Abstract

The pulse contrast of state-of-the-art petawatt lasers is limited by coherent noise. This paper reports on a new family of noise, termed nonlinear beat noise, which is generated by the nonlinear mixing of two kinds of coherent noise in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). We theoretically study the various nonlinear beat noises and reveal their intensity evolutions in an OPCPA amplifier. The results suggest that nonlinear beat noise will be destructive to the future hundred-petawatt lasers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  2. B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
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2017 (1)

2016 (4)

H. Liebetrau, M. Hornung, S. Keppler, M. Hellwing, A. Kessler, F. Schorcht, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “High contrast, 86 fs, 35 mJ pulses from a diode-pumped, Yb:glass, double-chirped-pulse amplification laser system,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3006–3009 (2016).
[PubMed]

N. Khodakovskiy, M. Kalashnikov, E. Gontier, F. Falcoz, and P. M. Paul, “Degradation of picosecond temporal contrast of Ti:sapphire lasers with coherent pedestals,” Opt. Lett. 41(19), 4441–4444 (2016).
[PubMed]

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

C. Dorrer, A. Consentino, and D. Irwin, “Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(6), 1–7 (2016).

2015 (3)

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High power Laser Sci. Eng. 3(1), 5–18 (2015).

Y. Chu, Z. Gan, X. Liang, L. Yu, X. Lu, C. Wang, X. Wang, L. Xu, H. Lu, D. Yin, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “High-energy large-aperture Ti:sapphire amplifier for 5 PW laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5011–5014 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 296–307 (2012).

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

H.-C. Wu and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Giant half-cycle attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 304–307 (2012).

2011 (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

C. Hooker, Y. Tang, O. Chekhlov, J. Collier, E. Divall, K. Ertel, S. Hawkes, B. Parry, and P. P. Rajeev, “Improving coherent contrast of petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2193–2203 (2011).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. Dorrer, “Analysis of pump-induced temporal contrast degradation in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 3048–3057 (2007).

Z. Li, Y. Dai, T. Wang, and G. Xu, “Influence of spectral clipping in chirped pulse amplification laser system on pulse temporal profile,” High-Power Lasers and Applications 6823(1), 682315 (2007).

I. N. Ross, G. H. C. New, and P. K. Bates, “Contrast limitation due to pump noise in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 510–514 (2007).

2006 (1)

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

P. Zhu, L. Qian, S. Xue, and Z. Lin, “Numerical studies of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 13–19 (2003).

Albert, O.

Albright, B. J.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Audebert, P.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

N. Forget, A. Cotel, E. Brambrink, P. Audebert, C. Le Blanc, A. Jullien, O. Albert, and G. Chériaux, “Pump-noise transfer in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2921–2923 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bates, P. K.

I. N. Ross, G. H. C. New, and P. K. Bates, “Contrast limitation due to pump noise in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 510–514 (2007).

Beluze, A.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Brambrink, E.

Cerullo, G.

Chekhlov, O.

Cheriaux, G.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Chériaux, G.

Chu, Y.

Cobble, J.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Collier, J.

Consentino, A.

C. Dorrer, A. Consentino, and D. Irwin, “Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(6), 1–7 (2016).

Cotel, A.

Dai, Y.

Z. Li, Y. Dai, T. Wang, and G. Xu, “Influence of spectral clipping in chirped pulse amplification laser system on pulse temporal profile,” High-Power Lasers and Applications 6823(1), 682315 (2007).

Danson, C.

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High power Laser Sci. Eng. 3(1), 5–18 (2015).

Divall, E.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, A. Consentino, and D. Irwin, “Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(6), 1–7 (2016).

C. Dorrer, “Analysis of pump-induced temporal contrast degradation in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 3048–3057 (2007).

Druon, F.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Eikema, K. S. E.

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 296–307 (2012).

Ertel, K.

Falcoz, F.

Fernández, J. C.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Fisch, N. J.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Flippo, K.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Forget, N.

Freneaux, A.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Gan, Z.

Georges, P.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Gontier, E.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Hawkes, S.

Hegelich, B. M.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Hein, J.

Hellwing, M.

Hillier, D.

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High power Laser Sci. Eng. 3(1), 5–18 (2015).

Hooker, C.

Hopps, N.

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High power Laser Sci. Eng. 3(1), 5–18 (2015).

Hornung, M.

Huang, S. W.

Irwin, D.

C. Dorrer, A. Consentino, and D. Irwin, “Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(6), 1–7 (2016).

Jang, Y. H.

Jullien, A.

Kalashnikov, M.

Kaluza, M. C.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Kärtner, F. X.

Keppler, S.

Kessler, A.

Khazanov, E. A.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Khodakovskiy, N.

Le Blanc, C.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

N. Forget, A. Cotel, E. Brambrink, P. Audebert, C. Le Blanc, A. Jullien, O. Albert, and G. Chériaux, “Pump-noise transfer in optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2921–2923 (2005).
[PubMed]

Le Garrec, B.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Lebas, N.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Lee, C. W.

Lee, H. W.

Lee, S. K.

Leng, Y.

Letzring, S.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Li, R.

Li, Z.

Z. Li, Y. Dai, T. Wang, and G. Xu, “Influence of spectral clipping in chirped pulse amplification laser system on pulse temporal profile,” High-Power Lasers and Applications 6823(1), 682315 (2007).

Liang, X.

Liebetrau, H.

Limpert, J.

Lin, Z.

P. Zhu, L. Qian, S. Xue, and Z. Lin, “Numerical studies of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 13–19 (2003).

Lu, H.

Lu, X.

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Ma, J.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Yuan, J. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Xie, and L. Qian, “Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15580–15594 (2013).
[PubMed]

Malkin, V. M.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Manzoni, C.

Martin, L.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Mathieu, F.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Mennerat, G.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

H.-C. Wu and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Giant half-cycle attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 304–307 (2012).

Monot, P.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Moses, J.

Mourou, G. A.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Nam, C. H.

Neely, D.

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High power Laser Sci. Eng. 3(1), 5–18 (2015).

New, G. H. C.

I. N. Ross, G. H. C. New, and P. K. Bates, “Contrast limitation due to pump noise in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 510–514 (2007).

Paffett, M.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Papadopoulos, D. N.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Parry, B.

Paul, P. M.

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Qian, L.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Yuan, J. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Xie, and L. Qian, “Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15580–15594 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Zhu, L. Qian, S. Xue, and Z. Lin, “Numerical studies of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 13–19 (2003).

Rajeev, P. P.

Ramirez, P.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Ross, I. N.

I. N. Ross, G. H. C. New, and P. K. Bates, “Contrast limitation due to pump noise in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 510–514 (2007).

Ruhl, H.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Schimpf, D.

Schorcht, F.

Schreiber, J.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Schulze, R. K.

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Seidel, A.

Seise, E.

Sergeev, A. M.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Son, Y. J.

Sung, J. H.

Tajima, T.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Tang, Y.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

Toroker, Z.

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, C.

Wang, J.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Yuan, J. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Xie, and L. Qian, “Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15580–15594 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, T.

Z. Li, Y. Dai, T. Wang, and G. Xu, “Influence of spectral clipping in chirped pulse amplification laser system on pulse temporal profile,” High-Power Lasers and Applications 6823(1), 682315 (2007).

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Yuan, J. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Xie, and L. Qian, “Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15580–15594 (2013).
[PubMed]

Witte, S.

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 296–307 (2012).

Wu, H.-C.

H.-C. Wu and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Giant half-cycle attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 304–307 (2012).

Xie, G.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Yuan, J. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Xie, and L. Qian, “Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15580–15594 (2013).
[PubMed]

Xu, G.

Z. Li, Y. Dai, T. Wang, and G. Xu, “Influence of spectral clipping in chirped pulse amplification laser system on pulse temporal profile,” High-Power Lasers and Applications 6823(1), 682315 (2007).

Xu, L.

Xu, Z.

Xue, S.

P. Zhu, L. Qian, S. Xue, and Z. Lin, “Numerical studies of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 13–19 (2003).

Yang, J. M.

Yin, D.

Yoo, J. Y.

Yoon, J. W.

Yu, L.

Yuan, P.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, P. Yuan, J. Ma, Y. Wang, G. Xie, and L. Qian, “Surface-reflection-initiated pulse-contrast degradation in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15580–15594 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhu, H.

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu, L. Qian, S. Xue, and Z. Lin, “Numerical studies of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 13–19 (2003).

Zou, J. P.

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Dorrer, A. Consentino, and D. Irwin, “Direct optical measurement of the on-shot incoherent focal spot and intensity contrast on the OMEGA EP laser,” Appl. Phys. B 122(6), 1–7 (2016).

High power Laser Sci. Eng. (1)

C. Danson, D. Hillier, N. Hopps, and D. Neely, “Petawatt class lasers worldwide,” High power Laser Sci. Eng. 3(1), 5–18 (2015).

D. N. Papadopoulos, J. P. Zou, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, P. Georges, F. Druon, G. Mennerat, P. Ramirez, L. Martin, A. Freneaux, A. Beluze, N. Lebas, P. Monot, F. Mathieu, and P. Audebert, “The Apollon 10 PW laser: experimental and theoretical investigation of the temporal characteristics,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 4(3), 127–133 (2016).

High-Power Lasers and Applications (1)

Z. Li, Y. Dai, T. Wang, and G. Xu, “Influence of spectral clipping in chirped pulse amplification laser system on pulse temporal profile,” High-Power Lasers and Applications 6823(1), 682315 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Witte and K. S. E. Eikema, “Ultrafast Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 296–307 (2012).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Ma, P. Yuan, J. Wang, Y. Wang, G. Xie, H. Zhu, and L. Qian, “Spatiotemporal noise characterization for chirped-pulse amplification systems,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6192 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430 (2011).

H.-C. Wu and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Giant half-cycle attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 304–307 (2012).

Nature (1)

B. M. Hegelich, B. J. Albright, J. Cobble, K. Flippo, S. Letzring, M. Paffett, H. Ruhl, J. Schreiber, R. K. Schulze, and J. C. Fernández, “Laser acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic MeV ion beams,” Nature 439(7075), 441–444 (2006).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

I. N. Ross, G. H. C. New, and P. K. Bates, “Contrast limitation due to pump noise in an optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system,” Opt. Commun. 273(2), 510–514 (2007).

G. A. Mourou, N. J. Fisch, V. M. Malkin, Z. Toroker, E. A. Khazanov, A. M. Sergeev, T. Tajima, and B. Le Garrec, “Exawatt-Zettawatt pulse generation and applications,” Opt. Commun. 285(5), 720–724 (2012).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

P. Zhu, L. Qian, S. Xue, and Z. Lin, “Numerical studies of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Laser Technol. 35(1), 13–19 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal profiles of the OPCPA output under the pump-noise situations of (a) a single sinusoidal modulation with modulation rate Ωp1 = 10.5 THz and amplitude rp1 = 10−3; (b) a single sinusoidal modulation with Ωp2 = 15.0 THz and rp2 = 10−2; and (c) both of these two modulations, respectively. The OPCPA operates in the strong pump-depletion regime (ηp = 45%) with a pump intensity of Ip0 = 4 GW/cm2. The red, blue and green arrows in (c) indicate the 2nd, 3rd and 4th order spikes of the nonlinear beat noise. (d) Intensity evolutions of the 2nd (red, 3rd (blue) and 4th (green) order nonlinear-beat-noise spikes at t = −17 ps, −27 ps and −34 ps respectively in (c), versus the parametric gain G0 and pump-depletion ratio ηp (gray line). The solid and dashed lines represent the results obtained with numerical simulations and Eq. (4), respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal profile of a seed pulse followed by two post-pulses at ts1 = 7 ps and ts2 = 10 ps with relative intensities of rs1 = 10−5 and rs2 = 10−3, respectively. (b), (c) Temporal profile of this signal pulse after amplification with a clean pump pulse (Ip0 = 4 GW/cm2) at low pump-depletion (ηp = 1%) and strong pump-depletion (ηp = 45%) level, respectively. The open-triangles (open-circles) mark the pre-pulses induced by the nonlinear mixing of the post-pulse at ts1 (ts2) with the main signal pulse. The arrows indicate the nonlinear beat noise spikes induced by the nonlinear mixing of the two post-pulses. The olive, red, blue, green and orange arrows correspond to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th order spikes, respectively. (d) Intensity evolution of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order nonlinear-beat-noise spike at t = −17 ps, −27 ps and −37 ps, versus the parametric gain and pump-depletion (gray line). The solid and dashed lines represent the results calculated with numerical simulations and analytical formula Eq. (5), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Temporal profile of a seed pulse followed by a post-pulse at ts = 10 ps with a relative intensity of rs = 10−3. (b),(c) Temporal profiles of this signal pulse after amplification by a pump pulse with an intensity modulation of Ωp = 10.5 THz, rp = 10−3 at low pump-depletion (ηp = 1%) and strong pump-depletion (ηp = 45%) level, respectively. The red, blue and green arrows indicate the 2nd, 3rd and 4th order nonlinear-beat-noise spikes. (d) Intensity evolution of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th order nonlinear-beat-noise spike at t = −17 ps, −27 ps and −37 ps versus the parametric gain and pump-depletion (gray line). The solid and dashed lines represent the results from numerical simulations and Eq. (6), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profiles of OPCPA output under the pump-noise situations of (a) the pump laser contains the ASE noise with a bandwidth of 1 nm and an intensity of 10−4 with respect to the pump intensity); (b) the pump laser contains a sinusoidal intensity modulation with Ωp = 15.0 THz and rp = 10−2; and (c) the pump laser contains both the ASE and intensity modulation. The OPCPAs all operate in the strong pump-depletion regime with ηp = 45%. (d) Intensities of the noise spike (solid-lines) and pedestal (dotted-dash lines) located at t = −10 ps (red), −20 ps (blue) and −30 ps (green) versus the parametric gain and pump-depletion (gray line). The intensity of the main coherent-noise-pedestal at t = 0 is also plotted, as the black dotted-dash line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profiles of the compressed signal pulses after amplification (ηp = 45%) under the noise situations of (a) the pump pulse contains ASE noise (1 nm in bandwidth and 10−4 in relative intensity, the seed pulse is ideal clean; (b) the pump laser is clean while the seed pulse contains a post-pulse at ts = 10 ps with a relative intensity of rs = 10−3; and (c) the pump-intensity modulation and signal post-pulse exist together. (d) Intensity evolutions of coherent-noise spikes (solid lines) and replicas of coherent noise-pedestal (dotted-dash lines) located at t = −10ps (red), −20ps (blue) and −30ps (green), versus the parametric gain and pump-depletion (gray line). The intensity of the main coherent-noise-pedestal at t = 0 is also plotted (black).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A s (z,t)= A s0 ( t )×cosh[ Γz I p0 (t)[ 1+ r p1 cos( Ω p1 t )+ r p2 cos( Ω p2 t ) ] ],
A s (z,t) A amp ( t )× m,n [ ln( 4 G 0 ) 8 ] | m |+| n | r p1 | m | r p2 | n | e i( m Ω p1 n Ω p2 )t | m |!×| n |!×| m |×| n | .
Ω noise =m Ω p1 n Ω p2 ,
I comp (t) m,n [ ln( 4 G 0 ) 8 ] 2| m |+2| n | ( r p1 | m | r p2 | n | | m |×| n |×| m |!×| n |! ) 2 I 0 ( t mΩ p1 n Ω p2 C ) ,
I noise ( t=m t s1 n t s2 ) I 0 ( t=0 )× r s1 | m | r s2 | n | ( | m |!| n |! ) 2 ( ω s ω p η p ) 2| m |+2| n | ,
I noise ( t= m Ω p C n t s ) I 0 ( t=0 )× ( | n |! | m |! ) 2 r p 2| m | r s | n | [ ln( 4 G 0 ) 4 ] 2| m | ( ω s ω p η p ) 2| n | ,