Abstract

A flexible all-dielectric metamaterials composed of single-layer ceramic microspheres embedded in elastomeric medium is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in terahertz (THz) range. The THz waves are strongly confined in the high-permittivity and low-loss ceramic (ZrO2) microspheres resulting in remarkable Mie magnetic resonances, which can be effectively tuned with strained elastomeric medium. The first resonance mode would experience red shifts with the increased strain along magnetic field direction, while it would experience blue shifts with the increased strain along electric field direction. These properties are well explained by dipole-dipole coupling theory. This work provides an easy and cheap method to obtain tunable all-dielectric metamaterials in THz range.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

2015 (3)

J. B. Khurgin, “How to deal with the loss in plasmonics and metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 2–6 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Yang, B. Cui, Z. Geng, and S. Feng, “Terahertz magnetic and electric Mie resonances of an all-dielectric one-dimensional grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 111106 (2015).

2013 (2)

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Practicality of compensating the loss in the plasmonic waveguides using semiconductor gain medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 11105 (2012).

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6459–6463 (2012).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[PubMed]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

V. Belov, I. Belov, and L. Harel, “Preparation of Spherical Yttria- Stabilized Zirconia Powders by Reactive‐Spray Atomization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 982–990 (1997).

Abbott, D.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Belov, I.

V. Belov, I. Belov, and L. Harel, “Preparation of Spherical Yttria- Stabilized Zirconia Powders by Reactive‐Spray Atomization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 982–990 (1997).

Belov, V.

V. Belov, I. Belov, and L. Harel, “Preparation of Spherical Yttria- Stabilized Zirconia Powders by Reactive‐Spray Atomization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 982–990 (1997).

Bhaskaran, M.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Bi, K.

Boltasseva, A.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chang, S.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Chichkov, B. N.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cui, B.

Y. Yang, B. Cui, Z. Geng, and S. Feng, “Terahertz magnetic and electric Mie resonances of an all-dielectric one-dimensional grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 111106 (2015).

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

Eriksen, R. L.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fan, K.

Feng, S.

Y. Yang, B. Cui, Z. Geng, and S. Feng, “Terahertz magnetic and electric Mie resonances of an all-dielectric one-dimensional grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 111106 (2015).

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fumeaux, C.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Geng, Z.

Y. Yang, B. Cui, Z. Geng, and S. Feng, “Terahertz magnetic and electric Mie resonances of an all-dielectric one-dimensional grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 111106 (2015).

Giessen, H.

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gutruf, P.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Harel, L.

V. Belov, I. Belov, and L. Harel, “Preparation of Spherical Yttria- Stabilized Zirconia Powders by Reactive‐Spray Atomization,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 982–990 (1997).

Headland, D.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ishii, S.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

Khurgin, J. B.

J. B. Khurgin, “How to deal with the loss in plasmonics and metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(1), 2–6 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Practicality of compensating the loss in the plasmonic waveguides using semiconductor gain medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 11105 (2012).

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6459–6463 (2012).
[PubMed]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lan, C.

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[PubMed]

Li, B.

Li, J.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Liu, N.

N. Liu and H. Giessen, “Coupling effects in optical metamaterials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(51), 9838–9852 (2010).
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

Y. H. Fu, A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Directional visible light scattering by silicon nanoparticles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1527 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6459–6463 (2012).
[PubMed]

A. I. Kuznetsov, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. H. Fu, J. Zhang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Magnetic light,” Sci. Rep. 2, 492 (2012).
[PubMed]

Mitchell, A.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

Naik, G. V.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

Nirantar, S.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

Novikov, S. M.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

K. Fan, J. Y. Suen, X. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “All-dielectric metasurface absorbers for uncooled terahertz imaging,” Optica 4, 601–604 (2017).

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[PubMed]

Qu, Z.

Reinhardt, C.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shah, C. M.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Shalaev, V. M.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[PubMed]

Sriram, S.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

Sun, G.

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Practicality of compensating the loss in the plasmonic waveguides using semiconductor gain medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 11105 (2012).

Ung, B. S.-Y.

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

West, P. R.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4, 795–808 (2010).

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[PubMed]

Withayachumnankul, W.

D. Headland, S. Nirantar, W. Withayachumnankul, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, C. Fumeaux, and S. Sriram, “Terahertz magnetic mirror realized with dielectric resonator antennas,” Adv. Mater. 27(44), 7137–7144 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Li, C. M. Shah, W. Withayachumnankul, B. S.-Y. Ung, A. Mitchell, S. Sriram, M. Bhaskaran, S. Chang, and D. Abbott, “Mechanically tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 121101 (2013).

Yang, Y.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The process flow of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials: (a) Fabrication of stainless steel container. (b) Single layer of micro zirconia (yttria-stabilized) spherical particles is placed on the container. (c) Casting PDMS into the container to form all-dielectric metamaterials. (d) Peeling the flexible all-dielectric metamaterials from the container.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The fabricated flexible all-dielectric metamaterials: (a) The photograph of micro zirconia (yttria-stabilized) spherical particles. (b) The top view of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (c) The side view of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (d) The photograph of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (e) The measured transmission spectrum of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials, the inserts are the magnetic field and electric field distribution at the transmission dip, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The strain-dependent response of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (a) The response with strain direction along electric field. (b) The response with strain direction along magnetic field.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The underlying physics of strain-dependent response of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (a) The level scheme of coupled dipoles. (b) The simplified model for flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (c) The case for strain direction along magnetic field (d) The case for strain direction along electric field.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The equivalent all-dielectric metasurface used in the simulations. (b) - (e) The simulated deformation with various strains (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%) along x-direction. (f) The change in unit cell size with strain along the x-direction.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The simulated strain-dependent response of flexible all-dielectric metamaterials. (a) The response with strain direction along electric field. (b) The response with strain direction along magnetic field.

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