Abstract

Optical micromanipulation allows the movement and patterning of discrete micro-particles within a liquid environment. However, for manufacturing applications it is desirable to remove the liquid, leaving the patterned particles in place. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of optoelectronic tweezers (OET) to manipulate and accurately assemble Sn62Pb36Ag2 solder microspheres into tailored patterns. A technique based on freeze-drying technology was then developed that allows the assembled patterns to be well preserved and fixed in place after the liquid medium in the OET device is removed. After removing the liquid from the OET device and subsequently heating the assembled pattern and melting the solder microspheres, electrical connections between the microspheres were formed, creating a permanent conductive bridge between two isolated metal electrodes. Although this method is demonstrated with 40 µm diameter solder beads arranged with OET, it could be applied to a great range of discrete components from nanowires to optoelectronic devices, thus overcoming one of the basic hurdles in using optical micromanipulation techniques in a manufacturing micro-assembly setting.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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  5. X. Ding, Z. Peng, S.-C. S. Lin, M. Geri, S. Li, P. Li, Y. Chen, M. Dao, S. Suresh, and T. J. Huang, “Cell separation using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12992–12997 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
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    [Crossref]
  21. S. Zhang, J. Juvert, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Manipulating and assembling metallic beads with optoelectronic tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32840 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
  23. S. C. Chapin, V. Germain, and E. R. Dufresne, “Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Exp. 14(26), 13095–13100 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. D. Hermanson, S. O. Lumsdon, J. P. Williams, E. W. Kaler, and O. D. Velev, “Dielectrophoretic assembly of electrically functional microwires from nanoparticle suspensions,” Science 294(5544), 1082–1086 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. C. J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, and B. Sridharan, “Comparative evaluation of drying techniques for surface micromachining,” Sens. Actuator A 64(1), 17–26 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. G. Marin, O. R. Enriquez, P. Brunet, P. Colinet, and J. H. Snoeijer, “Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 054301 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (5)

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Juvert, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Manipulating and assembling metallic beads with optoelectronic tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32840 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. G. Marin, O. R. Enriquez, P. Brunet, P. Colinet, and J. H. Snoeijer, “Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 054301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, Z. Peng, S.-C. S. Lin, M. Geri, S. Li, P. Li, Y. Chen, M. Dao, S. Suresh, and T. J. Huang, “Cell separation using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12992–12997 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhong, X. Wei, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Trapping red blood cells in living animals using optical tweezers,” Nat. Comm. 4, 1768 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hwang and J. K. Park, “Optoelectrofluidic platforms for chemistry and biology,” Lab Chip 11(1), 33–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Pethig, “Dielectrophoresis: Status of the theory, technology, and applications,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022811 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Yang, T. M. Yu, H. P. Huang, M. Y. Ku, L. Hsu, and C. H. Liu, “Dynamic manipulation and patterning of microparticles and cells by using TiOPc-based optoelectronic dielectrophoresis,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1959–1961 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J. K. Valley, S. Neale, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1714–1720 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Neale, A. T. Ohta, H. Y. Hsu, J. K. Valley, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Trap profiles of projector based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) with HeLa cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(7), 5231–5239 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Jamshidi, J. K. Valley, J. H. Satcher, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel trapping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with optoelectronic tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 113104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, S. W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J. K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. C. Chapin, V. Germain, and E. R. Dufresne, “Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Exp. 14(26), 13095–13100 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

L. Paterson, M. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Hermanson, S. O. Lumsdon, J. P. Williams, E. W. Kaler, and O. D. Velev, “Dielectrophoretic assembly of electrically functional microwires from nanoparticle suspensions,” Science 294(5544), 1082–1086 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, and B. Sridharan, “Comparative evaluation of drying techniques for surface micromachining,” Sens. Actuator A 64(1), 17–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alpmann, C.

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banie, L.

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barsotti, R. J.

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, J.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brunet, P.

A. G. Marin, O. R. Enriquez, P. Brunet, P. Colinet, and J. H. Snoeijer, “Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 054301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bryant, P.

L. Paterson, M. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapin, S. C.

S. C. Chapin, V. Germain, and E. R. Dufresne, “Automated trapping, assembly, and sorting with holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Exp. 14(26), 13095–13100 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ding, Z. Peng, S.-C. S. Lin, M. Geri, S. Li, P. Li, Y. Chen, M. Dao, S. Suresh, and T. J. Huang, “Cell separation using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12992–12997 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, Y. M.

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiou, P. Y.

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, S. W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J. K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, J.

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chuwongin, S.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Colinet, P.

A. G. Marin, O. R. Enriquez, P. Brunet, P. Colinet, and J. H. Snoeijer, “Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 054301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. M.

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Juvert, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Manipulating and assembling metallic beads with optoelectronic tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32840 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

MacDonald, M.

L. Paterson, M. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Z.

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marin, A. G.

A. G. Marin, O. R. Enriquez, P. Brunet, P. Colinet, and J. H. Snoeijer, “Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 054301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massoubre, D.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, C. J.

J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nam, S. W.

W. Choi, S. W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J. K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Navarro, J. C.

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Neale, S.

J. K. Valley, S. Neale, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1714–1720 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neale, S. L.

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Juvert, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Manipulating and assembling metallic beads with optoelectronic tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32840 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Neale, A. T. Ohta, H. Y. Hsu, J. K. Valley, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Trap profiles of projector based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) with HeLa cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(7), 5231–5239 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohta, A. T.

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Neale, A. T. Ohta, H. Y. Hsu, J. K. Valley, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Trap profiles of projector based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) with HeLa cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(7), 5231–5239 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Valley, S. Neale, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1714–1720 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. K.

H. Hwang and J. K. Park, “Optoelectrofluidic platforms for chemistry and biology,” Lab Chip 11(1), 33–47 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Choi, S. W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J. K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

W. Choi, S. W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J. K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S. I.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pauzauskie, P. J.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Jamshidi, J. K. Valley, J. H. Satcher, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel trapping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with optoelectronic tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 113104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

X. Ding, Z. Peng, S.-C. S. Lin, M. Geri, S. Li, P. Li, Y. Chen, M. Dao, S. Suresh, and T. J. Huang, “Cell separation using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12992–12997 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pethig, R.

R. Pethig, “Dielectrophoresis: Status of the theory, technology, and applications,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022811 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rae, B. R.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, L.

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rose, M. J.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

Satcher, J. H.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Jamshidi, J. K. Valley, J. H. Satcher, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel trapping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with optoelectronic tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 113104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seo, J. H.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shuai, Y.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snoeijer, J. H.

A. G. Marin, O. R. Enriquez, P. Brunet, P. Colinet, and J. H. Snoeijer, “Universality of tip singularity formation in freezing water drops,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 054301 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sridharan, B.

C. J. Kim, J. Y. Kim, and B. Sridharan, “Comparative evaluation of drying techniques for surface micromachining,” Sens. Actuator A 64(1), 17–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stellacci, F.

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

X. Ding, Z. Peng, S.-C. S. Lin, M. Geri, S. Li, P. Li, Y. Chen, M. Dao, S. Suresh, and T. J. Huang, “Cell separation using tilted-angle standing surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(36), 12992–12997 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sureshd, S.

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H. H.

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, P.

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tien, M. C.

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trindade, A. J.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vahey, M. D.

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valley, J. K.

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Jamshidi, J. K. Valley, J. H. Satcher, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel trapping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with optoelectronic tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 113104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Valley, S. Neale, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1714–1720 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Neale, A. T. Ohta, H. Y. Hsu, J. K. Valley, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Trap profiles of projector based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) with HeLa cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(7), 5231–5239 (2009).
[Crossref]

Velev, O. D.

K. D. Hermanson, S. O. Lumsdon, J. P. Williams, E. W. Kaler, and O. D. Velev, “Dielectrophoretic assembly of electrically functional microwires from nanoparticle suspensions,” Science 294(5544), 1082–1086 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voldman, J.

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallis, D. J.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

M. Zhong, X. Wei, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Trapping red blood cells in living animals using optical tweezers,” Nat. Comm. 4, 1768 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wartena, R.

R. J. Barsotti, M. D. Vahey, R. Wartena, Y. M. Chiang, J. Voldman, and F. Stellacci, “Assembly of metal nanoparticles into nanogaps,” Small 3(3), 488–499 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, I. M.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

M. Zhong, X. Wei, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Trapping red blood cells in living animals using optical tweezers,” Nat. Comm. 4, 1768 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. P.

K. D. Hermanson, S. O. Lumsdon, J. P. Williams, E. W. Kaler, and O. D. Velev, “Dielectrophoretic assembly of electrically functional microwires from nanoparticle suspensions,” Science 294(5544), 1082–1086 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woerdemann, M.

M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 839–854 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. K. Valley, S. Neale, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1714–1720 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Neale, A. T. Ohta, H. Y. Hsu, J. K. Valley, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Trap profiles of projector based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) with HeLa cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(7), 5231–5239 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Jamshidi, J. K. Valley, J. H. Satcher, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel trapping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with optoelectronic tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 113104 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images,” Nature 436(7049), 370–372 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, E. Y.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

F. Guo, Z. Mao, Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. P. Lata, P. Li, L. Ren, J. Liu, J. Yang, M. Dao, S. Sureshd, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional manipulation of single cells using surface acoustic waves,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(6), 1522–1527 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. M.

Yang, W.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yin, H.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
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Yoon, J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C. J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science 325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
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A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, T. M.

Zarowna-Dabrowska, A.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, and M. M. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Exp. 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
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J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Juvert, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Manipulating and assembling metallic beads with optoelectronic tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32840 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhong, M.

M. Zhong, X. Wei, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Trapping red blood cells in living animals using optical tweezers,” Nat. Comm. 4, 1768 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

M. Zhong, X. Wei, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Trapping red blood cells in living animals using optical tweezers,” Nat. Comm. 4, 1768 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
[Crossref]

ACS nano (1)

B. Guilhabert, A. Hurtado, D. Jevtics, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. D. Dawson, “Transfer printing of semiconductor nanowires with lasing emission for controllable nanophotonic device fabrication,” ACS nano 10(4), 3951–3958 (2016).
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Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. C. Tien, A. T. Ohta, K. Yu, S. L. Neale, and M. C. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Juvert, P. Tian, J. C. Navarro, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Use of optoelectronic tweezers in manufacturing - accurate solder bead positioning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(22), 221110 (2016).
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W. Choi, S. W. Nam, H. Hwang, S. Park, and J. K. Park, “Programmable manipulation of motile cells in optoelectronic tweezers using a grayscale image,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143901 (2008).
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P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Jamshidi, J. K. Valley, J. H. Satcher, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel trapping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with optoelectronic tweezers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 113104 (2009).
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A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 253302 (2013).
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R. Pethig, “Dielectrophoresis: Status of the theory, technology, and applications,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 022811 (2010).
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Lab Chip (3)

A. T. Ohta, M. Garcia, J. K. Valley, L. Banie, H.-Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, T. Lue, and M. C. Wu, “Motile and non-motile sperm diagnostic manipulation using optoelectronic tweezers,” Lab Chip 10(23), 3213–3217 (2010).
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J. K. Valley, S. Neale, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Parallel single-cell light-induced electroporation and dielectrophoretic manipulation,” Lab Chip 9(12), 1714–1720 (2009).
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H. Hwang and J. K. Park, “Optoelectrofluidic platforms for chemistry and biology,” Lab Chip 11(1), 33–47 (2011).
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M. Woerdemann, C. Alpmann, M. Esseling, and C. Denz, “Advanced optical trapping by complex beam shaping,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 839–854 (2013).
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Nano Lett. (1)

A. Jamshidi, S. L. Neale, K. Yu, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, J. K. Valley, H. Y. Hsu, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, “Nanopen: Dynamic, Low-power, and Light-actuated Patterning of Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2921–2925 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Comm. (1)

M. Zhong, X. Wei, J. Zhou, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Trapping red blood cells in living animals using optical tweezers,” Nat. Comm. 4, 1768 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photon. (2)

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photon. 2(2), 86–89 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J. H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photon. 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
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Opt. Exp. (5)

A. J. Trindade, B. Guilhabert, E. Y. Xie, R. Ferreira, J. J. D. McKendry, D. Zhu, N. Laurand, E. Gu, D. J. Wallis, I. M. Watson, C. J. Humphreys, and M. D. Dawson, “Heterogeneous integration of Gallium Nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing,” Opt. Exp. 23(7), 9329–9338 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Juvert, S. Zhang, I. Eddie, C. J. Mitchell, G. T. Reed, J. S. Wilkinson, A. Kelly, and S. L. Neale, “Micromanipulation of InP lasers with optoelectronic tweezers for integration on a photonic platform,” Opt. Exp. 24(16), 18163–18175 (2016).
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[Crossref]

S. L. Neale, A. T. Ohta, H. Y. Hsu, J. K. Valley, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Trap profiles of projector based optoelectronic tweezers (OET) with HeLa cells,” Opt. Exp. 17(7), 5231–5239 (2009).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Zhang, J. Juvert, J. M. Cooper, and S. L. Neale, “Manipulating and assembling metallic beads with optoelectronic tweezers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 32840 (2016).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Video showing that the solder beads are assembled to connect with each other to bridge two isolated metal contacts with 200 micron gap.
» Visualization 2       Video showing that solder beads are assembled to interface with each other to bridge two isolated metal contacts with 300 micron gap.
» Visualization 3       Video showing that the solder beads are moved away by buffer’s meniscus during the process of solution evaporation.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic experimental setup. (b) 3D schematic of the OET device. (c) Microscope images of a solder microsphere attracted to the illuminated region under positive DEP force. (d) Image of the bottom OET electrode with six pairs of isolated metal contacts with different gaps. Inset: microscope image of the metal contacts with a 200 µm gap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Parallel assembling, freezing-drying and heating the solder beads. (a) Microscope image of the solder beads positioned at the edge of the metal contacts. (b) Microscope image of parallel assembly of solder beads to fill in the gap and form the straight line. (c) Straight line of solder beads formed by the light patterns. (d) Microscope image of formed straight line of solder beads after turning off the DMD projector. Videos showing the detailed assembling process of solder beads can be found in Visualization 1, Visualization 2. Microscope images of solder beads: (e) after assembling the solder beads, (f) after freezing the solder beads, (g) after sublimating the liquid medium, (h)after heating the solder beads. (i) SEM image of the assembled solder beads after heating. (j) SEM image of two adjacent solder beads before heating. (k) SEM image of two adjacent solder bead after heating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Trapped solder beads in OET device. (b)&(c) Trapped solder beads were dragged away by meniscus during the process of evaporating the solution. See Visualization 3 for a video showing the detailed process. (d) Phase diagram of supercritical drying which goes beyond the critical point (high pressure/high temperature regime) and the freeze drying which goes below the triple point (low pressure/low temperature regime).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of the solder bead before freezing the solution and after sublimating the frozen medium. (a)–(d) Microscope images of the assembled solder beads before freezing the solution (outlined in white) and after sublimating the frozen medium (outlined in red) under different freezing conditions, in which rapid freezing was used for (a) and (b); step-by -step freezing was used for (c) and (d). Shown in (e) is the distribution of moving distances (in X-axis and Y-axis) of solder beads before freezing the solution and after sublimating the frozen medium. The moving distances are calculated based on the microscope images shown in (a)–(d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temperature profile of OET device with the Peltier cooler being driven at 3A for 10 minutes (quick freezing). (b) Temperature profile of OET device with the Peltier cooler being driven at 1 A for 2 minutes, 1.5 A for 2 minutes, 2 A for 2 minutes, 2.5 A for 3 minutes and 3 A for 5 minutes (step-by-step freezing).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3D schematic of the movement of a solder bead under different freezing conditions. (a) Schematic of a solder bead moved horizontally under the rapid freezing. (b) Schematic of a solder bead stabilized horizontally under the step-by-step freezing process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

I–V characteristics. (a) I–V characteristics of the isolated metal contacts before and after assembling the solder beads (without heating). (b) I–V characteristic of the isolated metal contacts after heating the assembled solder beads.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a)–(k) Step-by-step fabrication flow of the bottom OET electrode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image of the OET device. (a) Image of the top OET electrode used in this work. (b) Image of the bottom OET electrode used in this work.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Schematic of the micro-LED device. (b) Schematic layout of connecting solder beads to the metal contacts of a micro-LED device. (c) & (d) Microscope images of solder beads assembled by OET to connect with the metal contacts at the corners of the micro-LED device.

Equations (1)

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R = ρ L e n g t h A r e a = ρ l π r 2

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