index sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 15(6), 13548–13567 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. La Notte, B. Troia, T. Muciaccia, C. E. Campanella, F. De Leonardis, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Recent advances in gas and chemical detection by Vernier effect-based photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 14(3), 4831–4855 (2014).
[PubMed]

Tu, X.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

X. Tu, J. Song, T.-Y. Liow, M. K. Park, J. Q. Yiying, J. S. Kee, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Thermal independent silicon-nitride slot waveguide biosensor with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2640–2648 (2012).
[PubMed]

Vignaud, G.

P. Girault, N. Lorrain, L. Poffo, M. Guendouz, J. Lemaitre, C. Carré, M. Gadonna, D. Bosc, and G. Vignaud, “Integrated polymer micro-ring resonators for optical sensing applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 117, 104504 (2015).

Voirin, G.

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Weiland, M.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “A highly sensitive refractometric sensor based on cascaded SiN microring resonators,” Sensors (Basel) 13(11), 14601–14610 (2013).
[PubMed]

Xu, D.-X.

Yi, H.

H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, Y. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Dual-microring-resonator interference sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191112 (2012).

Yiying, J. Q.

Yoon, Y. J.

Q. Liu, X. Tu, K. W. Kim, J. S. Kee, Y. Shin, K. Han, Y. J. Yoon, G. Q. Lo, and M. K. Park, “Highly sensitive Mach–Zehnder interferometer biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguide,” Sens. Actuator B-Chem. 188, 681–688 (2013).

Yu, F.

Yu, M.

Zamora, V.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, M. Weiland, and D. Pergande, “A highly sensitive refractometric sensor based on cascaded SiN microring resonators,” Sensors (Basel) 13(11), 14601–14610 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, Y. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Dual-microring-resonator interference sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191112 (2012).

Zou, Y.

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Yi, D. S. Citrin, Y. Chen, and Z. Zhou, “Dual-microring-resonator interference sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191112 (2012).

Bell syst. Tech. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric Rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell syst. Tech. 48, 2071 (1969).

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

J. Adrian, S. Pasche, J. M. Diserens, F. Sánchez-Baeza, H. Gao, M. P. Marco, and G. Voirin, “Waveguide interrogated optical immunosensor (WIOS) for detection of sulfonamide antibiotics in milk,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(11), 3340–3346 (2009).
[PubMed]

S. Chakravarty, W. C. Lai, Y. Zou, H. A. Drabkin, R. M. Gemmill, G. R. Simon, S. H. Chin, and R. T. Chen, “Multiplexed specific label-free detection of NCI-H358 lung cancer cell line lysates with silicon based photonic crystal microcavity biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 43, 50–55 (2013).
[PubMed]

Commun. Phys. (1)

S. D. Le, E. Delcourt, P. Girault, A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, P. Azuelos, N. Lorrain, L. Bodiou, L. Poffo, J.-M. Goujon, Y. Dumeige, I. Hardy, P. Rochard, J. Lemaitre, P. Pirasteh, M. Guendouz, T. Chartier, L. Quétel, S. Claudot, J. Charrier, and M. Thual, “Study of optimized coupling based on micro-lensed fibers for fibers and photonic integrated circuits in the framework of telecommunications and sensing applications,” Commun. Phys. 26(4), 325–334 (2016).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

D. Duval and L. M. Lechuga, “Breakthroughs in photonics 2012: 2012 breakthroughs in lab-on-a-chip and optical biosensors,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 0700906 (2013).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Representation of the Vernier effect MZ-pass configuration sensor, b) Dependence of the curvature losses with the radius for the reference waveguides and the sensor waveguides, c) Coupling region of the MR

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication steps of the sensor

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Optical microscope image of the polymer Vernier effect sensor with the reference MR on the upper arm and the sensor MR in the reservoir in the lower arm. b) Optical microscope image of the directional coupler of the sensor MR c) Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) cross section of the optical waveguide at the input of the sensor

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Shift of the envelope function with different concentrations of the glucose solution spectra of glucose water solutions ; the envelopes are translated by 20dB for representation b) Lorentzian fit of the envelope function maximum values with glucose solution refractive index variation c) Linear fit of the resonant wavelength shift with the refractive index variation of the solution d) Comparison between theoretical and experimental transmission spectra; the envelopes are translated for representation e) fit of the experimental spectra with the theoretical spectra

Equations (6)

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T(λ)= 1 4 ( | E sens. | 2 +| E ref. | 2 )+ 1 2 | E sens. || E ref. |cos( arg( | E sens. | )arg( | E ref. | ) )
E ref.,sens. = τ ref.,sens. e α ref.,sens. L ref.,sens. e jφ 1 τ ref.,sens. e α ref.,sens. L ref.,sens. e jφ E in
S V = S MR G V = S MR FS R ref. |FS R sens. FS R ref. |
FS R ref.,sens. = λ res 2 L ref.,sens. n ef f reff.,sens.
S MR (nm/RIU)= λ n ef f sens. n ef f sens. n s sens. = λ res n ef f sens. Δ n ef f sens. Δ n s sens.
T V = FS R ref. FS R sens. |FS R sens. FS R ref. |

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