Abstract

Semiconductor light sources operating in the ultraviolet (UV)-C band (100-280 nm) are in demand for a broad range of applications but suffer from extremely low efficiency. AlGaN nanowire photonic crystals promise to break the efficiency bottleneck of deep UV photonics. We report, for the first time, site-controlled epitaxy of AlGaN nanowire arrays with Al incorporation controllably varied across nearly the entire compositional range. It is also observed that an Al-rich AlGaN shell structure is spontaneously formed, significantly suppressing nonradiative surface recombination. An internal quantum efficiency up to 45% was measured at room-temperature. We have further demonstrated large area AlGaN nanowire LEDs operating in the UV-C band on sapphire substrate, which exhibit excellent optical and electrical performance, including a small turn-on voltage of ~4.4 V and an output power of ~0.93 W/cm2 at a current density of 252 A/cm2. The controlled synthesis of AlGaN subwavelength nanostructures with well-defined size, spacing, and spatial arrangement and tunable emission opens up new opportunities for developing high efficiency LEDs and lasers and promises to break the efficiency bottleneck of deep UV photonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  43. Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
    [PubMed]
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2017 (1)

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (6)

S. M. Sadaf, Y. H. Ra, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Monolithically Integrated Metal/Semiconductor Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1076–1080 (2016).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

2015 (4)

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

2014 (2)

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084004 (2014).

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).

2013 (4)

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S.-i. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1−xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043115 (2012).

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

2011 (7)

T. Schumann, T. Gotschke, F. Limbach, T. Stoica, and R. Calarco, “Selective-area catalyst-free MBE growth of GaN nanowires using a patterned oxide layer,” Nanotechnology 22(9), 095603 (2011).
[PubMed]

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208, 1586–1589 (2011).

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. J. Parbrook and T. Wang, “Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1402–1411 (2011).

2010 (8)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

H. J. Chu, T. W. Yeh, L. Stewart, and P. D. Dapkus, “Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7, 2494–2497 (2010).

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

2009 (5)

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2063–2068 (2009).

S. Vilhunen, H. Särkkä, and M. Sillanpää, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 16(4), 439–442 (2009).
[PubMed]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

2008 (4)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2, 77–84 (2008).

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44, 819 (2008).

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy for fabricating regularly arranged InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).

2007 (1)

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. Close, J. Ip, and K. Lam, “Water recycling with PV-powered UV-LED disinfection,” Renew. Energy 31, 1657–1664 (2006).

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

F. Glas, “Critical dimensions for the plastic relaxation of strained axial heterostructures in free-standing nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 121302 (2006).

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Abstreiter, G.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Adivarahan, V.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Akutagawa, M.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Albert, S.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Amano, H.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2, 77–84 (2008).

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Barbagini, F.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Bauer, J.

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

Bengoechea-Encabo, A.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Benndorf, G.

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

Bertness, K. A.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Bhattacharyya, A.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

Bichler, M.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Bilenko, Y.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Botton, G.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Botton, G. A.

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Bougerol, C.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Bugnet, M.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

Calarco, R.

T. Schumann, T. Gotschke, F. Limbach, T. Stoica, and R. Calarco, “Selective-area catalyst-free MBE growth of GaN nanowires using a patterned oxide layer,” Nanotechnology 22(9), 095603 (2011).
[PubMed]

Calleja, E.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Carrier, P.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Chitnis, A.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Chu, H. J.

H. J. Chu, T. W. Yeh, L. Stewart, and P. D. Dapkus, “Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7, 2494–2497 (2010).

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Close, J.

J. Close, J. Ip, and K. Lam, “Water recycling with PV-powered UV-LED disinfection,” Renew. Energy 31, 1657–1664 (2006).

Connie, A. T.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cros, A.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cui, K.

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1−xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043115 (2012).

Dapkus, P. D.

H. J. Chu, T. W. Yeh, L. Stewart, and P. D. Dapkus, “Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7, 2494–2497 (2010).

Dastjerdi, M. H.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Daudin, B.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

de Mierry, P.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

DenBaars, S. P.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Deng, J.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Djavid, M.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Einfeldt, S.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Ema, K.

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

Estradé, S.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Farrell, R.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Feezell, D.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Fernández-Garrido, S.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Finley, J. J.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Fujioka, A.

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

Fujita, T.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Fukahori, S.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Fukui, T.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

Gaska, R.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Gayral, B.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Glas, F.

F. Glas, “Critical dimensions for the plastic relaxation of strained axial heterostructures in free-standing nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 121302 (2006).

Gotschke, T.

T. Schumann, T. Gotschke, F. Limbach, T. Stoica, and R. Calarco, “Selective-area catalyst-free MBE growth of GaN nanowires using a patterned oxide layer,” Nanotechnology 22(9), 095603 (2011).
[PubMed]

Gottschalch, V.

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

Grandal, J.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Guo, H.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Hamamoto, A.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hara, S.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

Harvey, T. E.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Hersee, S. D.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[PubMed]

Hertenberger, S.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Hirano, A.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Hiruma, K.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

Hoshino, T.

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44, 819 (2008).

Hu, X.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Hug, W.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

Ide, K.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Ikehara, T.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ikejiri, K.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

Inari, M.

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

Inazu, T.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Inose, Y.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

Inoue, S.-i.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S.-i. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).

Ip, J.

J. Close, J. Ip, and K. Lam, “Water recycling with PV-powered UV-LED disinfection,” Renew. Energy 31, 1657–1664 (2006).

Ippommatsu, M.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Ishizawa, S.

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44, 819 (2008).

Iwaya, M.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Jahn, U.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Jekel, M.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ji, W.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

Jiang, H.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Kamiyama, S.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Kan, H.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208, 1586–1589 (2011).

Kang, J.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2, 77–84 (2008).

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Kawakami, Y.

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

Kelchner, K.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2, 77–84 (2008).

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Khan, M. A.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Kibria, M. G.

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2063–2068 (2009).

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44, 819 (2008).

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy for fabricating regularly arranged InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).

Kim, M.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Kimura, M.

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084004 (2014).

Kinoshita, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S.-i. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).

Kinouchi, Y.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kishino, K.

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2063–2068 (2009).

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44, 819 (2008).

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy for fabricating regularly arranged InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).

Knauer, A.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Kneissl, M.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Koblmüller, G.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Kolbe, T.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Kong, X.

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

Kong, X. H.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Korinek, A.

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kueller, V.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Külberg, A.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kuwabara, M.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208, 1586–1589 (2011).

Laleyan, D.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Lam, K.

J. Close, J. Ip, and K. Lam, “Water recycling with PV-powered UV-LED disinfection,” Renew. Energy 31, 1657–1664 (2006).

Le, B. H.

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

Lee, J.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Li, K. H.

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Limbach, F.

T. Schumann, T. Gotschke, F. Limbach, T. Stoica, and R. Calarco, “Selective-area catalyst-free MBE growth of GaN nanowires using a patterned oxide layer,” Nanotechnology 22(9), 095603 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Lipsz, M.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Liu, X. D.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lobo, N.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

López, L. L.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Luna, E.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Lunev, A.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Maeda, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).

Mandavilli, V.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Mi, Z.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).

S. M. Sadaf, Y. H. Ra, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Monolithically Integrated Metal/Semiconductor Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1076–1080 (2016).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1−xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043115 (2012).

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mickevicius, J.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

Misaki, T.

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

Mori, M.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Motohisa, J.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

Moustakas, T.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

Mukai, T.

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

Muramoto, Y.

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084004 (2014).

Murayama, T.

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

Murcia-Mascaros, S.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nagasawa, Y.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Nakano, M.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nakarmi, M.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Nakaya, Y.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nam, K.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Narukawa, Y.

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

Nataf, G.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Nguyen, H. P.

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, H. P. T.

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1−xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043115 (2012).

Noborisaka, J.

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

Noguchi, N.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Norimatsu, J.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Nouda, S.

Y. Muramoto, M. Kimura, and S. Nouda, “Development and future of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes: UV-LED will replace the UV lamp,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084004 (2014).

Obata, T.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S.-i. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).

Ohtsuki, T.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

Oto, T.

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

Paetzelt, H.

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

Pan, C.-C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Parbrook, P. J.

P. J. Parbrook and T. Wang, “Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1402–1411 (2011).

Peiró, F.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Pernot, C.

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

Pfaff, N.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Pierret, A.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Pimputkar, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Pofelski, A.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Ra, Y. H.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. M. Sadaf, Y. H. Ra, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Monolithically Integrated Metal/Semiconductor Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1076–1080 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ra, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

Rai, S.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Rashid, R.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Rebled, J. M.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Renevier, H.

A. Pierret, C. Bougerol, S. Murcia-Mascaros, A. Cros, H. Renevier, B. Gayral, and B. Daudin, “Growth, structural and optical properties of AlGaN nanowires in the whole composition range,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115704 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ristic, J.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Rodriguez, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Roshko, A.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Rourke, D. M.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Rudolph, D.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

Sadaf, S.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sadaf, S. M.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. M. Sadaf, Y. H. Ra, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Monolithically Integrated Metal/Semiconductor Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1076–1080 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

Sakai, M.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Sanders, A. W.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Sanford, N. A.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Särkkä, H.

S. Vilhunen, H. Särkkä, and M. Sillanpää, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 16(4), 439–442 (2009).
[PubMed]

Schlager, J. B.

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Schumann, T.

T. Schumann, T. Gotschke, F. Limbach, T. Stoica, and R. Calarco, “Selective-area catalyst-free MBE growth of GaN nanowires using a patterned oxide layer,” Nanotechnology 22(9), 095603 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sekiguchi, H.

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2063–2068 (2009).

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy for fabricating regularly arranged InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).

Sharif, S.

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shatalov, M.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Shih, I.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shur, M.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

Shur, M. S.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Sillanpää, M.

S. Vilhunen, H. Särkkä, and M. Sillanpää, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 16(4), 439–442 (2009).
[PubMed]

Smith, D. J.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

Stellmach, J.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Stewart, L.

H. J. Chu, T. W. Yeh, L. Stewart, and P. D. Dapkus, “Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7, 2494–2497 (2010).

Stoica, T.

T. Schumann, T. Gotschke, F. Limbach, T. Stoica, and R. Calarco, “Selective-area catalyst-free MBE growth of GaN nanowires using a patterned oxide layer,” Nanotechnology 22(9), 095603 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sun, X.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[PubMed]

Szkopek, T.

S. M. Sadaf, Y. H. Ra, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Monolithically Integrated Metal/Semiconductor Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1076–1080 (2016).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

Tachibana, S.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, A.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Takano, T.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Takeda, J.

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

Takeda, K.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Takeuchi, T.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Tamulaitis, G.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

Tanaka, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Tanaka, T.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

Tomioka, K.

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

Toyoda, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).

Trampert, A.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

Tran, N. H.

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

Tsubaki, K.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206, 1176–1182 (2009).

Uchiyama, K.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208, 1586–1589 (2011).

Vanka, S.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

Vilhunen, S.

S. Vilhunen, H. Särkkä, and M. Sillanpää, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 16(4), 439–442 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wagner, G.

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

Wakahara, A.

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

Wakikawa, N.

M. Mori, A. Hamamoto, A. Takahashi, M. Nakano, N. Wakikawa, S. Tachibana, T. Ikehara, Y. Nakaya, M. Akutagawa, and Y. Kinouchi, “Development of a new water sterilization device with a 365 nm UV-LED,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45(12), 1237–1241 (2007).
[PubMed]

Wang, Q.

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1−xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043115 (2012).

Wang, R.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, T.

P. J. Parbrook and T. Wang, “Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1402–1411 (2011).

Wang, X.

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Wei, S.-H.

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

Weyers, M.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

Woo, S.

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

Woo, S. Y.

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

Woo, S. Y.-M.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y.-M. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-Color Single Nanowire Pixels for Projection Displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wu, S.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Wu, Y.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Würtele, M. A.

M. A. Würtele, T. Kolbe, M. Lipsz, A. Külberg, M. Weyers, M. Kneissl, and M. Jekel, “Application of GaN-based ultraviolet-C light emitting diodes-UV LEDs-for water disinfection,” Water Res. 45(3), 1481–1489 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yamamoto, J.-i.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

Yamano, K.

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

Yamashita, Y.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208, 1586–1589 (2011).

Yanagi, H.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S.-i. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).

Yang, J.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

Yang, Z.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, and Z. Yang, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).

Yeh, T. W.

H. J. Chu, T. W. Yeh, L. Stewart, and P. D. Dapkus, “Wurtzite InP nanowire arrays grown by selective area MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 7, 2494–2497 (2010).

Yen, C.-C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “The current status of ultraviolet laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208, 1586–1589 (2011).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

Zhang, J. P.

X. Hu, J. Deng, J. P. Zhang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, T. Katona, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, and A. Khan, “Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 203, 1815–1818 (2006).

Zhang, S.

H. P. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhao, S.

S. M. Sadaf, S. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. H. Ra, X. Liu, S. Vanka, and Z. Mi, “An AlGaN Core-Shell Tunnel Junction Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Operating in the Ultraviolet-C Band,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 1212–1218 (2017).
[PubMed]

Z. Mi, S. Zhao, S. Woo, M. Bugnet, M. Djavid, X. Liu, J. Kang, X. Kong, W. Ji, and H. Guo, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al (Ga) N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49, 364006 (2016).

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Zhao, A. T. Connie, M. H. Dastjerdi, X. H. Kong, Q. Wang, M. Djavid, S. Sadaf, X. D. Liu, I. Shih, H. Guo, and Z. Mi, “Aluminum nitride nanowire light emitting diodes: Breaking the fundamental bottleneck of deep ultraviolet light sources,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8332 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

Q. Wang, A. T. Connie, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, S. Zhao, S. Sharif, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Highly efficient, spectrally pure 340 nm ultraviolet emission from AlxGa(1)-xN nanowire based light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345201 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Zhou, L.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

Zuniga-Perez, J.

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

Acta Mater. (1)

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, and R. Farrell, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61, 945–951 (2013).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. A. Bertness, A. W. Sanders, D. M. Rourke, T. E. Harvey, A. Roshko, J. B. Schlager, and N. A. Sanford, “Controlled nucleation of GaN nanowires grown with molecular beam epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2911–2915 (2010).

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlled Coalescence of AlGaN Nanowire Arrays: An Architecture for Nearly Dislocation-Free Planar Ultraviolet Photonic Device Applications,” Adv. Mater. 28(38), 8446–8454 (2016).
[PubMed]

APL Mater. (1)

S. Zhao, S. Woo, S. Sadaf, Y. Wu, A. Pofelski, D. Laleyan, R. Rashid, Y. Wang, G. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics,” APL Mater. 4, 086115 (2016).

Appl. Phys. Express (5)

B. H. Le, S. Zhao, N. H. Tran, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “On the Fermi-level pinning of InN grown surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 061001 (2015).

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Ti-mask selective-area growth of GaN by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy for fabricating regularly arranged InGaN/GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 124002 (2008).

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).

C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, and S. Kamiyama, “Improved efficiency of 255–280 nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).

A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211902 (2012).

J. Zhang, S. Wu, S. Rai, V. Mandavilli, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN multiple-quantum-well-based, deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with significantly reduced long-wave emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3456 (2003).

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).

Q. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, and Z. Mi, “High efficiency ultraviolet emission from AlxGa1−xN core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 043115 (2012).

M. Sakai, Y. Inose, K. Ema, T. Ohtsuki, H. Sekiguchi, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Random laser action in GaN nanocolumns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151109 (2010).

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S.-i. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).

J. Li, K. Nam, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, H. Jiang, P. Carrier, and S.-H. Wei, “Band structure and fundamental optical transitions in wurtzite AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5163–5165 (2003).

M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Kishino, T. Hoshino, S. Ishizawa, and A. Kikuchi, “Selective-area growth of GaN nanocolumns on titanium-mask-patterned silicon (111) substrates by RF-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy,” Electron. Lett. 44, 819 (2008).

Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. (1)

S. Vilhunen, H. Särkkä, and M. Sillanpää, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 16(4), 439–442 (2009).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. J. Parbrook and T. Wang, “Light emitting and laser diodes in the ultraviolet,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 1402–1411 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 114316 (2010).

J. Cryst. Growth (6)

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, F. Barbagini, S. Fernández-Garrido, J. Grandal, J. Ristic, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, U. Jahn, E. Luna, and A. Trampert, “Understanding the selective area growth of GaN nanocolumns by MBE using Ti nanomasks,” J. Cryst. Growth 325, 89–92 (2011).

K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, and A. Kikuchi, “Improved Ti-mask selective-area growth (SAG) by rf-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy demonstrating extremely uniform GaN nanocolumn arrays,” J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2063–2068 (2009).

H. Paetzelt, V. Gottschalch, J. Bauer, G. Benndorf, and G. Wagner, “Selective-area growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires—homo- and heteroepitaxy using templates,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 5093–5097 (2008).

J. Motohisa, J. Noborisaka, J. Takeda, M. Inari, and T. Fukui, “Catalyst-free selective-area MOVPE of semiconductor nanowires on (111)B oriented substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 272, 180–185 (2004).

A. Bengoechea-Encabo, S. Albert, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, L. L. López, S. Estradé, J. M. Rebled, F. Peiró, G. Nataf, P. de Mierry, J. Zuniga-Perez, and E. Calleja, “Selective area growth of a- and c-plane GaN nanocolumns by molecular beam epitaxy using colloidal nanolithography,” J. Cryst. Growth 353, 1–4 (2012).

K. Yamano, K. Kishino, H. Sekiguchi, T. Oto, A. Wakahara, and Y. Kawakami, “Novel selective area growth (SAG) method for regularly arranged AlGaN nanocolumns using nanotemplates,” J. Cryst. Growth 425, 316–321 (2015).

J. Mater. Res. (1)

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26, 2127–2141 (2011).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Left: Nanoscale aperture arrays defined by e-beam lithography on a 10 nm thick Ti mask on a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire substrate. Right: Schematic of the selective area epitaxy of GaN/AlxGa1-xN nanowires on the patterned substrate. (b) An SEM image of GaN/AlxGa1-xN nanowire arrays grown by selective area epitaxy.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Normalized room-temperature PL spectra of AlxGa1-xN nanowire arrays with Al compositions tuned from ~20% to 100%. (b) Plot of emission wavelength vs. Al composition for AlGaN nanowires demonstrated in this work (blue diamond) and reported previously (red circle) by selective area epitaxy.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of AlGaN nanowire LEDs grown by selective area epitaxy. (b) PL spectra of AlGaN nanowire LED heterostructures measured at 300 K under different excitation powers. Each spectrum was normalized by its individual peak intensity and shifted vertically for display purpose. (c) Variations of the PL spectral linewidth and peak energy as a function of excitation power. (d) Arrhenius plots of the integrated PL intensity measured from 14 K to 300 K for the active region (E1) emission and the whole spectra. The inset shows PL spectra measured between 300 K and 20 K under an excitation power of 50 mW. E1, E2 and E3 correspond to peak emissions from Al0.48Ga0.52N active region, Al0.64Ga0.36N cladding layers, and GaN, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Current-voltage characteristics of AlGaN nanowire LEDs with an area of 50 × 50 µm2. Inset: I-V characteristics of device under forward and reverse bias displayed in semi-log scale; (b) Electroluminescence spectra of AlGaN nanowire LEDs measured under different injection currents. (c) Power density and peak position as a function of current density measured at room-temperature under pulsed biasing condition.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 STEM studies of AlGaN nanowire heterostructures. (a) Low magnification STEM- HAADF image of multiple AlGaN nanowire devices in cross-section and oriented along the [11 2 ¯ 0] axis. (b) High magnification STEM-HAADF image of one nanowire (c) PCA-treated EELS elemental maps representing respectively, the distribution of Ga and Al in pseudo-color overlay (green for Al and red for Ga). (d) and (e) the distribution of Ga using its L2,3-edge and the distribution of Al using its K-edge in greyscale.

Equations (1)

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E g =6.015x+3.39(1x)0.98x(1x)

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