Abstract

Enhanced interactions of light with graphene on the surface of a lossless dielectric magnetic mirror (DMM) are studied theoretically and experimentally in the visible range, where the DMM is composed of truncated dielectric photonic crystals (PCs). The absorption of graphene on the DMM was enhanced by about 4-fold for the spectral range within the forbidden gap of PCs over a wide range of incidence angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations compared with that of free-standing graphene. Moreover, the enhanced local electric field on the DMM surface led to much better detection efficiencies of the photocurrent, Raman spectroscopy and enhanced third-harmonic generation of graphene. These results offer a new way to achieve an enhanced interaction of light with graphene and develop new compact graphene-based devices.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

H. Budde, N. Coca-López, X. Shi, R. Ciesielski, A. Lombardo, D. Yoon, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Raman Radiation Patterns of Graphene,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1756–1763 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total Absorption in a Graphene Monolayer in the Optical Regime by Critical Coupling with a Photonic Crystal Guided Resonance,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 347–353 (2014).

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Esfandyarpour, E. C. Garnett, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(7), 542–547 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1(4), 250–256 (2014).

2013 (6)

X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Gullans, D. E. Chang, F. H. L. Koppens, F. J. García de Abajo, and M. D. Lukin, “Single-Photon Nonlinear Optics with Graphene Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 247401 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P. C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3(2), 021014 (2013).

N. Kumar, J. Kumar, C. Gerstenkorn, R. Wang, H. Y. Chiu, A. L. Smirl, and H. Zhao, “Third harmonic generation in graphene and few-layer graphite films,” Phys. Rev. B 87(12), 121406 (2013).

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[PubMed]

G. Pirruccio, L. Martín Moreno, G. Lozano, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coherent and Broadband Enhanced Optical Absorption in Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4810–4817 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (11)

A. Delfan, M. Liscidini, and J. E. Sipe, “Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering in the Presence of Multilayer Dielectric Structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(8), 1863–1874 (2012).

Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-Antenna Sandwich Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, S. H. Cho, and C. W. Lee, “Nonlinear optics: Graphene-silicon fusion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 502–503 (2012).

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. Ferreira, N. M. R. Peres, R. M. Ribeiro, and T. Stauber, “Graphene-based photodetector with two cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 85(11), 15438 (2012).

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete Optical Absorption in Periodically Patterned Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
[PubMed]

L. Shi, T. U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, and F. Meseguer, “A new dielectric metamaterial building block with a strong magnetic response in the sub-1.5-micrometer region: silicon colloid nanocavities,” Adv. Mater. 24(44), 5934–5938 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
[PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).

2010 (3)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[PubMed]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).

W. T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(8), 081408 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[PubMed]

L. Gao, W. Ren, B. Liu, R. Saito, Z. S. Wu, S. Li, C. Jiang, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “Surface and Interference Coenhanced Raman Scattering of Graphene,” ACS Nano 3(4), 933–939 (2009).
[PubMed]

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031901 (2009).

2008 (2)

J. Guo, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 2), 026607 (2008).
[PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical magnetic mirrors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(1), L1–L2 (2007).

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Pairing an Epsilon-Negative Slab With a Mu-Negative Slab: Resonance, Tunneling and Transparency,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2558–2571 (2003).

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. Educ. 9(11), 1002–1004 (1976).

Ahn, J. H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-Antenna Sandwich Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
[PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Pairing an Epsilon-Negative Slab With a Mu-Negative Slab: Resonance, Tunneling and Transparency,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2558–2571 (2003).

Andrews, A. M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
[PubMed]

Apfel, J. H.

Avouris, P.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[PubMed]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[PubMed]

Baghbadorani, H. K.

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).

Barvestani, J.

Basilio, L. I.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
[PubMed]

Basko, D. M.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(4), 235–246 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bender, D. A.

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).

Boisen, A.

X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
[PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

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J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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Cheng, H. M.

L. Gao, W. Ren, B. Liu, R. Saito, Z. S. Wu, S. Li, C. Jiang, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “Surface and Interference Coenhanced Raman Scattering of Graphene,” ACS Nano 3(4), 933–939 (2009).
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K. Kim, S. H. Cho, and C. W. Lee, “Nonlinear optics: Graphene-silicon fusion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 502–503 (2012).

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H. Budde, N. Coca-López, X. Shi, R. Ciesielski, A. Lombardo, D. Yoon, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Raman Radiation Patterns of Graphene,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1756–1763 (2016).
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J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).

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M. Esfandyarpour, E. C. Garnett, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(7), 542–547 (2014).
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S. Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P. C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3(2), 021014 (2013).

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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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Esfandyarpour, M.

M. Esfandyarpour, E. C. Garnett, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(7), 542–547 (2014).
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Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-Antenna Sandwich Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
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A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical magnetic mirrors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(1), L1–L2 (2007).

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L. Shi, T. U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, and F. Meseguer, “A new dielectric metamaterial building block with a strong magnetic response in the sub-1.5-micrometer region: silicon colloid nanocavities,” Adv. Mater. 24(44), 5934–5938 (2012).
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Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
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N. Kumar, J. Kumar, C. Gerstenkorn, R. Wang, H. Y. Chiu, A. L. Smirl, and H. Zhao, “Third harmonic generation in graphene and few-layer graphite films,” Phys. Rev. B 87(12), 121406 (2013).

Ginn, J.

Ginn, J. C.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
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Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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Gullans, M.

M. Gullans, D. E. Chang, F. H. L. Koppens, F. J. García de Abajo, and M. D. Lukin, “Single-Photon Nonlinear Optics with Graphene Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(24), 247401 (2013).
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J. Guo, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 2), 026607 (2008).
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Halas, N. J.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-Antenna Sandwich Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
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X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
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H. Budde, N. Coca-López, X. Shi, R. Ciesielski, A. Lombardo, D. Yoon, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Raman Radiation Patterns of Graphene,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1756–1763 (2016).
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Hatami, F.

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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Heinz, T. F.

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).

Hines, P. F.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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S. Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P. C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3(2), 021014 (2013).

X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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Hong, B. H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Hong, S. Y.

S. Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P. C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3(2), 021014 (2013).

Ihlefeld, J. F.

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1(4), 250–256 (2014).

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
[PubMed]

Iijima, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
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Jiang, C.

L. Gao, W. Ren, B. Liu, R. Saito, Z. S. Wu, S. Li, C. Jiang, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “Surface and Interference Coenhanced Raman Scattering of Graphene,” ACS Nano 3(4), 933–939 (2009).
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Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[PubMed]

Jiang, H.

J. Guo, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 2), 026607 (2008).
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Jun, Y. C.

Katsnelson, M. I.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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Khardikov, V. V.

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Kim, H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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K. Kim, S. H. Cho, and C. W. Lee, “Nonlinear optics: Graphene-silicon fusion,” Nat. Photonics 6, 502–503 (2012).

Kim, K. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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H. Budde, N. Coca-López, X. Shi, R. Ciesielski, A. Lombardo, D. Yoon, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Raman Radiation Patterns of Graphene,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1756–1763 (2016).
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J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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Smirl, A. L.

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Song, Y. I.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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A. Ferreira, N. M. R. Peres, R. M. Ribeiro, and T. Stauber, “Graphene-based photodetector with two cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 85(11), 15438 (2012).

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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J. Guo, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 2), 026607 (2008).
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Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).

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S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete Optical Absorption in Periodically Patterned Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
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M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
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Virally, S.

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Wang, F.

W. T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(8), 081408 (2010).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband Nonlinear Optical Response of Graphene Dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21, 2430–2435 (2009).

Wang, R.

N. Kumar, J. Kumar, C. Gerstenkorn, R. Wang, H. Y. Chiu, A. L. Smirl, and H. Zhao, “Third harmonic generation in graphene and few-layer graphite films,” Phys. Rev. B 87(12), 121406 (2013).

Wang, Y.

Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-Antenna Sandwich Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
[PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. H. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).

Warne, L. K.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, T. S. Mahony, Y. C. Jun, S. Campione, J. Ginn, D. A. Bender, J. R. Wendt, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, J. B. Wright, and I. Brener, “Optical magnetic mirrors without metals,” Optica 1(4), 250–256 (2014).

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012).
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Wright, J. B.

Wu, S. W.

W. T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(8), 081408 (2010).

Wu, Z. S.

L. Gao, W. Ren, B. Liu, R. Saito, Z. S. Wu, S. Li, C. Jiang, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “Surface and Interference Coenhanced Raman Scattering of Graphene,” ACS Nano 3(4), 933–939 (2009).
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F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
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W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
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X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
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W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).

Xu, H.

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
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W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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S. Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P. C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3(2), 021014 (2013).

Yoon, D.

H. Budde, N. Coca-López, X. Shi, R. Ciesielski, A. Lombardo, D. Yoon, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Raman Radiation Patterns of Graphene,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1756–1763 (2016).
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X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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Zhang, J.

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
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J. Guo, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 2), 026607 (2008).
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A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical magnetic mirrors,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(1), L1–L2 (2007).

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
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Zi, J.

X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
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ACS Nano (3)

G. Pirruccio, L. Martín Moreno, G. Lozano, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Coherent and Broadband Enhanced Optical Absorption in Graphene,” ACS Nano 7(6), 4810–4817 (2013).
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L. Gao, W. Ren, B. Liu, R. Saito, Z. S. Wu, S. Li, C. Jiang, F. Li, and H. M. Cheng, “Surface and Interference Coenhanced Raman Scattering of Graphene,” ACS Nano 3(4), 933–939 (2009).
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H. Budde, N. Coca-López, X. Shi, R. Ciesielski, A. Lombardo, D. Yoon, A. C. Ferrari, and A. Hartschuh, “Raman Radiation Patterns of Graphene,” ACS Nano 10(2), 1756–1763 (2016).
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ACS Photonics (1)

J. R. Piper and S. Fan, “Total Absorption in a Graphene Monolayer in the Optical Regime by Critical Coupling with a Photonic Crystal Guided Resonance,” ACS Photonics 1(4), 347–353 (2014).

Adv. Mater. (2)

L. Shi, T. U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, and F. Meseguer, “A new dielectric metamaterial building block with a strong magnetic response in the sub-1.5-micrometer region: silicon colloid nanocavities,” Adv. Mater. 24(44), 5934–5938 (2012).
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M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031901 (2009).

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

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Z. Fang, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Graphene-Antenna Sandwich Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3808–3813 (2012).
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X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Graphene Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
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X. Zhu, L. Shi, M. S. Schmidt, A. Boisen, O. Hansen, J. Zi, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, “Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays,” Nano Lett. 13(10), 4690–4696 (2013).
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Z. Fang, Y. Wang, A. E. Schlather, Z. Liu, P. M. Ajayan, F. J. de Abajo, P. Nordlander, X. Zhu, and N. J. Halas, “Active Tunable Absorption Enhancement with Graphene Nanodisk Arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 299–304 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

T. J. Echtermeyer, L. Britnell, P. K. Jasnos, A. Lombardo, R. V. Gorbachev, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 2, 458 (2011).
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F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
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M. Esfandyarpour, E. C. Garnett, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Metamaterial mirrors in optoelectronic devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(7), 542–547 (2014).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Nature (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (3)

W. T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82(8), 081408 (2010).

A. Ferreira, N. M. R. Peres, R. M. Ribeiro, and T. Stauber, “Graphene-based photodetector with two cavities,” Phys. Rev. B 85(11), 15438 (2012).

N. Kumar, J. Kumar, C. Gerstenkorn, R. Wang, H. Y. Chiu, A. L. Smirl, and H. Zhao, “Third harmonic generation in graphene and few-layer graphite films,” Phys. Rev. B 87(12), 121406 (2013).

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

J. Guo, Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Jiang, and H. Chen, “Experimental investigation of interface states in photonic crystal heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(2 Pt 2), 026607 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

S. Y. Hong, J. I. Dadap, N. Petrone, P. C. Yeh, J. Hone, and R. M. Osgood., “Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. X 3(2), 021014 (2013).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. S. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(24), 9281–9286 (2012).
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Science (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the composite structure, G(AB)NAS, composed of a graphene film, G, and PC (AB)NAS as a lossless DMM, where A denotes SiO2 with nA = 1.431 and dA = 98.4 nm, B represents TiO2 with nB = 2.123 and dB = 66.4 nm, S represents BK7 with nS = 1.51, and N is the periodic number. (b) SEM image of the PC (AB)NAS with N = 19.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflection spectra (R) and reflection phase, Ø R , of (AB)19AS. At the center wavelength of λ = 563.8 nm in the forbidden gap of PC, the reflection phase, ϕ R , of (AB)19AS equals 0. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflection spectra (R) and reflection phase of (BA)19BS. At the center wavelength of λ = 563.8 nm in the forbidden gap of the PC, the reflection phase of (BA)19BS equals π. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectra (A) of the composite structure, G(AB)19AS, with (a) monolayer graphene, G1; (b) bilayer graphene, G2; and (c) trilayer graphene, G3; for normal incidence. The red and blue lines represent the numerical and experimental results, respectively. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated electric field intensity, | E | 2 , in the composite structure, G(AB)19AS, at 563.8 nm and at normal incidence. The inset shows the electric field intensity in graphene of G(AB)19AS. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated(red lines) and measured (blue lines) absorption spectra (A) of G(AB)19AS as a function of wavelength at an incident angle of 30°: (a)-(c) for a TE wave and (d)-(f) for a TM wave. Other parameters are the same as those in Figs. 1 and 5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup of the photocurrent measurements, where the inset shows the optical micrograph of the interface of graphene and the electrode. Intensity map of the photocurrents in the graphene monolayer on the DMM (b) and on the silica/silicon substrate (c) at a size of 20 μm × 20 μm. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Raman spectra of the monolayer graphene on SiO2 substrate (black line) and on the DMM (red line). (a) The G peak of graphene on two different substrates at an excitation laser wavelength of 632.8 nm. (b) and (c) The G peak and 2D peak of graphene on two different substrates at an excitation laser wavelength 532.0 nm, respectively. Other parameters are the same as those in Fig. 1.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 THG from the monolayer graphene on DMM (black line) and on fused silica substrate (red line), respectively. The THG emerged at 563.0 nm with the femtosecond excitation laser beam at 1689.0 nm. The broad nonlinear photoluminescence [40] from monolayer graphene was also enhanced in the forbidden gap of PC.

Equations (1)

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| E | 2 = | E | I n 2 + | E | R 2 + | E | I n | E | R cos ( ϕ R )

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