Abstract

The resonant interaction of an optical field with two-level doping ions in a cryogenic optical fiber is investigated within the framework of nonlinear Schrödinger and Maxwell-Bloch equations. We present explicit fundamental rational rogue wave solutions in the context of self-induced transparency for the coupled optical and matter waves. It is exhibited that the optical wave component always features a typical Peregrine-like structure, while the matter waves involve more complicated yet spatiotemporally balanced amplitude distribution. The existence and stability of these rogue waves is then confirmed by numerical simulations, and they are shown to be excited amid the onset of modulation instability. These solutions can also be extended, using the same analytical framework, to include higher-order dispersive and nonlinear effects, highlighting their universality.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  37. S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Watch-hand-like optical rogue waves in three-wave interactions,” Opt. Express 23(1), 349–359 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing and coherent stimulated scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033847 (2015).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, and D. Mihalache, “Versatile rogue waves in scalar, vector, and multidimensional nonlinear systems,” J. Phys. A 50, 463001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

A. Ankiewicz, D. J. Kedziora, A. Chowdury, U. Bandelow, and N. Akhmediev, “Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 012206 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Y. Liu, and Ph. Grelu, “Chirped Peregrine solitons in a class of cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equations,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 062202 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, Ph. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. M. Arkhipov, M. V. Arkhipov, I. Babushkin, and N. N. Rosanov, “Self-induced transparency mode locking, and area theorem,” Opt. Lett. 41(4), 737–740 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X.-M. Cai, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. Wabnitz, and F. Baronio, “Complementary optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5886–5895 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Watch-hand-like optical rogue waves in three-wave interactions,” Opt. Express 23(1), 349–359 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Baronio, S. Chen, Ph. Grelu, S. Wabnitz, and M. Conforti, “Baseband modulation instability as the origin of rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 033804 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing and coherent stimulated scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033847 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and D. Mihalache, “Vector rogue waves in the Manakov system: Diversity and compossibility,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48, 215202 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Coexisting rogue waves within the (2+1)-component long-wave–short-wave resonance,” Phys. Rev. E 90, 033203 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, S. Lombardo, M. Onorato, and S. Wabnitz, “Vector rogue waves and baseband modulation instability in the defocusing regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 034101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nature Photon. 8, 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Dark three-sister rogue waves in normally dispersive optical fibers with random birefringence,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27632–27642 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

C. Li, J. He, and K. Porsezian, “Rogue waves of the Hirota and the Maxwell-Bloch equations,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 012913 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nature Photon. 7, 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, “Twisted rogue-wave pairs in the Sasa-Satsuma equation,” Phys. Rev. E 88, 023202 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, and S. Lombardo, “Rogue waves emerging from the resonant interaction of three waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 114101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

C. Lecaplain, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. He, S. Xu, and K. Porseizan, “N-order bright and dark rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 066603 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Kleefeld, A. Q. M. Khaliq, and B. A. Wade, “An ETD Crank-Nicolson method for reaction-diffusion systems,” Numer. Methods PDEs 28, 1309–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Chabchoub, N. P. Hoffmann, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 204502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, “Observation of Peregrine solitons in a multicomponent plasma with negative ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “The Peregrine soliton in nonlinear fibre optics,” Nature Phys. 6, 790–795 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue waves and rational solutions of the Hirota equation,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 046602 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Yu. V. Bludov, V. V. Konotop, and N. Akhmediev, “Matter rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033610 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 675–678 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature (London) 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Inelastic scattering and interactions of three-wave parametric solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065602(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. S. He, Y. Cheng, and Y. S. Li, “The Darboux transformation for NLS-MB equations,” Commun. Theor. Phys. 38, 493–496 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Q.-H. Park and R. W. Boyd, “Modification of self-induced transparency by a coherent control field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2774–2777 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technologies,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. H. M. van Tartwijk and G. P. Agrawal, “Maxwell–Bloch dynamics and modulation instabilities in fiber lasers and amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(10), 2618–2627 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Kurokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Self-induced-transparency solitons in an erbium-doped fiber waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 45, R23–R26 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistence of a self-induced-transparency soliton and a nonlinear Schrödinger soliton in an erbium-doped fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5973–5987 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

A. I. Maimistov and E. A. Manykin, “Propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in resonant nonlinear light guides,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 85, 1177–1181 (1983).

D. H. Peregrine, “Water waves, nonlinear Schödinger equations and their solutions,” J. Aust. Math. Soc. Series B: Appl. Math. 25, 16–43 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. Interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, “Physical interpretation of inverse scattering formalism applied to self-induced transparency,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 331–339 (1979).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Akhmediev, N.

A. Ankiewicz, D. J. Kedziora, A. Chowdury, U. Bandelow, and N. Akhmediev, “Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 012206 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chabchoub, N. P. Hoffmann, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 204502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue waves and rational solutions of the Hirota equation,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 046602 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “The Peregrine soliton in nonlinear fibre optics,” Nature Phys. 6, 790–795 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu. V. Bludov, V. V. Konotop, and N. Akhmediev, “Matter rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033610 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 675–678 (2009).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, 1975).

Amiraranashvili, S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andreana, M.

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113902 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ankiewicz, A.

A. Ankiewicz, D. J. Kedziora, A. Chowdury, U. Bandelow, and N. Akhmediev, “Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 012206 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Conforti, M.

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, Ph. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20785 (2016).
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S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing and coherent stimulated scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033847 (2015).
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F. Baronio, S. Chen, Ph. Grelu, S. Wabnitz, and M. Conforti, “Baseband modulation instability as the origin of rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 033804 (2015).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, S. Lombardo, M. Onorato, and S. Wabnitz, “Vector rogue waves and baseband modulation instability in the defocusing regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 034101 (2014).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, and S. Lombardo, “Rogue waves emerging from the resonant interaction of three waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 114101 (2013).
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F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113902 (2010).
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M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Inelastic scattering and interactions of three-wave parametric solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065602(R) (2006).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113902 (2010).
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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, S. Lombardo, M. Onorato, and S. Wabnitz, “Vector rogue waves and baseband modulation instability in the defocusing regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 034101 (2014).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, and S. Lombardo, “Rogue waves emerging from the resonant interaction of three waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 114101 (2013).
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F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113902 (2010).
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M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Inelastic scattering and interactions of three-wave parametric solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065602(R) (2006).
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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
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B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, Ph. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20785 (2016).
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N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, S. Lombardo, M. Onorato, and S. Wabnitz, “Vector rogue waves and baseband modulation instability in the defocusing regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 034101 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, and D. Mihalache, “Versatile rogue waves in scalar, vector, and multidimensional nonlinear systems,” J. Phys. A 50, 463001 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, X.-M. Cai, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. Wabnitz, and F. Baronio, “Complementary optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5886–5895 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Y. Liu, and Ph. Grelu, “Chirped Peregrine solitons in a class of cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equations,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 062202 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Watch-hand-like optical rogue waves in three-wave interactions,” Opt. Express 23(1), 349–359 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing and coherent stimulated scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033847 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Coexisting rogue waves within the (2+1)-component long-wave–short-wave resonance,” Phys. Rev. E 90, 033203 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Dark three-sister rogue waves in normally dispersive optical fibers with random birefringence,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27632–27642 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lecaplain, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue waves and rational solutions of the Hirota equation,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 046602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steinmeyer, G.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Struthers, A.

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Kurokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Self-induced-transparency solitons in an erbium-doped fiber waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 45, R23–R26 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szriftgiser, P.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Taki, M.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 675–678 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tiofack, C. G.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tlidi, M.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

van Tartwijk, G. H. M.

Vouzas, P.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, Ph. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X.-M. Cai, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. Wabnitz, and F. Baronio, “Complementary optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing,” Opt. Express 24(6), 5886–5895 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Baronio, S. Chen, Ph. Grelu, S. Wabnitz, and M. Conforti, “Baseband modulation instability as the origin of rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 033804 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing and coherent stimulated scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033847 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, S. Lombardo, M. Onorato, and S. Wabnitz, “Vector rogue waves and baseband modulation instability in the defocusing regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 034101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Inelastic scattering and interactions of three-wave parametric solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065602(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

Wade, B. A.

B. Kleefeld, A. Q. M. Khaliq, and B. A. Wade, “An ETD Crank-Nicolson method for reaction-diffusion systems,” Numer. Methods PDEs 28, 1309–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

J. He, S. Xu, and K. Porseizan, “N-order bright and dark rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 066603 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamada, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistence of a self-induced-transparency soliton and a nonlinear Schrödinger soliton in an erbium-doped fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5973–5987 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.-P.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Commun. Theor. Phys. (1)

J. S. He, Y. Cheng, and Y. S. Li, “The Darboux transformation for NLS-MB equations,” Commun. Theor. Phys. 38, 493–496 (2002).
[Crossref]

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D. H. Peregrine, “Water waves, nonlinear Schödinger equations and their solutions,” J. Aust. Math. Soc. Series B: Appl. Math. 25, 16–43 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, Ph. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events”, J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. A (1)

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, and D. Mihalache, “Versatile rogue waves in scalar, vector, and multidimensional nonlinear systems,” J. Phys. A 50, 463001 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. (1)

S. Chen and D. Mihalache, “Vector rogue waves in the Manakov system: Diversity and compossibility,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48, 215202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature (London) 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (2)

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nature Photon. 8, 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nature Photon. 7, 102–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature Phys. (1)

B. Kibler, J. Fatome, C. Finot, G. Millot, F. Dias, G. Genty, N. Akhmediev, and J. M. Dudley, “The Peregrine soliton in nonlinear fibre optics,” Nature Phys. 6, 790–795 (2010).
[Crossref]

Numer. Methods PDEs (1)

B. Kleefeld, A. Q. M. Khaliq, and B. A. Wade, “An ETD Crank-Nicolson method for reaction-diffusion systems,” Numer. Methods PDEs 28, 1309–1335 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technologies,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, and M. Taki, “Waves that appear from nowhere and disappear without a trace,” Phys. Lett. A 373, 675–678 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

Yu. V. Bludov, V. V. Konotop, and N. Akhmediev, “Matter rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 033610 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, S. Chen, Ph. Grelu, S. Wabnitz, and M. Conforti, “Baseband modulation instability as the origin of rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 033804 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistence of a self-induced-transparency soliton and a nonlinear Schrödinger soliton in an erbium-doped fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5973–5987 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Kurokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Self-induced-transparency solitons in an erbium-doped fiber waveguide,” Phys. Rev. A 45, R23–R26 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Ziolkowski, J. M. Arnold, and D. M. Gogny, “Ultrafast pulse interactions with two-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3082–3094 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Ph. Grelu, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical rogue waves in parametric three-wave mixing and coherent stimulated scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033847 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (8)

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Inelastic scattering and interactions of three-wave parametric solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065602(R) (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Coexisting rogue waves within the (2+1)-component long-wave–short-wave resonance,” Phys. Rev. E 90, 033203 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Li, J. He, and K. Porsezian, “Rogue waves of the Hirota and the Maxwell-Bloch equations,” Phys. Rev. E 87, 012913 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, S. Xu, and K. Porseizan, “N-order bright and dark rogue waves in a resonant erbium-doped fiber system,” Phys. Rev. E 86, 066603 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue waves and rational solutions of the Hirota equation,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 046602 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, “Twisted rogue-wave pairs in the Sasa-Satsuma equation,” Phys. Rev. E 88, 023202 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ankiewicz, D. J. Kedziora, A. Chowdury, U. Bandelow, and N. Akhmediev, “Infinite hierarchy of nonlinear Schrödinger equations and their solutions,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 012206 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, F. Baronio, J. M. Soto-Crespo, Y. Liu, and Ph. Grelu, “Chirped Peregrine solitons in a class of cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equations,” Phys. Rev. E 93, 062202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, and S. Wabnitz, “Solutions of the vector nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Evidence for deterministic rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 044102 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, and S. Lombardo, “Rogue waves emerging from the resonant interaction of three waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 114101 (2013).
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A. Chabchoub, N. P. Hoffmann, and N. Akhmediev, “Rogue wave observation in a water wave tank,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 204502 (2011).
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H. Bailung, S. K. Sharma, and Y. Nakamura, “Observation of Peregrine solitons in a multicomponent plasma with negative ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 255005 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, Ph. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, A. Degasperis, S. Lombardo, M. Onorato, and S. Wabnitz, “Vector rogue waves and baseband modulation instability in the defocusing regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 034101 (2014).
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F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 113902 (2010).
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D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. Interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979).
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H. A. Haus, “Physical interpretation of inverse scattering formalism applied to self-induced transparency,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 331–339 (1979).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Frisquet, B. Kibler, Ph. Morin, F. Baronio, M. Conforti, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, “Optical dark rogue wave,” Sci. Rep. 6, 20785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

A. I. Maimistov and E. A. Manykin, “Propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in resonant nonlinear light guides,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 85, 1177–1181 (1983).

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L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, 1975).

C. Kharif, E. Pelinovsky, and A. Slunyaev, Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

3D surface and contour plots of the spatiotemporal evolutions for optical field |A|, off-diagonal element |M|, population difference F in the MB case (s = 0). Column (a): ω = 1 2 2 3 3; Column (b): ω = 0; Column (c): ω = 1 2; Column (d): ω = 1 2 + 2 3 3. The other parameters are given by a = 1, σ = 1, ϕ = 1 2, and b = 2 a / 4 σ a 2 + κ 2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatiotemporal distribution of the rogue wave components |A|, |M|, and F in the NLS–MB case (s = 1) under otherwise identical condition as in Fig. 1(b). (a)–(c): Surface plots; (d)–(f): Contour plots; (g)–(i): Temporal profiles for the amplitudes |A|, |M| and the real quantity F at given distances as indicated in the panels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MI gain map versus Λ and ω: (a) s = 0 (MB case); (b) s = 1 (NLS–MB case). The other parameters are specified by a = 1, σ = 1, ϕ = 1 2, and b = 2 a / 4 σ a 2 + κ 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the rogue waves in the NLS-MB case, with s = 1, a = 1.5, σ = 1, ϕ = 1 2, and ω = 0. Column (a): Analytical solutions, given by 3D surface and contour plots; Column (b): Contour plots of numerical results, using the analytical solutions (9)(11) at ξ = −1 as initial conditions; Column (c): The numerical results obtained with the solution (9) and the plane waves M0 and F0 at ξ = −1 as the corresponding initial conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical excitation of the rogue wave profiles, indicated by the black circles, from a white-noise perturbation to the initial plane-wave solutions (14), under otherwise identical parameter condition as in Fig. 4.

Equations (24)

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i u z β 2 2 u t t + γ | u | 2 u + R Ω 2 n 2 c p 21 v 1 v 2 * = 0 , v 1 t = i 2 δ v 1 + 2 i p 21 R u v 2 , v 2 t = i 2 δ v 2 + 2 i p 21 * R u * v 1 ,
A = u P SIT , M = 2 i | p 21 | p 21 σ v 1 v 2 * , F = | v 2 | 2 | v 1 | 2 , ξ = z z s , and τ = t τ s ,
A ξ = i ( σ 2 A τ τ + P SIT P NLS | A | 2 A ) + M , M τ = i ϕ M 2 σ A F , F τ = M * A + M A * ,
z s = 2 c σ n τ s Ω 2 , z d = τ s 2 | β 2 | , and σ = z s z d = 1 Ω 2 c n τ s z d ,
F 2 + σ | M | 2 = 1 .
M = M ( ξ , τ , ϕ ) g ( ϕ ) d ϕ .
P NLS = P SIT , or equivalently , γ = 4 | p 21 | 2 | β 2 | 2 R 2 ,
A ξ = i s ( σ 2 A τ τ + | A | 2 A ) + M , M τ = i ϕ M 2 σ A F , F τ = M * A + M A * ,
A ( ξ , τ ) = A 0 ( 1 16 i η ξ + 4 16 η 2 ξ 2 + 4 a 2 θ 2 / σ + 1 ) ,
M ( ξ , τ ) = M 0 { 1 4 i κ 2 ( 4 η ξ i ) ( κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 ) ( 16 η 2 ξ 2 + 4 a 2 θ 2 / σ + 1 ) 64 i [ 4 a 2 θ 2 + σ ( 4 η ξ i ) 2 ] a 2 η ξ + 32 ( 4 η ξ i ) a 2 κ θ ( κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 ) ( 16 η 2 ξ 2 + 4 a 2 θ 2 / σ + 1 ) 2 } ,
F ( ξ , τ ) = κ b 2 a 8 σ a b [ ( 16 η 2 ξ 2 4 a 2 θ 2 / σ + 1 ) κ 32 a 2 η ξ θ ] ( κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 ) ( 16 η 2 ξ 2 + 4 a 2 θ 2 / σ + 1 ) 2 ,
κ = σ ( ω ϕ ) , θ = τ σ χ ξ ,
η = σ a b κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 + s a 2 2 , χ = κ b a ( κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 ) + s ω .
A 0 = a exp [ i ( K ξ + ω τ ) ] , M 0 = i b a A 0 , F 0 = κ b 2 a ,
K = b a + s ( a 2 σ ω 2 2 ) .
F ( ξ , τ ) 2 + σ | M ( ξ , τ ) | 2 = ( κ 2 4 a 2 + σ ) b 2 ,
b = 2 a κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 ,
ξ 0 = ± 2 8 h ( 4 σ a 2 κ 2 4 σ a 2 + κ 2 κ 2 4 σ a 2 + κ 2 ) 1 / 2 , τ 0 = σ χ ξ 0 + 4 σ η ξ 0 | κ | / κ 4 σ a 2 + κ 2 | κ | ,
ξ 0 = ± 2 8 h ( 4 σ a 2 κ 2 4 σ a 2 + κ 2 κ 2 4 σ a 2 + κ 2 ) 1 / 2 , τ 0 = σ χ ξ 0 4 σ η ξ 0 | κ | / κ 4 σ a 2 + κ 2 | κ | ,
A ξ = i s ( σ 2 A τ τ + | A | 2 A ) + h ( σ 6 A τ τ τ + | A | 2 A τ ) + M , M τ = i ϕ M 2 σ A F , F τ = M * A + M A * ,
K = b a + s ( a 2 σ ω 2 2 ) + h 6 ω ( 6 a 2 σ ω 2 ) ,
η = σ a b κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 + s 2 a 2 + h 2 ω a 2 ,
χ = κ b a ( κ 2 + 4 σ a 2 ) + s ω + h ( σ ω 2 2 a 2 ) 2 σ .
[ μ s σ ω + b σ κ a ( Λ 2 σ 4 4 a 2 σ κ 2 ) ] 2 + σ 4 ( 4 a 2 Λ 2 σ ) [ s + 2 σ b a ( Λ 2 σ 2 4 a 2 σ κ 2 ) ] 2 = 0 ,