Abstract

One-to-many data information transfer, also known as multicasting, is desired in underwater wireless communications when distributing signal between multiple users. In this paper, by exploiting the space domain (spatial phase structure) of lightwaves, we propose and demonstrate an orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link. 2-meter underwater transmission of 4-fold green light (520 nm) OAM modes multicasting (OAM-6, OAM-3, OAM+3, OAM+6), each channel carrying 1.5-Gbaud 8-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (8-QAM) with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal, is demonstrated in the experiment. The OAM spectrum after underwater propagation suffers some degradation with the crosstalk between multicasting OAM channels and other unwanted channels measured to be less than −6 dB. Bit-error rate (BER) performance is characterized with ~2 dB penalty. Higher-order modulation signals (16-QAM-OFDM, 32-QAM-OFDM) are also considered in free-space OAM multicasting link for comparison.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).

2016 (8)

S. Li and J. Wang, “Compensation of a distorted N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting link using adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1482–1485 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Baghdady, K. Miller, K. Morgan, M. Byrd, S. Osler, R. Ragusa, W. Li, B. M. Cochenour, and E. G. Johnson, “Multi-gigabit/s underwater optical communication link using orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9794–9805 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

2015 (9)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

S. Li and J. Wang, “Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9677 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15406 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26221–26233 (2015).
[PubMed]

L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Demonstration of obstruction-free data-carrying N-fold Bessel modes multicasting from a single Gaussian mode,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5463–5466 (2015).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 2781–2786 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).

2012 (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

2010 (1)

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).

2008 (2)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).

F. Hanson and S. Radic, “High bandwidth underwater optical communication,” Appl. Opt. 47(2), 277–283 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).

2001 (1)

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communications,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).

1973 (1)

Ahmed, N.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Akal, T.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

Akyildiz, I. F.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

Alouini, M. S.

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

Arbabi, E.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Ashrafi, S.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Baghdady, J.

Baker, E. T.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 2781–2786 (2013).
[PubMed]

Butterfield, D. A.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Byrd, M.

Cao, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chadwick, W. W.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Courtial, J.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
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de Ronde, C. E. J.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Deng, N.

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
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Detweiler, C.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, and C. Detweiler, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.

Dolinar, S.

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
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Doniec, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, and C. Detweiler, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.

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C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
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A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

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R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Faraon, A.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).

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A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

Freitag, L.

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communications,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).

Hale, G. M.

Han, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[PubMed]

Hanson, F.

Hein, J. R.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Hodgkiss, W. S.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

Huang, H.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Ip, E.

Johnson, E. G.

Johnson, M.

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communications,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).

Juniper, S. K.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Kamali, S. M.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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Kong, M.

Kong, M. W.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

Kuperman, W. A.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

Lavery, M. P.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
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Lavery, M. P. J.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Lebon, G. T.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Li, C.

Li, L.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Li, M. J.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Compensation of a distorted N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting link using adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1482–1485 (2016).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15406 (2015).
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Lin, A.

Lin, A. B.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

Liñares, J.

Liu, C.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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Lupton, J. E.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Malik, M.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 2781–2786 (2013).
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McLaren, M.

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).

Melodia, T.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).

Merle, S. G.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Milione, G.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Ip, G. Milione, M. J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
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Miller, K.

Mirhosseini, M.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 2781–2786 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Montero, C.

Moreno, V.

Morgan, K.

Nakamura, K.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).

Ng, T. K.

Nolan, D. A.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ooi, B. S.

Osler, S.

Oubei, H. M.

Padgett, M. J.

G. C. Berkhout, M. P. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, and M. J. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(15), 153601 (2010).
[PubMed]

Park, K. H.

Peng, G.

Pompili, D.

I. F. Akyildiz, D. Pompili, and T. Melodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges,” Ad Hoc Netw. 3(3), 257–279 (2005).

Preisig, J.

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).

Prieto, X.

Qu, F. Z.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

Querry, M. R.

Radic, S.

Ragusa, R.

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Resing, J. A.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).

Roux, P.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

Rubin, K. H.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shahabuddeen, S.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).

Shi, C.

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[PubMed]

Shi, Z.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4(7), 2781–2786 (2013).
[PubMed]

Singh, S.

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communications,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).

Song, H. C.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

Song, Y.

Song, Y. H.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

Stern, R. J.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Stevenson, M.

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

Stojanovic, M.

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).

M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communications,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).

Stone, J.

Tamura, Y.

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Tur, M.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
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J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Vasilescu, I.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, and C. Detweiler, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–6.

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J. Wang, “Data information transfer using complex optical fields: a review and perspective,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 15(3), 030005 (2017).

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9677 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

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J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
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S. Li and J. Wang, “Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15406 (2015).
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L. Zhu and J. Wang, “Simultaneous generation of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single phase-only element,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26221–26233 (2015).
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Wang, Y.

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
[PubMed]

Willner, A.

Willner, A. E.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M. J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Willner, A. J.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

Xie, G.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

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Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

J. Xu, Y. Song, X. Yu, A. Lin, M. Kong, J. Han, and N. Deng, “Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8097–8109 (2016).
[PubMed]

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Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Yu, X.

Yu, X. Y.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

Yue, Y.

Y. Yan, Y. Yue, H. Huang, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, and A. Willner, “Multicasting in a spatial division multiplexing system based on optical orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3930–3933 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

Zhang, X.

C. Shi, M. Dubois, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “High-speed acoustic communication by multiplexing orbital angular momentum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(28), 7250–7253 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7, 66–106 (2015).

Zhu, L.

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Appl. Opt. (2)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Stojanovic and J. Preisig, “Underwater acoustic communication channels: Propagation models and statistical characterization,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(1), 84–89 (2009).

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (2)

L. Freitag, M. Stojanovic, S. Singh, and M. Johnson, “Analysis of channel effects on direct-sequence and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum acoustic communications,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 26(4), 586–593 (2001).

H. C. Song, P. Roux, W. S. Hodgkiss, W. A. Kuperman, T. Akal, and M. Stevenson, “Multiple-input/multiple-output coherent time reversal communications in a shallow water acoustic channel,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 31(1), 170–178 (2006).

J. Mar. Technol. Soc. (1)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabuddeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” J. Mar. Technol. Soc. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).

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Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).

Nature (1)

R. W. Embley, W. W. Chadwick, E. T. Baker, D. A. Butterfield, J. A. Resing, C. E. J. de Ronde, V. Tunnicliffe, J. E. Lupton, S. K. Juniper, K. H. Rubin, R. J. Stern, G. T. Lebon, K. Nakamura, S. G. Merle, J. R. Hein, D. A. Wiens, and Y. Tamura, “Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano,” Nature 441(7092), 494–497 (2006).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).

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Photon. Res. (1)

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[PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (5)

S. Li and J. Wang, “Adaptive power-controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9677 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Du and J. Wang, “Design of on-chip N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting using V-shaped antenna array,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9662 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Ren, L. Li, Z. Wang, S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Z. Zhao, G. Xie, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, C. Liu, A. J. Willner, S. Ashrafi, M. Tur, A. Faraon, and A. E. Willner, “Orbital angular momentum-based space division multiplexing for high-capacity underwater optical communications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33306 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of an orbital angular momentum (OAM)-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of an OAM-based underwater wireless optical multicasting link. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; EA: electrical amplifier; Col.: collimator; HWP: half-wave plate; Pol.: polarizer; SLM: spatial light modulator; NDF: neutral density filter; FM: flip mirror; APD: avalanche photo detector; OSC: oscilloscope.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Design of forked multicasting phase pattern loaded onto SLM-1 for generating 4-fold multicasting OAM modes (OAM-6, OAM-3, OAM+3, OAM+6). (b) Measured intensity profiles of generated 4-fold multicasting OAM modes at the transmitter side (Tx) and the receiver side (Rx).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized power distribution of different OAM channels (OAM spectrum) for 4-fold OAM multicasting (OAM-6, OAM-3, OAM+3 and OAM+6). Insets show measured demodulation intensity profiles of typical multicasting and unwanted channels. Sim.: simulated OAM spectrum at the transmitter. Exp.: measured OAM spectrum at the receiver after underwater propagation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured BER performance for data-carrying (8-QAM-OFDM) 4-fold OAM multicasting (OAM-6, OAM-3, OAM+3 and OAM+6) after 2-meter underwater propagation. Insets show typical constellation diagrams of 8-QAM-OFDM. Mul.: multicasting. Ref.: reference.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured intensity profiles and BER performance for data-carrying 4-fold OAM-based multicasting link over 2-meter free space. Insets show typical constellation diagrams of 8-QAM-OFDM, 16-QAM-OFDM and 32-QAM-OFDM.

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