Abstract

Large-area and highly crystalline transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) films possess superior saturable absorption compared to the TMDs nanosheet counterparts, which make them more suitable as excellent saturable absorbers (SA) for ultrafast laser technology. Thus far, the nonlinear optical properties of large-scale WSe2 and its applications in ultrafast photonics have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, the saturable absorption of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown WSe2 films with large-scale and high quality are studied and the use of WSe2 films as a broadband SA for passively mode-locked fiber lasers at both 1.5 and 2 μm ranges is demonstrated. To enhance the light-material interaction, large-area WSe2 film is tightly transferred onto the side wall of a microfiber to form a hybrid structure, which realizes strong evanescent wave interaction between light and WSe2 film. The integrated microfiber-WSe2 device shows a large modulation depth of 54.5%. Using the large-area WSe2 as a mode-locker, stable soliton mode-locked pulse generation is achieved and the pulse durations of 477 fs (at 1.5 μm) and 1.18 ps (at 2.0 μm) are demonstrated, which suggests that the large-area and highly crystalline WSe2 films afford an excellent broadband SA for ultrafast photonic applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (4)

P. Yan, H. Chen, J. Yin, Z. Xu, J. Li, Z. Jiang, W. Zhang, J. Wang, I. L. Li, Z. Sun, and S. Ruan, “Large-area tungsten disulfide for ultrafast photonics,” Nanoscale 9(5), 1871–1877 (2017).
[PubMed]

H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Yang, X. Zhang, M. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Wang, Z. Sun, T. Guo, W. Liu, and P. Yan, “Transition-metal dichalcogenides heterostructure saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4279–4282 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2968–2979 (2017).

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (11)

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Trushin, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 155301 (2016).

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152 fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. S. Rhyee, J. Kwon, P. Dak, J. H. Kim, S. M. Kim, J. Park, Y. K. Hong, W. G. Song, I. Omkaram, M. A. Alam, and S. Kim, “High-mobility transistors based on large-area and highly crystalline CVD-grown MoSe2 films on insulating substrates,” Adv. Mater. 28(12), 2316–2321 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, and Y. M. Jhon, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 7454–7461 (2016).

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 227–238 (2016).

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10, 216–226 (2016).

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Tian, T. Qiao, Z. Hu, Z. Chen, X. He, Y. Yu, and J. Qiu, “MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Nanoscale 8(14), 7704–7710 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (10)

H. Zhou, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, Z. Lin, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 709–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Huang, L. Yang, D. Liu, J. Chen, Q. Fu, Y. Xiong, F. Lin, and B. Xiang, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer WSe2 on a SiO2/Si substrate and its device applications,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4193–4198 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, B. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Tang, C. T. Nai, L. Li, J. Zheng, L. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, and K. P. Loh, “Chemical vapor deposition of large-sized hexagonal WSe2 crystals on dielectric substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6722–6727 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-μm, all-fiberized laser using WS2 based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19996–20006 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. Lv, J. A. Robinson, R. E. Schaak, D. Sun, Y. Sun, T. E. Mallouk, and M. Terrones, “Transition metal dichalcogenides and beyond: synthesis, properties, and applications of single- and few-layer nanosheets,” Acc. Chem. Res. 48(1), 56–64 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (12)

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Li, J. Wu, Z. Yin, and H. Zhang, “Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47(4), 1067–1075 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Schmidt, S. Wang, L. Chu, M. Toh, R. Kumar, W. Zhao, A. H. C. Neto, J. Martin, S. Adam, B. Özyilmaz, and G. Eda, “Transport properties of monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1909–1913 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

D. Kozawa, R. Kumar, A. Carvalho, K. Kumar Amara, W. Zhao, S. Wang, M. Toh, R. M. Ribeiro, A. H. Castro Neto, K. Matsuda, and G. Eda, “Photocarrier relaxation pathway in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4543 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. W. H. Baugher, H. O. H. Churchill, Y. Yang, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 262–267 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. K. Huang, J. Pu, C. L. Hsu, M. H. Chiu, Z. Y. Juang, Y. H. Chang, W. H. Chang, Y. Iwasa, T. Takenobu, and L. J. Li, “Large-area synthesis of highly crystalline WSe2 monolayers and device applications,” ACS Nano 8(1), 923–930 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

H. Li, G. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, C. Cong, Q. He, L. Wang, F. Ding, T. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Mechanical exfoliation and characterization of single- and Few-Layer Nanosheets of WSe2, TaS2, and TaSe2,” Small 9(11), 1974–1981 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Abramski, K. M.

Adam, S.

H. Schmidt, S. Wang, L. Chu, M. Toh, R. Kumar, W. Zhao, A. H. C. Neto, J. Martin, S. Adam, B. Özyilmaz, and G. Eda, “Transport properties of monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1909–1913 (2014).
[PubMed]

Alam, M. A.

J. S. Rhyee, J. Kwon, P. Dak, J. H. Kim, S. M. Kim, J. Park, Y. K. Hong, W. G. Song, I. Omkaram, M. A. Alam, and S. Kim, “High-mobility transistors based on large-area and highly crystalline CVD-grown MoSe2 films on insulating substrates,” Adv. Mater. 28(12), 2316–2321 (2016).
[PubMed]

Albrow-Owen, T.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ali, A.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[PubMed]

Bansil, A.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bao, H.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).

Bao, Q.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[PubMed]

Baugher, B. W. H.

B. W. H. Baugher, H. O. H. Churchill, Y. Yang, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 262–267 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[PubMed]

Brivio, J.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[PubMed]

Carvalho, A.

D. Kozawa, R. Kumar, A. Carvalho, K. Kumar Amara, W. Zhao, S. Wang, M. Toh, R. M. Ribeiro, A. H. Castro Neto, K. Matsuda, and G. Eda, “Photocarrier relaxation pathway in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4543 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[PubMed]

Castro Neto, A. H.

D. Kozawa, R. Kumar, A. Carvalho, K. Kumar Amara, W. Zhao, S. Wang, M. Toh, R. M. Ribeiro, A. H. Castro Neto, K. Matsuda, and G. Eda, “Photocarrier relaxation pathway in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4543 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chamlagain, B.

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chang, T. R.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chang, W. H.

J. K. Huang, J. Pu, C. L. Hsu, M. H. Chiu, Z. Y. Juang, Y. H. Chang, W. H. Chang, Y. Iwasa, T. Takenobu, and L. J. Li, “Large-area synthesis of highly crystalline WSe2 monolayers and device applications,” ACS Nano 8(1), 923–930 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chang, Y. H.

J. K. Huang, J. Pu, C. L. Hsu, M. H. Chiu, Z. Y. Juang, Y. H. Chang, W. H. Chang, Y. Iwasa, T. Takenobu, and L. J. Li, “Large-area synthesis of highly crystalline WSe2 monolayers and device applications,” ACS Nano 8(1), 923–930 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, B.

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Huang, L. Yang, D. Liu, J. Chen, Q. Fu, Y. Xiong, F. Lin, and B. Xiang, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer WSe2 on a SiO2/Si substrate and its device applications,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4193–4198 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, B. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Tang, C. T. Nai, L. Li, J. Zheng, L. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, and K. P. Loh, “Chemical vapor deposition of large-sized hexagonal WSe2 crystals on dielectric substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6722–6727 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, L.

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yin, X. Zhang, T. Guo, and P. Yan, “High-damage-resistant tungsten disulfide saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16287–16296 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Zhou, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, Z. Lin, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 709–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

R. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Tian, T. Qiao, Z. Hu, Z. Chen, X. He, Y. Yu, and J. Qiu, “MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Nanoscale 8(14), 7704–7710 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cheng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cheng, M. M. C.

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cheng, R.

H. Zhou, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, Z. Lin, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 709–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chiu, M. H.

J. K. Huang, J. Pu, C. L. Hsu, M. H. Chiu, Z. Y. Juang, Y. H. Chang, W. H. Chang, Y. Iwasa, T. Takenobu, and L. J. Li, “Large-area synthesis of highly crystalline WSe2 monolayers and device applications,” ACS Nano 8(1), 923–930 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chu, L.

H. Schmidt, S. Wang, L. Chu, M. Toh, R. Kumar, W. Zhao, A. H. C. Neto, J. Martin, S. Adam, B. Özyilmaz, and G. Eda, “Transport properties of monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1909–1913 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chuang, H. J.

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

Churchill, H. O. H.

B. W. H. Baugher, H. O. H. Churchill, Y. Yang, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 262–267 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cobden, D. H.

J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
[PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cong, C.

H. Li, G. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, C. Cong, Q. He, L. Wang, F. Ding, T. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Mechanical exfoliation and characterization of single- and Few-Layer Nanosheets of WSe2, TaS2, and TaSe2,” Small 9(11), 1974–1981 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cui, X.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cui, Y. T.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dak, P.

J. S. Rhyee, J. Kwon, P. Dak, J. H. Kim, S. M. Kim, J. Park, Y. K. Hong, W. G. Song, I. Omkaram, M. A. Alam, and S. Kim, “High-mobility transistors based on large-area and highly crystalline CVD-grown MoSe2 films on insulating substrates,” Adv. Mater. 28(12), 2316–2321 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ding, F.

H. Li, G. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, C. Cong, Q. He, L. Wang, F. Ding, T. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Mechanical exfoliation and characterization of single- and Few-Layer Nanosheets of WSe2, TaS2, and TaSe2,” Small 9(11), 1974–1981 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dong, Z.

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
[PubMed]

Du, B.

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[PubMed]

Duan, X.

H. Zhou, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, Z. Lin, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 709–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Eda, G.

D. Kozawa, R. Kumar, A. Carvalho, K. Kumar Amara, W. Zhao, S. Wang, M. Toh, R. M. Ribeiro, A. H. Castro Neto, K. Matsuda, and G. Eda, “Photocarrier relaxation pathway in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4543 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Schmidt, S. Wang, L. Chu, M. Toh, R. Kumar, W. Zhao, A. H. C. Neto, J. Martin, S. Adam, B. Özyilmaz, and G. Eda, “Transport properties of monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1909–1913 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[PubMed]

Fan, D.

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[PubMed]

Fu, Q.

J. Huang, L. Yang, D. Liu, J. Chen, Q. Fu, Y. Xiong, F. Lin, and B. Xiang, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer WSe2 on a SiO2/Si substrate and its device applications,” Nanoscale 7(9), 4193–4198 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gao, L.

J. Chen, B. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Tang, C. T. Nai, L. Li, J. Zheng, L. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, and K. P. Loh, “Chemical vapor deposition of large-sized hexagonal WSe2 crystals on dielectric substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6722–6727 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gao, W. L.

Ghimire, N. J.

J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ghorannevis, Z.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[PubMed]

Giacometti, V.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[PubMed]

Gong, X.

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
[PubMed]

Guo, T.

Guo, Z.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hasan, T.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152 fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Trushin, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 155301 (2016).

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[PubMed]

He, Q.

H. Li, G. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, C. Cong, Q. He, L. Wang, F. Ding, T. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Mechanical exfoliation and characterization of single- and Few-Layer Nanosheets of WSe2, TaS2, and TaSe2,” Small 9(11), 1974–1981 (2013).
[PubMed]

He, X.

R. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Tian, T. Qiao, Z. Hu, Z. Chen, X. He, Y. Yu, and J. Qiu, “MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Nanoscale 8(14), 7704–7710 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hong, Y. K.

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J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Lee, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, femtosecond laser at 1912 nm using a bulk-like MoSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(8), 2968–2979 (2017).

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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, J.

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
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D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
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H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhang, W.

P. Yan, H. Chen, J. Yin, Z. Xu, J. Li, Z. Jiang, W. Zhang, J. Wang, I. L. Li, Z. Sun, and S. Ruan, “Large-area tungsten disulfide for ultrafast photonics,” Nanoscale 9(5), 1871–1877 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, W.

H. Schmidt, S. Wang, L. Chu, M. Toh, R. Kumar, W. Zhao, A. H. C. Neto, J. Martin, S. Adam, B. Özyilmaz, and G. Eda, “Transport properties of monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1909–1913 (2014).
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D. Kozawa, R. Kumar, A. Carvalho, K. Kumar Amara, W. Zhao, S. Wang, M. Toh, R. M. Ribeiro, A. H. Castro Neto, K. Matsuda, and G. Eda, “Photocarrier relaxation pathway in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4543 (2014).
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W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Chen, B. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Tang, C. T. Nai, L. Li, J. Zheng, L. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, and K. P. Loh, “Chemical vapor deposition of large-sized hexagonal WSe2 crystals on dielectric substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6722–6727 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

J. Chen, B. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Tang, C. T. Nai, L. Li, J. Zheng, L. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, and K. P. Loh, “Chemical vapor deposition of large-sized hexagonal WSe2 crystals on dielectric substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6722–6727 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zheng, Z.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152 fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhou, B.

Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, Z. Lin, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 709–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhou, W.

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhu, X.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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Acc. Chem. Res. (2)

R. Lv, J. A. Robinson, R. E. Schaak, D. Sun, Y. Sun, T. E. Mallouk, and M. Terrones, “Transition metal dichalcogenides and beyond: synthesis, properties, and applications of single- and few-layer nanosheets,” Acc. Chem. Res. 48(1), 56–64 (2015).
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H. Li, J. Wu, Z. Yin, and H. Zhang, “Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets,” Acc. Chem. Res. 47(4), 1067–1075 (2014).
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ACS Nano (3)

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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J. K. Huang, J. Pu, C. L. Hsu, M. H. Chiu, Z. Y. Juang, Y. H. Chang, W. H. Chang, Y. Iwasa, T. Takenobu, and L. J. Li, “Large-area synthesis of highly crystalline WSe2 monolayers and device applications,” ACS Nano 8(1), 923–930 (2014).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).

J. Koo, Y. I. Jhon, J. Park, J. Lee, and Y. M. Jhon, “Near-infrared saturable absorption of defective bulk-structured WTe2 for femtosecond laser mode-locking,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 7454–7461 (2016).

Adv. Mater. (3)

J. S. Rhyee, J. Kwon, P. Dak, J. H. Kim, S. M. Kim, J. Park, Y. K. Hong, W. G. Song, I. Omkaram, M. A. Alam, and S. Kim, “High-mobility transistors based on large-area and highly crystalline CVD-grown MoSe2 films on insulating substrates,” Adv. Mater. 28(12), 2316–2321 (2016).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Chen, B. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Tang, C. T. Nai, L. Li, J. Zheng, L. Gao, Y. Zheng, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, and K. P. Loh, “Chemical vapor deposition of large-sized hexagonal WSe2 crystals on dielectric substrates,” Adv. Mater. 27(42), 6722–6727 (2015).
[PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1447–1453 (2015).

Nano Lett. (5)

X. Lu, M. I. B. Utama, J. Lin, X. Gong, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. T. Pantelides, J. Wang, Z. Dong, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and Q. Xiong, “Large-area synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoSe2 films on SiO2 substrates,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2419–2425 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Schmidt, S. Wang, L. Chu, M. Toh, R. Kumar, W. Zhao, A. H. C. Neto, J. Martin, S. Adam, B. Özyilmaz, and G. Eda, “Transport properties of monolayer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 1909–1913 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Zhou, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, X. Huang, Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, Z. Lin, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Large area growth and electrical properties of p-type WSe2 atomic layers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 709–713 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. J. Chuang, X. Tan, N. J. Ghimire, M. M. Perera, B. Chamlagain, M. M. C. Cheng, J. Yan, D. Mandrus, D. Tománek, and Z. Zhou, “High mobility WSe2 p- and n-type field-effect transistors contacted by highly doped graphene for low-resistance contacts,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3594–3601 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Zhao, R. M. Ribeiro, M. Toh, A. Carvalho, C. Kloc, A. H. Castro Neto, and G. Eda, “Origin of indirect optical transitions in few-layer MoS2, WS2, and WSe2.,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5627–5634 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nanoscale (3)

P. Yan, H. Chen, J. Yin, Z. Xu, J. Li, Z. Jiang, W. Zhang, J. Wang, I. L. Li, Z. Sun, and S. Ruan, “Large-area tungsten disulfide for ultrafast photonics,” Nanoscale 9(5), 1871–1877 (2017).
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R. Wei, H. Zhang, X. Tian, T. Qiao, Z. Hu, Z. Chen, X. He, Y. Yu, and J. Qiu, “MoS2 nanoflowers as high performance saturable absorbers for an all-fiber passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” Nanoscale 8(14), 7704–7710 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

D. Kozawa, R. Kumar, A. Carvalho, K. Kumar Amara, W. Zhao, S. Wang, M. Toh, R. M. Ribeiro, A. H. Castro Neto, K. Matsuda, and G. Eda, “Photocarrier relaxation pathway in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4543 (2014).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T. C. Wu, H. Jussila, J. B. Wu, P. Peng, P. H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (5)

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Y. Zhang, T. R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y. T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H. T. Jeng, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z. X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(2), 111–115 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10, 216–226 (2016).

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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Trushin, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes,” Phys. Rev. B 94, 155301 (2016).

Sci. Rep. (5)

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152 fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
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D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
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M. Zhang, G. Hu, G. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, L. Chen, Z. Zheng, and T. Hasan, “Yb- and Er-doped fiber laser Q-switched with an optically uniform, broadband WS2 saturable absorber,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17482 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Mao, X. She, B. Du, D. Yang, W. Zhang, K. Song, X. Cui, B. Jiang, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked with few-layer WSe2/MoSe2 nanosheets,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23583 (2016).
[PubMed]

Small (2)

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12(11), 1489–1497 (2016).
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H. Li, G. Lu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, C. Cong, Q. He, L. Wang, F. Ding, T. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Mechanical exfoliation and characterization of single- and Few-Layer Nanosheets of WSe2, TaS2, and TaSe2,” Small 9(11), 1974–1981 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 CVD-growth of large-area WSe2 continuous film on a sapphire substrate. (a) Schematic of experimental setup for CVD growth of WSe2 atomic layers. (b) Optical microscope (OM) image of the monolayer WSe2 triangles grown at 790 °C. (c) OM image of the few-layer WSe2 continuous film grown at 750 °C. (d) AFM image of the WSe2 film close to film edge. (e) Magnified AFM image at the dashed lines area in (d). (f, g) Height profiles of line scan across the WSe2 layers corresponding to along the lines 1, 2, and 3 in (d), and (e), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of the CVD-grown WSe2 Film. (a) Low-magnification TEM image of WSe2 film transferred onto a carbon grid. (b) HRTEM image of WSe2 with periodic atom arrangement, the inset shows its SAED pattern with six-fold symmetry diffraction spots. (c) Magnified HRTEM image for the marked area in (b). (d) The measured EDS spectrum with the energy range of 0~14 keV. (e) Raman spectra of the monolayer, bilayer, and few-layer WSe2 film, the inset shows the atomic displacement of three Raman-active modes (A1g, E2g1, and B2g1) in WSe2. (f) PL spectra of monolayer and bilayer WSe2, all Raman spectra and PL spectra are excited by a 532 nm laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication of WSe2 SA integrated with a microfiber microstructure. (a) Schematic of PMMA-assisted WSe2 SA fabrication process by transferring the WSe2 film from the sapphire substrate onto the waist section of the microfiber. (b) SEM image of the microfiber covered with large-area WSe2 film. (c) Magnified SEM image at the marked area in (b), indicating close integration between WSe2 film and microfiber. (d, e) OM images of WSe2 film covered microfiber before and after launching 630 nm laser beam.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The linear absorption of few-layer WSe2 film from 1.0 to 2.0 μm. (b, c) The nonlinear absorption curves of microfiber WSe2 SA at 1550 nm and 1864 nm. (d) Schematic illustration of the typical ring cavity of the mode-locked fiber laser based on the microfiber WSe2 SA. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator; OC: optical coupler; PC: polarization controller.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode-locking characteristics of the 1.5 μm EDF laser. (a) Output optical spectrum with solitonic sidebands. (b) AC trace of mode-locked pulse with a sech2 fitting curve. (c) The fundamental frequency of typical RF spectrum of the output mode-locked pulse train. (d) The wideband RF spectrum in the 1GHz span.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Mode-locking pulse output characterizations of the 1.9 μm TDF laser. (a) Optical spectrum of the soliton mode-locked pulse overlapped with water absorption lines. (b) The AC trance with 1.18 ps pulse duration. (c) The fundamental frequency of 11.36 MHz. (d) The wideband RF spectrum.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of mode-locked lasers based on different 2D materials a

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