Abstract

Spectro-temporal studies on the nonlinear physics of complex laser dynamics are essential in approaching its ultimate performance as well as understanding interdisciplinary problems. Unfortunately, it has long been limited by the insufficient spectro-temporal resolving power of conventional temporal and spectral analyzers, particularly when an indefinite optical signal ensemble contains polychromatic mixtures of continuous-wave (CW) and short pulse. In this work, we propose a real-time optical spectro-temporal analyzer (ROSTA) with three synchronized processing channels (i.e., multi-core) for single-shot studies on laser dynamics. It simultaneously provides temporal resolutions of ~70 ps in the time domain and 10’s ns (or 10’s MHz frame rate) in the spectral domain, as well as a high spectral resolution for multiscale optical inputs, i.e., ranging from CW to fs pulses. Its non-trivial record length of up to 6.4 ms enables continuous observations of non-repetitive optical events over an extensive time period ― equivalent to a propagation distance of ~1900 km. To showcase its practical applications, ROSTA is applied to visualize the onset of passive mode-locking of a fiber laser, and interesting phenomena, i.e., evolution from quasi-CW noise burst to strong shock, transition from fluctuation to mode-locking, and coexistence of CW and mode-locked pulses, have been spectro-temporally observed in a single-shot manner for the first time. It is anticipated that ROSTA will be a powerful technology for spectro-temporal optical diagnosis in different areas involving polychromatic transients.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
[PubMed]

Y. Yu, B. Li, X. Wei, Y. Xu, K. K. M. Tsia, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Spectral-temporal dynamics of multipulse mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201107 (2017).

2016 (3)

S. Sugavanam, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, I. Lobach, S. Kablukov, S. Khorev, and D. Churkin, “Real-time high-resolution heterodyne-based measurements of spectral dynamics in fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23152 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[PubMed]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).

2015 (2)

A. F. J. Runge, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Observation of soliton explosions in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Optica 2(1), 36–39 (2015).

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7004 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (4)

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Lecaplain and Ph. Grelu, “Rogue waves among noiselike-pulse laser emission: An experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013805 (2014).

A. F. J. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 319–322 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (9)

C. Zhang, J. Xu, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA) for real-time optical spectrum observation,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2064 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. E. Webb, Y. Q. Xu, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 151–153 (2013).
[PubMed]

C. Xu and F. W. Wise, “Recent advances in fibre lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 875–882 (2013).
[PubMed]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 657–663 (2013).

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868 (2013).

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 102–112 (2013).

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, “The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 783–786 (2013).

2012 (5)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[PubMed]

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded Phase Matching and Nonlinear Symmetry Breaking in Fiber Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(22), 223904 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: Extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1 Pt 2), 016604 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (5)

2008 (4)

A. Kudlinski and A. Mussot, “Visible cw-pumped supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2407–2409 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength–time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).

2005 (4)

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1999–2006 (2005).
[PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[PubMed]

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).

B. Vodonos, A. Bekker, V. Smulakovsky, A. Gordon, O. Gat, N. K. Berger, and B. Fischer, “Experimental study of the stochastic nature of the pulsation self-starting process in passive mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2787–2789 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1309–1314 (1999).

1998 (1)

Y. S. Kivshar and B. Luther-Davies, “Dark optical solitons: Physics and applications,” Phys. Rep. 298(2), 81–197 (1998).

1996 (2)

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996).

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(1), 200–208 (1994).

B. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1951–1963 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. Abraham, R. Nagar, V. Mikhelahsvili, and G. Eisenstein, “Transient dynamics in a selfstarting passively modelocked fiberbased soliton laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(21), 2857–2859 (1993).

1992 (3)

N. Sarukura and Y. Ishida, “Pulse evolution dynamics of a femtosecond passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 61–63 (1992).
[PubMed]

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–807 (1992).

1991 (1)

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting, femtosecond soliton fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(16), 1451–1453 (1991).

1990 (1)

Abraham, D.

D. Abraham, R. Nagar, V. Mikhelahsvili, and G. Eisenstein, “Transient dynamics in a selfstarting passively modelocked fiberbased soliton laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(21), 2857–2859 (1993).

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[PubMed]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: Extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1 Pt 2), 016604 (2011).
[PubMed]

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, “Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 51(3), 2602–2607 (1995).
[PubMed]

Amrani, F.

Arai, A.

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

Avdokhin, A. V.

Babin, S. A.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, “The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 783–786 (2013).

Bekker, A.

Berger, N. K.

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1309–1314 (1999).

Biancalana, F.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Brabec, T.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

Broderick, N. G. R.

Chang, W.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chou, J.

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength–time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).

Chouli, S.

Chui, P. C.

C. Zhang, J. Xu, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA) for real-time optical spectrum observation,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2064 (2013).
[PubMed]

Churkin, D.

S. Sugavanam, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, I. Lobach, S. Kablukov, S. Khorev, and D. Churkin, “Real-time high-resolution heterodyne-based measurements of spectral dynamics in fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23152 (2016).
[PubMed]

Churkin, D. V.

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7004 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, “The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 783–786 (2013).

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

Coen, S.

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 657–663 (2013).

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaertl, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 471–476 (2010).

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[PubMed]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1309–1314 (1999).

Cui, H.

Curley, P. F.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

Curto, G. L.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dias, F.

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[PubMed]

Douay, M.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded Phase Matching and Nonlinear Symmetry Breaking in Fiber Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(22), 223904 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).

Eaton, S.

Eisenstein, G.

D. Abraham, R. Nagar, V. Mikhelahsvili, and G. Eisenstein, “Transient dynamics in a selfstarting passively modelocked fiberbased soliton laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(21), 2857–2859 (1993).

Emplit, P.

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaertl, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 471–476 (2010).

Erkintalo, M.

A. F. J. Runge, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Observation of soliton explosions in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Optica 2(1), 36–39 (2015).

A. F. J. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 319–322 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 657–663 (2013).

K. E. Webb, Y. Q. Xu, M. Erkintalo, and S. G. Murdoch, “Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 151–153 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded Phase Matching and Nonlinear Symmetry Breaking in Fiber Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(22), 223904 (2012).
[PubMed]

Fabbri, S.

S. Sugavanam, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, I. Lobach, S. Kablukov, S. Khorev, and D. Churkin, “Real-time high-resolution heterodyne-based measurements of spectral dynamics in fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23152 (2016).
[PubMed]

Falkovich, G.

E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, “The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 783–786 (2013).

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[PubMed]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868 (2013).

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

Fischer, B.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gat, O.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 755–764 (2014).

M. Erkintalo, Y. Q. Xu, S. G. Murdoch, J. M. Dudley, and G. Genty, “Cascaded Phase Matching and Nonlinear Symmetry Breaking in Fiber Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(22), 223904 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).

Goda, K.

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 102–112 (2013).

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043821 (2009).

González Hernández, J. I.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[PubMed]

Goodberlet, J.

Gordon, A.

Gorza, S.-P.

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaertl, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 471–476 (2010).

Grelu, P.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Grelu, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves: Extreme pulses generated by passively mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(1 Pt 2), 016604 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Chouli and P. Grelu, “Rains of solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11776–11781 (2009).
[PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[PubMed]

Grelu, Ph.

C. Lecaplain and Ph. Grelu, “Rogue waves among noiselike-pulse laser emission: An experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 90(1), 013805 (2014).

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).

Haboucha, A.

Haelterman, M.

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaertl, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 471–476 (2010).

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868 (2013).

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(1), 200–208 (1994).

Herink, G.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).

Herman, P.

Hofer, M.

F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hölzer, P.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hu, S.

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse mode-locking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(1), 200–208 (1994).

Ishida, Y.

Jalali, B.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).

K. Goda and B. Jalali, “Dispersive Fourier transformation for fast continuous single-shot measurements,” Nat. Photonics 7(2), 102–112 (2013).

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043821 (2009).

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength–time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[PubMed]

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(7), 1309–1314 (1999).

Jang, J. K.

J. K. Jang, M. Erkintalo, S. G. Murdoch, and S. Coen, “Ultraweak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 657–663 (2013).

Jauregui, C.

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).

Joly, N. Y.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
[PubMed]

Jones, R.

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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

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F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

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B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
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B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
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T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
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D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting, femtosecond soliton fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(16), 1451–1453 (1991).

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U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).

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N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
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D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting, femtosecond soliton fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(16), 1451–1453 (1991).

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O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).

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C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with a robust fibre laser source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
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D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. J. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Pulse repetition rates in passive, selfstarting, femtosecond soliton fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 27(16), 1451–1453 (1991).

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E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, “The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 783–786 (2013).

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Probst, R. A.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
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T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
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Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
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G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
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G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
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Russell, P. S. J.

N. Y. Joly, J. Nold, W. Chang, P. Hölzer, A. Nazarkin, G. K. L. Wong, F. Biancalana, and P. S. J. Russell, “Bright spatially coherent wavelength-tunable deep-UV laser source using an Ar-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203901 (2011).
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Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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Sanchez, F.

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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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F. Krausz, M. E. Fermann, T. Brabec, P. F. Curley, M. Hofer, M. H. Ober, C. Spielmann, E. Wintner, and A. J. Schmidt, “Femtosecond Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2097–2122 (1992).

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
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Shah, L.

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Smirnov, S. V.

D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7004 (2015).
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Smulakovsky, V.

Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, F. Kurtz, B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and C. Ropers, “Real-time spectral interferometry probes the internal dynamics of femtosecond soliton molecules,” Science 356(6333), 50–54 (2017).
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G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the build-up of femtosecond mode-locking with single-shot spectroscopy at 90 MHz frame rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).

K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043821 (2009).

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength–time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
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C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(23), 233901 (2012).
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B. Wetzel, A. Stefani, L. Larger, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Merolla, T. Sylvestre, A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, G. Genty, F. Dias, and J. M. Dudley, “Real-time full bandwidth measurement of spectral noise in supercontinuum generation,” Sci. Rep. 2, 882 (2012).
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T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
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D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7004 (2015).
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K. Goda, D. R. Solli, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Theory of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(4), 043821 (2009).

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C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).

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D. V. Churkin, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, S. Khorev, S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Stochasticity, periodicity and localized light structures in partially mode-locked fibre lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 7004 (2015).
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E. G. Turitsyna, S. V. Smirnov, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, X. Shu, S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. V. Churkin, G. Falkovich, and S. K. Turitsyn, “The laminar–turbulent transition in a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 783–786 (2013).

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T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
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G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 2002).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001), 203–209.

P. Ryczkowski, M. Närhi, C. Billet, J.-M. Merolla, G. Genty, J. M. Dudley, “Real-time measurements of dissipative solitons in a mode-locked fiber laser,” https://arXiv:1706.08571 (2017).

G. B. Whitham, “Non-linear dispersive waves,” Proc. R. Soc. 283(1393), 238–261 (1965).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The overview of ROSTA for ultrafast events observation. The ultrafast laser events from an optical source, i.e., a passively mode-locked fiber laser in this work, are launched into ROSTA through an optical splitter for spectro-temporal diagnosis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The schematic diagram of real-time spectroscope working for multiscale optical signals, ranging from CW to fs pulse. The ultrafast spectroscope of ROSTA has two sub-branches, i.e., TSS for pulse (upper) and TLS for CW/quasi-CW (lower), which respectively capture the spectral information of short pulse and CW/quasi-CW. TSS captures the spectral information of short pulse by time-stretching the input signal through a large GDD (−0.86 ns/nm), while TLS acquires the spectral information of CW/quasi-CW by temporal focusing. After data processing, see Appendix 4, a full picture of optical spectrum including both short pulse and CW/quasi-CW components is obtained in a single-shot manner. (b) An experimental illustration of single-shot spectroscopy for an optical signal with coexisting short pulse and CW components. Sub-figures from left to right are single-short spectra captured by TSS, TLS and their combination after data processing, respectively. The ensemble spectrum captured by a conventional OSA is also shown for comparison, i.e., the pink dashed curve.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The spatial-spectral evolution on the left side and the temporal evolution on the right side. Top inset shows a single-shot optical spectrum at the stable mode-locking stage.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The close-ups at different stages in both spectral (a) and time (b) domains, respectively. The birth of mode-locking experiences several stages, e.g., weak noise burst (ai, bi), strong shock (aii, bii), transition from fluctuation to mode-locking (aiii, biii), and finally stable mode-locking with coexisting CW component (aiv, biv). The red arrows indicate the strong shocks before successful mode-locking.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The intensity evolution in the transition from weak to strong pulses. Inset shows the close-up of pulse train repeated at the round-trip time of laser cavity, i.e., ~34 ns. (b) The corresponding spatial-spectral evolution in the spectral domain. The red dashed circle indicates the spectral breathing in response to the intensity modulation shown in a. Color bar represents intensity in log scale/
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The spatial-temporal evolution of mode-locking onset with a long birth time.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The onset of mode-locking that results in pure pulse, i.e., without coexisting CW/quasi-CW components. (a) The spatial-temporal evolution. During the birth of mode-locking, there are two pulses successively raised up, but the first one loses the “competition” and vanishes right after the growth of the latter. (b) The corresponding spatial-spectral evolution. Color bar represents spectral intensity.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The time-domain waveforms before and after time-stretch via DCF. (b) The corresponding optical spectra. Noted that, optical spectra are vertically off-set for a better visualization, otherwise they are overlapped. (c) The spatio-temporal map of the pulse along the DCF. The β 2 used in this simulation is 0.1 ps2/m, while the optical loss is not included in this simulation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The optical spectra captured by a conventional OSA, where the CW peak is clearly shown. Inset shows the log-scale version. (b) The optical spectrum captured by TSS, where the CW peak has been unfortunately overlooked.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The overview of ROSTA implementation. (b,c) The basic performances of TSS and TLS, respectively. Here, the signal sources used for TSS and TLS measurement are a commercial mode-locked laser and multichannel CW laser, respectively. OC: optical coupler. FWM: four-wave mixing. PC: polarization controller. WDM: wavelength-division multiplexing. HNL-DSF: highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber. GDD: group delay dispersion. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier. PD: photodiode. MLL: mode-locked laser. ISO: isolator. BPF: bandpass filter.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) The output signal of FWM1. Top left inset shows the time- and spectral-domain waveforms of input signal, while the bottom left inset shows the swept pump. (b) The output signal of FWM2. (c) The result after pulse compression via output dispersion.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The numerical result of TLS with a multiple-CW input.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The flow diagram of data processing. Inset sketches the time-domain data streams before and after channel alignment.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a) Wavelength-to-time mapping curve. (b) Calibrated TLS spectrum compared with that of OSA.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Spectrum intensity calibration of ROSTA.

Equations (19)

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E s = A e x p ( i 2 π c λ t ) ,
E t i m e l e n s = E s P ( t ) = η E s r e c t ( t T ) e x p ( i t 2 2 Φ f ) ,
E O u t p u t = E t i m e l e n s C ( t ) = E t i m e l e n s 1 2 π Φ o i e x p ( i t 2 2 Φ o ) ,
E O u t p u t = B Sin c [ T Φ o ( t 2 π c λ Φ o ) ] ,
Δ λ T L S = Δ t λ 2 2 π c Φ o ,
G D D = ( β 1 λ ) L = 2 π c λ 2 β 2 L ,
E s = A s e x p ( i 2 π c λ s t ) ,
F F W M 1 = η 1 E p 1 2 E s * ,
E p 1 = A p 1 r e c t ( t T ) e x p ( i 2 π c λ p t ) e x p ( i t 2 2 Φ p )
E F W M 1 = η 1 A p 1 2 A s r e c t ( t T ) e x p [ i t ( 2 2 π c λ p 2 π c λ s ) ] e x p ( i t 2 Φ p ) , = A F W M 1 r e c t ( t T ) e x p [ i t ( 2 2 π c λ p 2 π c λ s ) ] e x p ( i t 2 Φ p )
E F W M 2 = η 2 E p 2 2 E F W M 1 * ,
E p 2 = A p 2 e x p ( i 2 π c λ p t ) ,
E F W M 2 = η 2 A p 2 2 A F W M 1 r e c t ( t T ) e x p [ i t ( 2 2 π c λ p 2 2 π c λ p + 2 π c λ s ) ] e x p ( i t 2 Φ p ) , = A F W M 2 r e c t ( t T ) e x p ( i 2 π c λ s t ) e x p ( i t 2 Φ p )
E t i m e l e n s = E F W M 2 = η E s r e c t ( t T ) e x p ( i t 2 2 Φ f ) ,
E O u t p u t = E t i m e l e n s C ( t ) = E t i m e l e n s 1 2 π Φ o i e x p ( i t 2 2 Φ o ) = η 1 2 π Φ o i e x p ( i t 2 2 Φ o ) + E s r e c t ( t T ) e x p ( - i τ 2 ( 1 2 Φ f 1 2 Φ o ) ) e x p ( - i t τ 2 Φ o ) d τ
E O u t p u t = A + E s r e c t ( t T ) e x p ( - i t τ 2 Φ o ) d τ = A F ( E s r e c t ( t T ) ) | t Φ o 2 π c λ s ,
E O u t p u t = B Sin c ( T Φ o ( t - 2 π c λ s Φ o ) ) ,
Δ λ T L S = Δ t λ 2 2 π c Φ o ,
Δ λ T S S = λ / s q r t ( 0.5 C G D D ) ,

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