Abstract

In this report, an ultra-high sensitive quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) based ammonia (NH3) sensor using a power amplified diode laser and a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork (QTF) was demonstrated for the first time. A fiber-coupled, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser with a watt level output power boosted by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) was used as the QEPAS excitation source. A QTF with a resonance frequency of 30.72 kHz was employed as an acoustic wave transducer. The modulation depth in the wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) based QEPAS system was optimized theoretically and validated by experimental measurements. For the reported NH3 sensor system, a 418.4 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) minimum detection limit at a NH3 absorption line of 6533.4 cm−1 was achieved when the modulation depth was set to the optimum value of 0.188 cm−1. The ppb-level detection sensitivity verified the design of the reported QEPAS method and makes it suitable for use in environmental monitoring and other applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2016 (2)

2015 (6)

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 111–118 (2015).

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

2013 (2)

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

A. Elia, P. M. Lugarà, C. Di Franco, and V. Spagnolo, “Photoacoustic techniques for trace gas sensing based on semiconductor laser sources,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 9616–9628 (2009).
[PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

2006 (1)

S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

1998 (1)

K. W. van der Hoek, “Estimating ammonia emission factors in Europe: summary of the work of the UNECE ammonia expert panel,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 315–316 (1998).

1993 (1)

G. P. Wyers, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “A continuous-flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentration and surface-exchange fluxes of ammonia,” Atmos. Environ. 27a, 2085–2090 (1993).

1990 (1)

M. C. Wu, N. A. Olsson, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “A 970 nm strained-layer InGaAs/GaAlAs quantum well laser for pumping an erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 221–223 (1990).

1989 (2)

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Aneja, V. P.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Asman, W. A. H.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Baer, D. S.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Beere, H. E.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Chen, D. Y.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Chen, W. D.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

Cho, A. Y.

M. C. Wu, N. A. Olsson, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “A 970 nm strained-layer InGaAs/GaAlAs quantum well laser for pumping an erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 221–223 (1990).

Claps, R.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Di Franco, C.

A. Elia, P. M. Lugarà, C. Di Franco, and V. Spagnolo, “Photoacoustic techniques for trace gas sensing based on semiconductor laser sources,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 9616–9628 (2009).
[PubMed]

Dong, L.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

L. Dong, V. Spagnolo, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of nitric oxide using an external cavity quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24037–24045 (2011).
[PubMed]

Elia, A.

A. Elia, P. M. Lugarà, C. Di Franco, and V. Spagnolo, “Photoacoustic techniques for trace gas sensing based on semiconductor laser sources,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 9616–9628 (2009).
[PubMed]

Englich, F. V.

Erisman, J. W.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Fertein, E.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Fowler, D.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Gao, X. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Goodman, W.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[PubMed]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Hanson, R. K.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Jia, S. T.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

Keuken, M. P.

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Köhring, M.

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 111–118 (2015).

Kosterev, A. A.

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Lafferty, W.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Leleux, D. P.

Lendl, B.

Lewicki, R.

Li, X. D.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Li, Z.

Liu, K.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Liu, X. L.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

Lugarà, P. M.

A. Elia, P. M. Lugarà, C. Di Franco, and V. Spagnolo, “Photoacoustic techniques for trace gas sensing based on semiconductor laser sources,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 9616–9628 (2009).
[PubMed]

Ma, W. G.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

Ma, Y.

Ma, Y. F.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Maamary, R.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Mols, J. J.

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Mordmüller, M.

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 111–118 (2015).

Moser, H.

Murray, G. C.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).

Narasimhan, L. R.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[PubMed]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Olsson, N. A.

M. C. Wu, N. A. Olsson, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “A 970 nm strained-layer InGaAs/GaAlAs quantum well laser for pumping an erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 221–223 (1990).

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Otjes, R. P.

G. P. Wyers, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “A continuous-flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentration and surface-exchange fluxes of ammonia,” Atmos. Environ. 27a, 2085–2090 (1993).

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Patel, C. K. N.

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[PubMed]

Patimisco, P.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Patni, N.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Razeghi, M.

Ren, W.

Richter, D.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Ritchie, D. A.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Robert, P.

Roelle, P. A.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Sampaolo, A.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Scamarcio, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Schade, W.

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 111–118 (2015).

Schilt, S.

S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).

S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, and P. Robert, “Wavelength modulation spectroscopy: combined frequency and intensity laser modulation,” Appl. Opt. 42(33), 6728–6738 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sigrist, M. W.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

Simeckova, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Sivco, D.

M. C. Wu, N. A. Olsson, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “A 970 nm strained-layer InGaAs/GaAlAs quantum well laser for pumping an erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 221–223 (1990).

Slanina, J.

G. P. Wyers, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “A continuous-flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentration and surface-exchange fluxes of ammonia,” Atmos. Environ. 27a, 2085–2090 (1993).

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Southerland, J.

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

Spagnolo, V.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

L. Dong, V. Spagnolo, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of nitric oxide using an external cavity quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24037–24045 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Elia, P. M. Lugarà, C. Di Franco, and V. Spagnolo, “Photoacoustic techniques for trace gas sensing based on semiconductor laser sources,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 9616–9628 (2009).
[PubMed]

Sun, R.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).

Tan, T.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Thevenaz, L.

S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).

Thévenaz, L.

Tittel, F. K.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Y. Ma, R. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[PubMed]

L. Dong, V. Spagnolo, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level detection of nitric oxide using an external cavity quantum cascade laser based QEPAS sensor,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24037–24045 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Claps, F. V. Englich, D. P. Leleux, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Ammonia detection by use of near-infrared diode-laser-based overtone spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40(24), 4387–4394 (2001).
[PubMed]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

van der Hoek, K. W.

K. W. van der Hoek, “Estimating ammonia emission factors in Europe: summary of the work of the UNECE ammonia expert panel,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 315–316 (1998).

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Vitiello, M. S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

Waclawek, J. P.

Wang, G. S.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Wang, L.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Wang, Z.

Wayers-Ijpelaan, A.

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Webber, M. E.

Willer, U.

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 111–118 (2015).

Wu, H. P.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

Wu, M. C.

M. C. Wu, N. A. Olsson, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “A 970 nm strained-layer InGaAs/GaAlAs quantum well laser for pumping an erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 221–223 (1990).

Wyers, G. P.

G. P. Wyers, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “A continuous-flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentration and surface-exchange fluxes of ammonia,” Atmos. Environ. 27a, 2085–2090 (1993).

Yi, H. M.

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

Yin, W. B.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

Yin, X. K.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

Yu, G.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Yu, X.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Zhang, J. B.

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

Zhang, L.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

Zhang, W. J.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Zhao, W. X.

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Zheng, H. D.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Mordmüller, M. Köhring, W. Schade, and U. Willer, “An electrically and optically cooperated QEPAS device for highly integrated gas sensors,” Appl. Phys. B 119, 111–118 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. F. Ma, X. Yu, G. Yu, X. D. Li, J. B. Zhang, D. Y. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Multi-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 021106 (2015).

M. C. Wu, N. A. Olsson, D. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “A 970 nm strained-layer InGaAs/GaAlAs quantum well laser for pumping an erbium-doped optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 221–223 (1990).

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, and K. Suzuki, “Efficient Er3+-doped optical fiber amplifier pumped by a 1.48 μm InGaAsP laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295–297 (1989).

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 111104 (2015).

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, M. S. Vitiello, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Terahertz quartz enhanced photo-acoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021105 (2013).

H. M. Yi, R. Maamary, X. M. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, and W. D. Chen, “Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 101109 (2015).

Atmos. Environ. (4)

V. P. Aneja, P. A. Roelle, G. C. Murray, J. Southerland, J. W. Erisman, D. Fowler, W. A. H. Asman, and N. Patni, “Atmospheric nitrogen compound II: emissions, transport, transformation, deposition and assessment,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 1903–1911 (2000).

K. W. van der Hoek, “Estimating ammonia emission factors in Europe: summary of the work of the UNECE ammonia expert panel,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 315–316 (1998).

G. P. Wyers, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “A continuous-flow denuder for the measurement of ambient concentration and surface-exchange fluxes of ammonia,” Atmos. Environ. 27a, 2085–2090 (1993).

M. P. Keuken, A. Wayers-Ijpelaan, J. J. Mols, R. P. Otjes, and J. Slanina, “The determination of ammonia in ambient air by an automated thermodenuder system,” Atmos. Environ. 23, 2177–2185 (1989).

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

S. Schilt and L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110, 533–572 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Liu, W. X. Zhao, L. Wang, T. Tan, G. S. Wang, W. J. Zhang, X. M. Gao, and W. D. Chen, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy of HCN from 6433 to 6613 cm−1,” Opt. Commun. 340, 126–130 (2015).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and C. K. N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(8), 4617–4621 (2001).
[PubMed]

Sensor. Actuat. B (1)

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, X. L. Liu, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Enhanced near-infrared QEPAS sensor for sub-ppm level H2Sdetection by means of a fiber amplified 1582 nm DFB laser,” Sensor. Actuat. B 221, 666–672 (2015).

Sensors (Basel) (1)

A. Elia, P. M. Lugarà, C. Di Franco, and V. Spagnolo, “Photoacoustic techniques for trace gas sensing based on semiconductor laser sources,” Sensors (Basel) 9(12), 9616–9628 (2009).
[PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Current tuning at different operating temperatures of the 1.53 μm CW-DFB diode laser.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Near–infrared diode laser emission spectrum: (a) Seed diode laser with a 4.9 mW output power; (b) EDFA amplified diode laser with a 1000 mW output power.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic configuration of the QEPAS sensor system with an EDFA amplified diode laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Second harmonic signal S2f as a function of the modulation depth coefficient.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized S2f signals as function of the modulation depth coefficient.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 NH3-QEPAS signals for two absorption lines located at 6533.4 cm−1 and 6534.6 cm−1 with the optimum modulation depth.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 QEPAS signal. (a) Different optical power levels with an optimum modulation depth of 0.188 cm−1. (b) QEPAS signals peak value as a function of optical power.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 QEPAS signal. (a) Different NH3 concentration levels with an optimum modulation depth of 0.188 cm−1. (b) QEPAS signals peak value as a function of NH3 concentration.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v = v ¯ δ v cos ( ω m t + ϕ )
P ( v ) = P ( v ¯ ) + Δ P ( δ v ) cos ( ω m t ) = P 0 ( 1 + p Ω x ¯ + p ω m cos ( ω m t ) )
α ( v ) = C N 0 S g ( v ) = C N 0 S π γ 1 1 + [ ( v v 0 ) / γ ] 2 = α 0 1 1 + x 2
x = x ¯ M cos ( ω m t + ϕ )
α ( x ¯ ) = α 0 1 1 + ( x ¯ M cos ( ω m t + ϕ ) ) 2 = α 0 [ H 0 ( x ¯ ) + n = 1 H 1 ( x ¯ ) cos ( n ω m t + n ϕ ) ]
H 0 ( x ¯ ) = 1 π 0 π 1 1 + ( x ¯ - M cos ( θ ) ) 2 d θ
H n ( x ¯ ) = 2 π 0 π cos ( n θ ) 1 + ( x ¯ - M cos ( θ ) ) 2 d θ
S 2 f ( v ) = k C c e l l [ α ( v ) P ( v ) ] 2 f = k C c e l l α 0 P 0 [ ( 1 + p Ω x ¯ ) H 2 cos ( 2 ω m t + 2 ϕ ) ]

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