Abstract

We present the characterization of a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with electrical packaging and show that it exhibits a large third-order intermodulation spurious-free dynamic range (> 100 dB Hz2/3). This characteristic renders the modulator particularly suitable for the generation of high spectral efficiency discrete multi-tone signals and we experimentally demonstrate a single-channel, direct detection transmission system operating at 49.6 Gb/s, exhibiting a baseband spectral efficiency of 5 b/s/Hz. Successful transmission is demonstrated over various lengths of single mode fibre up to 40 km, without the need of any amplification or dispersion compensation.

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2017 (2)

2016 (8)

C. Zhang, P. Morton, J. B. Khurgin, J. D. Peters, and J. Bowers, “Ultralinear heterogeneously integrated ring-assisted Mach Zehnder interferometer modulator on silicon,” Optica 3, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhou, L. Xiang, Y. Lilin, Y. Qi, and F. Songnian, “Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs,” Opt. Lett. 41, 1805–1808 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, X. Chen, K. Kim, S. Chandrasekhar, Y.-K. Chen, and J. H. Sinsky, “128-Gb/s 100-km transmission with direct detection using silicon photonic Stokes vector receiver and I/Q modulator,” Opt. Express 24, 14208 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, S. Shao, L. Zhang, X. Fu, and L. Yang, “Method to improve the linearity of the silicon Mach-Zehnder optical modulator by doping control,” Opt. Express 24, 24641 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lacava, Z. Liu, D. Thomson, L. Ke, J. M. Fedeli, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulators for next-generation short-reach optical communication networks,” Proc. of SPIE,  9772, 977209 (2016).

P. Dong, J. Lee, Y.-k. Chen, L. L. Buhl, S. Chandrasekhar, J. H. Sinsky, and K. Kim, “Four-channel 100-Gb/s per channel discrete multitone modulation using silicon photonic integrated circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34, 79–84 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, C. Huang, K. Xu, C. Shu, S. Member, H. K. Tsang, and S. Member, “128-Gb/s line rate OFDM signal modulation using an integrated silicon microring modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 28, 2058–2061 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wong, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, L. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Zhang, S. Deng, G. N. Liu, and X. Xu, “Silicon IQ modulator for next-generation metro network,” J. Lightw. Technol. 34, 730–736 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. Patel, A. Samani, V. Veerasubramanian, S. Ghosh, and D. V. Plant, “Silicon photonic segmented modulator-based electro-optic DAC for 100 Gb/s PAM-4 generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 2433–2436 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, “Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications,” Front. Phys. 3, 1–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3, 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chagnon, M. Osman, M. Poulin, C. Latrasse, J.-F. Gagné, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, S. Lessard, and D. Plant, “Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 13 μm,” Opt. Express 22, 21018 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (4)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20, 12926 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ayazi, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, and M. Hochberg, “Linearity of silicon ring modulators for analog optical links,” Opt. Express 20, 13115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Gutierrez, J. V. Galan, J. Herrera, A. Brimont, D. Marris-Morini, J. M. Fédéli, L. Vivien, and P. Sanchis, “High linear ring-assisted MZI electro-optic silicon modulators suitable for radio-over-fiber applications,” IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics GFP 4, 57–59 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

N. N. Feng, S. R. Liao, D. Z. Feng, P. Dong, D. W. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. L. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm V pi L integrated on 0.25 um silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: Monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, and A. M. J. Koonen, “47.4 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352–359 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

I. Neokosmidis, T. Kamalakis, J. W. Walewski, B. Inan, and T. Sphicopoulos, “Impact of nonlinear LED transfer function on discrete multitone modulation: analytical approach,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4970–4978 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. C. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, R. Gaudino, G. Bosco, A. Bluschke, M. Matthews, P. Rietzsch, R. Steglich, H. P. van den Boom, and A. M. Koonen, “Discrete multitone modulation for maximizing transmission rate in step-index plastic optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1503–1513 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz pin Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 6252 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17, 7901–7906 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 42, 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced optical modulation formats,” Proceedings of the IEEE 94, 952–985 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-nm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. Jalali and F. Sasan, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600–4615 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Famà, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H. C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 586–588 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, and T. N. Nielsen, “Chromatic dispersion in fibre-optic microwave and millimiter-wave links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 44, 1716–1924 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimetre-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1848–1849 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. P. Tatam and D. A. Jackson, “Interferometric chromatic dispersion measurements on short lengths of monomode optical fiber,” J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 703–716 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

B. H. Kolner and D. W. Dolfi, “Intermodulation distortion and compression in an integrated electrooptic modulator,” Appl. Optics 26, 3676–3680 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abdalla, S.

A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 42, 2736–2744 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Pinguet, B. Analui, E. Balmater, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, Y. Liang, G. Masini, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, A. Narasimha, M. Peterson, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, S. Sahni, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, J. Yao, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, P. De Dobbelaere, and G. Capellini, “Monolithically integrated high-speed CMOS photonic transceivers,” in “2008 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, GFP,”, vol. 1 (2008), vol. 1, pp. 362–364.

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Plant, D. V.

Li Rui, D. Patel, E. El-Fiky, A. Samani, X. Zhenping, M. Osman, and D. V. Plant, “High-speed low-chirp PAM-4 transmission based on push-pull silicon photonic microring modulators,” Opt. Express 25, 13222–13229 (2017).
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R. Xiaoke, K. Li, D. J. Thomson, C. Lacava, F. Meng, I. Demirtzioglou, P. Petropoulos, Y. Zhu, G. T. Reed, and F. Zhang, “Experimental comparison of direct detection Nyquist SSB transmission based on silicon dual-drive and IQ Mach-Zehnder modulators with electrical packaging,” Opt. Express 25, 19332–19342 (2017).
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G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S.-W. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3, 229–245 (2014).
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C. Lacava, Z. Liu, D. Thomson, L. Ke, J. M. Fedeli, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulators for next-generation short-reach optical communication networks,” Proc. of SPIE,  9772, 977209 (2016).

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A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 42, 2736–2744 (2007).
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A. Narasimha, B. Analui, Y. Liang, T. J. Sleboda, S. Abdalla, E. Balmater, S. Gloeckner, D. Guckenberger, M. Harrison, R. G. M. P. Koumans, D. Kucharski, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, D. Song, and T. Pinguet, “A fully integrated 4× 10-Gb/s DWDM optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE Solid State Circuits Mag. 42, 2736–2744 (2007).
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C. Lacava, Z. Liu, D. Thomson, L. Ke, J. M. Fedeli, D. J. Richardson, G. T. Reed, and P. Petropoulos, “Silicon photonic Mach Zehnder modulators for next-generation short-reach optical communication networks,” Proc. of SPIE,  9772, 977209 (2016).

Thomson, D. J.

R. Xiaoke, K. Li, D. J. Thomson, C. Lacava, F. Meng, I. Demirtzioglou, P. Petropoulos, Y. Zhu, G. T. Reed, and F. Zhang, “Experimental comparison of direct detection Nyquist SSB transmission based on silicon dual-drive and IQ Mach-Zehnder modulators with electrical packaging,” Opt. Express 25, 19332–19342 (2017).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MZM layout. Inset: phase shifter cross section. The length of each phase shifter is 1.8 mm, while the unbalance between the two MZI paths is equal to 0.18 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) full device; (b) zoom of the optical unit and wire bonding and (c) zoom of the MZM optical unit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized MZM optical transmission for different DC voltages applied to a single RF input port; (b) measured phase shift for a given applied voltage; (c) modulation efficiency measured for different bias voltages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) E-O S21 parameter measured on the packaged device.(b) Electrical S21 parameter measured on the MZM device only (red dotted curve), the PCB board only (blue dash-dotted line) and the packaged MZM device (black line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linearity measurement set-up.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SFDRIMD3 measurements (resolution bandwidth B = 100Hz) carried out at a central frequency of 2,3 and 5 GHz on the Si-MZM biased at (a) 0 V, (b) 4 V and (c) 8 V; summary of (d) SFDRIMD3 (resolution bandwidth B = 1Hz) and (e) IIP3 measurements. Blue squares represent measurements carried out on Si-MZM at different bias voltages, while the red points correspond to results obtained for the LiNbO3 modulator, operated at the quadrature point (Vbias = 2.1V).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

DMT transmission set-up. QAM: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation; VOA: Variable Optical Attenuator; PD: Photodiode; TIA: Trans-impedance Amplifier; DAC: Digital to Analog Converter; ADC: Analog to Digital Converter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Link-SNR measured after 40 km SMF propagation (b) bit loading results for 40 km-long transmission link. 128-QAM and 64- QAM constellation diagrams are shown for B2B and 40 km transmissions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER measured for different SMF lengths. Note that for every BER result shown in this figure the OSNR was kept constant, thus the only impairment analyzed here is the CD.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SMF power fading SNR penalty calculated at a central wavelength of 1550 nm.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 MZM design: static simulation results. vrf = 4V

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linearity of various Si-based modulators present in the literature.

Tables Icon

Table 3 DMT parameters for 40 km-length link.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Baseband SE for various transmission systems reported in literature.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ( x , y ) = Δ n e + Δ n h = [ 8.8 x 10 22 Δ N + 8.5 x 10 18 ( Δ P ) 0.8 ]
Δ n eff = 1 n eff ( 0 ) = n ( x , y ) n ( 0 ) ( x , y ) | E 0 ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y | E ( 0 ) ( x , y ) | 2 d x d y
P out = P in cos 2 ( Δ ϕ 2 ) = P in cos 2 ( 2 π L λ Δ n eff ( V ) )
V = V D C + Δ v = V D C + v r f ( cos ω 1 t + cos ω 2 t )
Δ ϕ = 2 π Δ λ FSR
V π L = π V bias L Δ ϕ
SNR penalty = cos 2 ( π λ 2 c D L f 2 )