Abstract

We demonstrate two single-etched sub-wavelength grating coupler (SWGC) designs for O-band application, one targeting at high coupling efficiency and the other targeting at broad operating bandwidth. The high-efficiency SWGC has a measured peak coupling efficiency of −3.8 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 nm, and the broadband SWGC has a measured peak coupling efficiency of −4.3 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of 71 nm. Focusing gratings have been used in our SWGCs to reduce the design footprints and the dimensions of our SWGCs are smaller than 45 μm × 24 μm. The back reflections of our SWGCs are suppressed to be below −15 dB over the wavelength range from 1260 nm to 1360 nm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (5)

2014 (7)

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the soi platform with- 0.58 db coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. B.- Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Na, H. Frish, I.-W. Hsieh, O. Harel, R. George, A. Barkai, and H. Rong, “Efficient broadband silicon-on-insulator grating coupler with low backreflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2101–2103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2007 (1)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1993 (1)

Alonso-Ramos, C.

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D.-X. Xu, L. Vivien, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Single-etch subwavelength engineered fiber-chip grating couplers for 1.3 μm datacom wavelength band,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12893–12904 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. A. Popovic, 2015., “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45 nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, A. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2013), pp. 7–8.
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barkai, A.

Bedard, D.

Benedikovic, D.

Berroth, M.

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Cai, X.

Cassan, E.

Caverley, M.

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski, “Apodized focusing fully etched subwavelength grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheben, P.

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D.-X. Xu, L. Vivien, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Single-etch subwavelength engineered fiber-chip grating couplers for 1.3 μm datacom wavelength band,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12893–12904 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, K. K.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, L. Crudginton, A. Z. Khokhar, and G. T. Reed, “Dual-etch apodised grating couplers for efficient fibre-chip coupling near 1310 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17864–17871 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheung, K. C.

Chrostowski, L.

Chrostowski, Lukas

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski, “Apodized focusing fully etched subwavelength grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Covey, J.

Crudginton, L.

Dado, M.

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Koninck, Y.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Ding, L.

Ding, R.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, A. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2013), pp. 7–8.
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Donzella, V.

Duan, N.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

El Melhaoui, L.

Fang, Q.

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R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Harel, O.

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R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. B.- Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, A. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2013), pp. 7–8.
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
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P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
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R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Jones, T. B.-

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P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
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R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sherwali, A.

Shi, R.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. B.- Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shi, Y.

Song, J.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. A. Popovic, 2015., “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45 nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.
[Crossref]

Streshinsky, M.

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. B.- Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taylor, B. J.

Tern, R. P.-C.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Tsang, H. K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tu, X.

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vachon, M.

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

Veerasubramanian, V.

Vermeulen, D.

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vogel, W.

Wade, M. T.

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. A. Popovic, 2015., “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45 nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wangüemert-Pérez, G.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. Y.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, D.-X.

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D.-X. Xu, L. Vivien, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Single-etch subwavelength engineered fiber-chip grating couplers for 1.3 μm datacom wavelength band,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12893–12904 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Yang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, A. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2013), pp. 7–8.
[Crossref]

Yun, H.

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski, “Apodized focusing fully etched subwavelength grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zhang, F.

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski, “Apodized focusing fully etched subwavelength grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, A. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2013), pp. 7–8.
[Crossref]

Zhong, Q.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phy. Lett. (1)

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized focusing subwavelength grating couplers for suspended membrane waveguides,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 101(10), 101104 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. E.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R. P.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-based optical fiber interfaces for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Wang, H. Yun, Z. Lu, R. Bojko, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, F. Zhang, M. Caverley, N. A. Jaeger, and Lukas Chrostowski, “Apodized focusing fully etched subwavelength grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Shi, H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, A. E-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. B.- Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-efficiency grating couplers near 1310 nm fabricated by 248-nm DUV lithography,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(15), 1569–1572 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. Robinson and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 52(2), 397–407 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser & Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, Í. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. M. Luque-González, J. D. Sarmiento-Merenguel, J. H. Schmid, G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, S. Wang, A. Ortega-Moñux, and Í. Molina-Fernández, “Ultra-broadband nanophotonic beamsplitter using an anisotropic sub-wavelength metamaterial,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 1039–1046 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (13)

J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, D. M. Ratner, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Sub-wavelength grating for enhanced ring resonator biosensor,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15672–15686 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, D.-X. Xu, L. Vivien, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Single-etch subwavelength engineered fiber-chip grating couplers for 1.3 μm datacom wavelength band,” Opt. Express 24(12), 12893–12904 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, L. Crudginton, A. Z. Khokhar, and G. T. Reed, “Dual-etch apodised grating couplers for efficient fibre-chip coupling near 1310 nm wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17864–17871 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Y. Hong, Y. Zhu, J. Chen, S. Gao, X. Cai, Y. Shi, and L. Liu, “Compact high-efficiency perfectly-vertical grating coupler on silicon at O-band,” Opt. Express 25(18), 22032–22037 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2927–2939 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, S. Wang, D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Painchaud, and M.-J. Picard, “Broadband polarization independent nanophotonic coupler for silicon waveguides with ultra-high efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22553–22563 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Vermeulen, Y. De Koninck, Y. Li, E. Lambert, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Reflectionless grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22278–22283 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, S. Wang, J. Lapointe, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “Subwavelength index engineered surface grating coupler with sub-decibel efficiency for 220-nm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(17), 22628–22635 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Y. Ding, C. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the soi platform with- 0.58 db coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, Z. Lu, M. Caverley, R. Bojko, L. Chrostowski, and N. A. Jaeger, “Design of broadband subwavelength grating couplers with low back reflection,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4647–4650 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, H. Subbaraman, J. Covey, D. Kwong, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Colorless grating couplers realized by interleaving dispersion engineered subwavelength structures,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3588–3591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Na, H. Frish, I.-W. Hsieh, O. Harel, R. George, A. Barkai, and H. Rong, “Efficient broadband silicon-on-insulator grating coupler with low backreflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2101–2103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. T. Wade, F. Pavanello, R. Kumar, C. M. Gentry, A. Atabaki, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and M. A. Popovic, 2015., “75% efficient wide bandwidth grating couplers in a 45 nm microelectronics CMOS process,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (2015), pp. 46–47.
[Crossref]

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, A. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30 GHz silicon photonic platform,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (2013), pp. 7–8.
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the cross-sections of (a) the high-efficiency O-band SWGC, and (b) the broadband O-band SWGC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematics of the simulations for the high-efficiency SWGC (a) with input from the waveguide, and (b) with input from the fiber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematics of the simulations for the broadband SWGC (a) with virtual refractive indices of nH and nL, and (b) with actual SWGs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) 2D and 3D simulation results for the high-efficiency and broadband SWGCs with 220 nm silicon layer, and (b) 2D simulation results for the high-efficiency and broadband SWGCs with 220 nm silicon layer and bottom mirror.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM images of the fabricated (a) high-efficiency SWGC, and (b) broadband SWGC.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of the measured coupling efficiencies as a function of wavelength for the high-efficiency and broadband SWGCs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Peak coupling efficiencies, and (b) 3-dB bandwidths of the high-efficiency and broadband SWGCs extracted from multiple test structures.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Central operating wavelength change as a function of grating dimension change, and (b) peak coupling efficiency as a function of grating dimension change.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design Parameters for the Optimized O-band High-Efficiency SWGC

Tables Icon

Table 2 Design Parameters for the Optimized O-band Broadband SWGC

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ 3 dB = Δ θ 3 dB 2 | n c cos ( θ ) λ n g n c sin ( θ ) |

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