Abstract

We demonstrate cascaded Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG), and Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG) in integrated on-chip whispering-gallery resonators (WGRs). These lithium niobate-based WGRs are fabricated using highly-parallel semiconductor manufacturing techniques coupled with specialized polishing as a post-processing step and thus represent a novel means for batch fabrication of this family of non-linear devices. We achieved record high Q-factors for on-chip lithium niobate WGRs reaching up to 3 × 106. Furthermore, we present a flexible but stable coupling scheme, which gives us the opportunity to optimize the coupling regarding the non-linear optical processes we observe.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (6)

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photon. Res. L. 5, 623–628 (2017).

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. 395, 249–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Meisenheimer, J.U. Fürst, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillation tunable up to an 8 μm wavelength,” Optica 4(2), 189–192 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

M. Leidinger, B. Sturman, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Strong forward-backward asymmetry of stimulated raman scattering in lithium-niobate-based whispering gallery resonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2823–2826 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/w conversion efficiency,” Optica 3, 1126 (2016).
[Crossref]

D.V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A.B. Matsko, H.G.L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18(12), 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Siew, S. S. Saha, M. Tsang, and A. J. Danner, “Rib microring resonators in lithium niobate on insulator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 28, 573–576 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

G. Lin, J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Wide-range cyclic phase matching and second harmonic generation in whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.S. Werner, T. Beckmann, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Blue-pumped whispering gallery optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4224–4226 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19, 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 11415–11421 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, K. Saha, J. S. Levy, Y. H. Wen, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generation in a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3398–3400 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1, 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

A. Barker and R. Loudon, “Dielectric properties and optical phonons in LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. 158, 433–445 (1967).
[Crossref]

Absil, P. P.

Aiello, A.

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U.L.

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andronico, A.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Atikian, H. A.

Barker, A.

A. Barker and R. Loudon, “Dielectric properties and optical phonons in LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. 158, 433–445 (1967).
[Crossref]

Becker, P.

Beckmann, T.

C.S. Werner, T. Beckmann, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Blue-pumped whispering gallery optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4224–4226 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianco, F.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bo, F.

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photon. Res. L. 5, 623–628 (2017).

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohaty, L.

Borga, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bravo-Abad, J.

P. S. Kuo, J. Bravo-Abad, and G. S. Solomon, “Second-harmonic generation using 4-quasi-phasematching in a GaAs whispering-gallery-mode microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breunig, I.

S.-K. Meisenheimer, J.U. Fürst, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillation tunable up to an 8 μm wavelength,” Optica 4(2), 189–192 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Leidinger, B. Sturman, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Strong forward-backward asymmetry of stimulated raman scattering in lithium-niobate-based whispering gallery resonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2823–2826 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.U. Fürst, K. Buse, I. Breunig, P. Becker, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1932–1935 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Leidinger, S. Fieberg, N. Waasem, F. Kühnemann, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range,” Opt. Express 23(1), 21690–21705 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.S. Werner, T. Beckmann, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Blue-pumped whispering gallery optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4224–4226 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burek, M. J.

Buse, K.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

Byrd, M. J.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cazzanelli, M.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. 395, 249–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1, 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rogers, S.

Ryu, K. K.

Saha, K.

Saha, S. S.

S. Y. Siew, S. S. Saha, M. Tsang, and A. J. Danner, “Rib microring resonators in lithium niobate on insulator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 28, 573–576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

Schwefel, H.G.L.

D.V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A.B. Matsko, H.G.L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18(12), 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

Siew, S. Y.

S. Y. Siew, S. S. Saha, M. Tsang, and A. J. Danner, “Rib microring resonators in lithium niobate on insulator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 28, 573–576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G. S.

P. S. Kuo, J. Bravo-Abad, and G. S. Solomon, “Second-harmonic generation using 4-quasi-phasematching in a GaAs whispering-gallery-mode microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stark, P.

Steigerwald, H.

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.V.

D.V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A.B. Matsko, H.G.L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18(12), 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Lin, J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Wide-range cyclic phase matching and second harmonic generation in whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturman, B.

M. Leidinger, B. Sturman, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Strong forward-backward asymmetry of stimulated raman scattering in lithium-niobate-based whispering gallery resonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2823–2826 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, H. X.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsang, M.

S. Y. Siew, S. S. Saha, M. Tsang, and A. J. Danner, “Rib microring resonators in lithium niobate on insulator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 28, 573–576 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Véniard, V.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, V.

Waasem, N.

Wabnitz, S.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, S.

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photon. Res. L. 5, 623–628 (2017).

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. 395, 249–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y. H.

Werner, C.S.

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R. A.

Xiong, C.

Xu, J.

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photon. Res. L. 5, 623–628 (2017).

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.-X.

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. 395, 249–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

G. Lin, J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Wide-range cyclic phase matching and second harmonic generation in whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photon. Res. L. 5, 623–628 (2017).

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, C.-L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Lin, J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Wide-range cyclic phase matching and second harmonic generation in whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 28, 2631–2654 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Tech. L. (1)

S. Y. Siew, S. S. Saha, M. Tsang, and A. J. Danner, “Rib microring resonators in lithium niobate on insulator,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 28, 573–576 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D.V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A.B. Matsko, H.G.L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18(12), 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10, 569–587 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. S. Kuo, J. Bravo-Abad, and G. S. Solomon, “Second-harmonic generation using 4-quasi-phasematching in a GaAs whispering-gallery-mode microcavity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3109 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. mater. (1)

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. mater. 11, 148–154 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (5)

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1, 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Timurdogan, C. V. Poulton, M. J. Byrd, and M. R. Watts, “Electric field-induced second-order nonlinear optical effects in silicon waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11, 200–206 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 41–45 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4, 37–40 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6, 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Wang, J.-T. Lin, Y.-X. Xu, Z.-W. Fang, L.-L. Qiao, Z.-M. Liu, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q microresonators in dielectric materials using a femtosecond laser: Principle and applications,” Opt. Commun. 395, 249–260 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19, 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 11415–11421 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Leidinger, S. Fieberg, N. Waasem, F. Kühnemann, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range,” Opt. Express 23(1), 21690–21705 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072–23078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 30924–30933 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, Y. Liao, P. Wang, W. Chu, L. Qiao, J. Lin, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “On-chip electro-optic tuning of a lithium niobate microresonator with integrated in-plane microelectrodes,” Opt. Express 25(1), 124–129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Luo, H. Jiang, S. Rogers, H. Liang, Y. He, and Q. Lin, “On-chip second-harmonic generation and broadband parametric down-conversion in a lithium niobate microresonator,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24531–24539 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica (2)

Photon. Res. L. (1)

Z. Hao, J. Wang, S. Ma, W. Mao, F. Bo, F. Gao, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Sum-frequency generation in on-chip lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Photon. Res. L. 5, 623–628 (2017).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Barker and R. Loudon, “Dielectric properties and optical phonons in LiNbO3,” Phys. Rev. 158, 433–445 (1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.U. Fürst, D.V. Strekalov, D. Elser, A. Aiello, U.L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Low-threshold optical parametric oscillations in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263904 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Beckmann, H. Linnenbank, H. Steigerwald, B. Sturman, D. Haertle, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Highly tunable low-threshold optical parametric oscillation in radially poled whispering gallery resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(14), 143903 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. China Phys. Mech. (1)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Second harmonic generation in a high-Q lithium niobate microresonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. 58, 114209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Fabrication steps of the WGRs. b) Colored SEM image of the WGR, 200 μm in diameter and the ridge width is 7 μm, after RIE. c) Zoomed SEM view of ridge sidewall before polishing. Grey: LN substrate; Blue: 2 μm thick SiO2 layer; Red: 0.7 μm thick Single-crystalline +z-cut LN thin film; Yellow: Cr and Ti layer. d) Sidewall after polishing and removal of Cr and Ti layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the optical setup for Q-factor measurement and for investigation of nonlinear optical processes. The pump light is polarized perpendicular to the optical axis of the LN thin film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Linewidth δν and coupling contrast K as a function of the voltage applied to the piezo actuator being proportional to the distance between the coupling waveguide and the WGR. The piezo actuator expands approx. 100 nm/V. Inset: Transmission at the output of the coupling waveguide as a function of the detuning of the pump-laser frequency showing a Lorentzian shape.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Spectra of the scattered light from the WGR at 3, 7 and 13 mW pump power. Blue: Data measured with Bluewave spectrometer (measurement range 300 to 1100 nm). Grey: Data recorded by NIRQuest spectrometer (measurement range 900 to 2500 nm). Green inset: Spectrum measured at the coupling waveguide output. b) Microscope images of the WGR taken at 3, 7 and 13 mW pump power.

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