Abstract

Attosecond pulses and pulse trains generated by high-order harmonic generation are finding broad applications in advanced spectroscopies and imaging, enabling sub-femtosecond electron dynamics to be probed in atomic, molecular and material systems. To date, isolated attosecond pulses have been generated either by using very short few-cycle driving pulses, or by using temporal and polarization gating, or by taking advantage of phase-matching gating. Here we show that by driving high harmonics with a two-color linearly polarized laser field, the temporal window for time-gated phase matching is shorter than for the equivalent singe-color driving laser. As a result, we can generate quasi-isolated attosecond pulses with a peak width of ∼ 450 as using relatively long 26 femtosecond laser pulses. Our experimental data are in good agreement with theoretical simulations, and show that the phase matching window decreases by a factor of 4 - from four optical cycles in the case of a single-color fundamental driving laser, to one optical cycle in the case of two-color (ω-2ω) laser drivers. Finally, we also demonstrate that by changing the relative delay between the two-color laser fields, we can control the duration of the attosecond bursts from 450 as to 1.2 fs.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (5)

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ossianer, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nature Physics 13, 280–285 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. Galloway, C. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. Adams, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mancini, “Sub-wavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5nm tabletop high harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353, 62–67 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Holgado, C. Hernández-García, B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Plaja, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Continuous spectra in high-harmonic generation driven by multicycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 13816 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Rego, J. S. Román, A. Picón, L. Plaja, and C. Hernández-García, “Nonperturbative twist in the generation of extreme-ultraviolet vortex beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 163202 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Locher, L. Castiglioni, M. Lucchini, M. Greif, L. Gallmann, J. Osterwalder, M. Hengsberger, and U. Keller, “Energy-dependent photoemission delays from noble metal surfaces by attosecond interferometry,” Optica 2, 405–410 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Reduzzi, P. Carpeggiani, S. Kühnc, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, P. Dombi, S. Kahaly, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, K. Varju, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 204, 257–268 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 083001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, P. Ranitovic, C. W. Hogle, J. H. D. Eland, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Probing and controlling non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in highly excited molecular ions,” Nat. Phys. 8, 232–237 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wŏrner, H. C. Bandulet, É. Bisson, M. Spanner, J.-C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrahigh-order wave mixing in noncollinear high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 023001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006–13016 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. He, J. M. Dahlström, R. Rakowski, C. M. Heyl, A. Persson, J. Mauritsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Interference effects in two-color high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 33410 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, E. C. Jarque, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 33432 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, P. Lan, O. D. Mücke, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Infrared two-color multicycle laser field synthesis for generating an intense attosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233901 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 43810 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 12, 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. P. Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10, 025018 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130906 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 13001 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, “Highly efficient high-harmonic generation in an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. López-Martens, K. Varjú, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, Y. Mairesse, P. Salières, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, C. G. Wahlström, and A. L’Huillier, “Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 33001 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme nonlinear optics: coherent X-Rays from lasers,” Phys. Today 58, 39 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

1999 (4)

C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
[Crossref]

U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, “High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing,” Europhys. Lett. 47, 42–48 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

I. Christov, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ’single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

S. Long, W. Becker, and J. K. McIver, “Model calculations of polarization-dependent two-color high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2262–2278 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, “Time profile of harmonics generated by a single atom in a strong electromagnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750–R1753 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Subfemtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1870–1872 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, “Two-color phase control in tunneling ionization and harmonic generation by a strong laser field and its third harmonic,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692–2695 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

M. D. Perry and J. K. Crane, “High-order harmonic emission from mixed fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R4051–R4054 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. Dimauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. KraȈinov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Adams, D.

D. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. Galloway, C. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. Adams, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mancini, “Sub-wavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5nm tabletop high harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, M.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ali, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso, B.

W. Holgado, C. Hernández-García, B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Plaja, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Continuous spectra in high-harmonic generation driven by multicycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 13816 (2016).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. KraȈinov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Andiel, U.

U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, “High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing,” Europhys. Lett. 47, 42–48 (1999).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, B. Piraux, and A. Maquet, “Time profile of harmonics generated by a single atom in a strong electromagnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R1750–R1753 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argenti, L.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. L.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salières, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

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Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
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C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Bahabad, A.

I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Bal, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Balcou, Ph.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
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Baltu, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Bandulet, H. C.

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wŏrner, H. C. Bandulet, É. Bisson, M. Spanner, J.-C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrahigh-order wave mixing in noncollinear high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 023001 (2011).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
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Bauer, M.

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
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S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
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Baykusheva, D.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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Becker, A.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Becker, W.

S. Long, W. Becker, and J. K. McIver, “Model calculations of polarization-dependent two-color high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2262–2278 (1995).
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Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
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Bengtsson, M.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
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Benis, E. P.

D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. P. Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10, 025018 (2008).
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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
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Ben-Itzhak, I.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21, 16914–16927 (2013).
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G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 083001 (2012).
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Bertrand, J. B.

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wŏrner, H. C. Bandulet, É. Bisson, M. Spanner, J.-C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrahigh-order wave mixing in noncollinear high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 023001 (2011).
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Bevis, C.

D. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. Galloway, C. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. Adams, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mancini, “Sub-wavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5nm tabletop high harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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Bisson, É.

J. B. Bertrand, H. J. Wŏrner, H. C. Bandulet, É. Bisson, M. Spanner, J.-C. Kieffer, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrahigh-order wave mixing in noncollinear high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 023001 (2011).
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Blanc, C. Le

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Boyer, K.

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1668–1671 (1999).
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Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Burgdörfer, J.

M. Ossianer, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nature Physics 13, 280–285 (2017).
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Burnett, N. H.

Caillat, J.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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Calegari, F.

M. Reduzzi, P. Carpeggiani, S. Kühnc, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, P. Dombi, S. Kahaly, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, K. Varju, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 204, 257–268 (2015).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canton, S. E.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
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Cao, W.

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21, 16914–16927 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Laurent, W. Cao, H. Li, Z. Wang, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond control of orbital parity mix interferences and the relative phase of even and odd harmonics in an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 083001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carette, T.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
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Carpeggiani, P.

M. Reduzzi, P. Carpeggiani, S. Kühnc, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, P. Dombi, S. Kahaly, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, K. Varju, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 204, 257–268 (2015).
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Carr, A.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
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Carr, A. V.

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
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Carré, B.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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Castiglioni, L.

Caumes, J.-P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
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Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Chang, Z.

S. Gilbertson, Y. Wu, S. D. Khan, M. Chini, K. Zhao, X. Feng, and Z. Chang, “Isolated attosecond pulse generation using multicycle pulses directly from a laser amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 43810 (2010).
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M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006–13016 (2010).
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H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, “Double optical gating of high-order harmonic generation with carrier-envelope phase stabilized lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130906 (2008).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Charalambidis, D.

M. Reduzzi, P. Carpeggiani, S. Kühnc, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, P. Dombi, S. Kahaly, P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, K. Varju, K. Osvay, and G. Sansone, “Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 204, 257–268 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Charalambidis, P. Tzallas, E. P. Benis, E. Skantzakis, G. Maravelias, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos, A. P. Conde, and G. D. Tsakiris, “Exploring intense attosecond pulses,” N. J. Phys. 10, 025018 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
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Chauvet, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
[Crossref]

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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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D. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. Galloway, C. Porter, R. Karl, C. Bevis, D. Adams, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mancini, “Sub-wavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5nm tabletop high harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Gibson, G.

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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
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Greif, M.

Grillon, G.

S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2014).
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Guénot, D.

M. Kotur, D. Guénot, Á. Jiménez-Galán, D. Kroon, E. W. Larsen, M. Louisy, M. Bengtsson, M. Miranda, J. Mauritsson, C. L. Arnold, S. E. Canton, M. Gisselbrecht, T. Carette, M. J. Dahlström, E. Lindroth, A. Maquet, L. Argenti, F. Martín, and A. L’Huillier, “Spectral phase measurement of a Fano resonance using tunable attosecond pulses,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10566 (2016).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 13001 (2006).
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Hanff, K.

S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
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Hankla, A.

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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X. He, J. M. Dahlström, R. Rakowski, C. M. Heyl, A. Persson, J. Mauritsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Interference effects in two-color high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 33410 (2010).
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Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Hellmann, S.

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
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S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
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Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Hengsberger, M.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-Ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
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Hergott, J.-F.

V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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Hernández-García, C.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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L. Rego, J. S. Román, A. Picón, L. Plaja, and C. Hernández-García, “Nonperturbative twist in the generation of extreme-ultraviolet vortex beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 163202 (2016).
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W. Holgado, C. Hernández-García, B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Plaja, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Continuous spectra in high-harmonic generation driven by multicycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 13816 (2016).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, E. C. Jarque, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 33432 (2010).
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C. G. Durfee, A. R. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2187–2190 (1999).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Heyl, C. M.

X. He, J. M. Dahlström, R. Rakowski, C. M. Heyl, A. Persson, J. Mauritsson, and A. L’Huillier, “Interference effects in two-color high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 33410 (2010).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Hogle, C. W.

X. Zhou, P. Ranitovic, C. W. Hogle, J. H. D. Eland, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Probing and controlling non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in highly excited molecular ions,” Nat. Phys. 8, 232–237 (2012).
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Holgado, W.

W. Holgado, C. Hernández-García, B. Alonso, M. Miranda, F. Silva, L. Plaja, H. Crespo, and I. J. Sola, “Continuous spectra in high-harmonic generation driven by multicycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 13816 (2016).
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A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Huang, P.-C.

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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S. Kazamias, D. Douillet, F. Weihe, C. Valentin, A. Rousse, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Augé, D. Hulin, and Ph. Balcou, “Global optimization of high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 193901 (2003).
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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
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Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Highly efficient, phase-matched high-harmonic generation by a self-guided laser beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422–1425 (1999).
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R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. Margaret, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297, 376–378 (2002).
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Jakobs, S.

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
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S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
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Jaron-Becker, A.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
[Crossref]

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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
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C. Chen, Z. Tao, A. Carr, P. Matyba, T. Szilvási, S. Emmerich, M. Piecuch, M. Keller, D. Zusin, S. Eich, M. Rollinger, W. You, S. Mathias, U. Thumm, M. Mavrikakis, M. Aeschlimann, P. M. Oppeneer, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Distinguishing attosecond electron-electron scattering and screening in transition metals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 114, E5300–E5307 (2017).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353, 62–67 (2016).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2014).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353, 62–67 (2016).
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S. Hellmann, T. Rohwer, M. Kalläne, K. Hanff, C. Sohrt, A. Stange, A. Carr, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Kipp, M. Bauer, and K. Rossnagel, “Time-domain classification of charge-density-wave insulators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1069 (2012).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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C. Hernández-García, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, J. Ramos, E. C. Jarque, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 33432 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation beyond the strong-field approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws,” Opt. Express 12, 9891–9903 (2009).
[Crossref]

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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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[Crossref]

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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 99–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Eich, A. Stange, A. V. Carr, J. Urbancic, T. Popmintchev, M. Wiesenmayer, K. Jansen, A. Ruffing, S. Jakobs, T. Rohwer, S. Hellmann, C. Chen, P. Matyba, L. Kipp, K. Rossnagel, M. Bauer, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Mathias, and M. Aeschlimann, “Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with optimized high-harmonic pulses using frequency-doubled Ti:Sapphire lasers,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 195, 231–236 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. D. Hickstein, F. J. Dollar, P. Grychtol, J. L. Ellis, R. Knut, C. Hernández-García, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, J. M. Shaw, T. Fan, K. M. Dorney, A. Becker, A. Jaroń-Becker, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and C. G. Durfee, “Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9, 743–750 (2015).
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Nat. Phys. (3)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nat. Phys. 2, 319–322 (2006).
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P. Tzallas, E. Skantzakis, C. Kalpouzos, E. P. Benis, G. D. Tsakiris, and D. Charalambidis, “Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields,” Nat. Phys. 3, 846–850 (2007).
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X. Zhou, P. Ranitovic, C. W. Hogle, J. H. D. Eland, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Probing and controlling non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics in highly excited molecular ions,” Nat. Phys. 8, 232–237 (2012).
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Nature (1)

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, T. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449, 1029–1032 (2007).
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Nature Physics (1)

M. Ossianer, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer, T. Latka, A. Guggenmos, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, R. Kienberger, and M. Schultze, “Attosecond correlation dynamics,” Nature Physics 13, 280–285 (2017).
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New J. Phys. (1)

C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers,” New J. Phys. 18, 73031 (2016).
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Opt. Express (5)

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I. Thomann, A. Bahabad, X. Liu, R. Trebino, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses,” Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009).
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M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006–13016 (2010).
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G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21, 16914–16927 (2013).
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C. Hernández-García, T. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, L. Plaja, A. Becker, and A. Jaron-Becker, “Isolated broadband attosecond pulse generation with near- and mid-infrared driver pulses via time-gated phase matching,” Opt. Express 10, 11855–11866 (2017).
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Phys. Today (1)

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Extreme nonlinear optics: coherent X-Rays from lasers,” Phys. Today 58, 39 (2005).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2)

M.-C. Chen, C. Mancuso, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, B. Galloway, D. Popmintchev, P.-C. Huang, B. Walker, L. Plaja, A. A. Jaroń-Becker, A. Becker, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111, E2361–E2367 (2014).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (1)

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Sci. Adv. (1)

C. Chen, Z. Tao, C. Hernández-García, P. Matyba, A. Carr, R. Knut, O. Kfir, D. Zusin, C. Gentry, P. Grychtol, O. Cohen, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1501333 (2016).
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Science (10)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
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Z. Tao, C. Chen, T. Szilvási, M. Keller, M. Mavrikakis, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “Direct time-domain observation of attosecond final-state lifetimes in photoemission from solids,” Science 353, 62–67 (2016).
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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
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V. Gruson, L. Barreau, Á. Jiménez-Galan, F. Risoud, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, B. Carré, F. Lepetit, J.-F. Hergott, T. Ruchon, L. Argenti, R. Taïeb, F. Martín, and P. Salières, “Attosecond dynamics through a Fano resonance: Monitoring the birth of a photoelectron,” Science 354, 734–738 (2016).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ali, G. Andriukaitis, T. Bal, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltu, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-garcía, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-Infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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D. Popmintchev, C. Hernández-García, F. Dollar, C. Mancuso, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, M.-C. Chen, A. Hankla, X. Gao, B. Shim, A. L. Gaeta, M. Tarazkar, D. A. Romanov, R. J. Levis, J. A. Gaffney, M. Foord, S. B. Libby, A. Jaron-Becker, A. Becker, L. Plaja, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and T. Popmintchev, “Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas,” Science 350, 1225–1231 (2015).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterizing high-order harmonics generated using laser-assisted photoemission. a) Linearly polarized ω (780nm) and 2ω (390nm) beams from a Ti:Sapphire laser are focused into an Ar-filled hollow waveguide. The generated linearly polarized HHG and a time-delayed p-polarized 780nm dressing field are focused onto a clean Cu(111) surface. In experiments, the temporal structure of the attosecond bursts can be adjusted by the relative phase between the ω and 2ω driving fields, φRB. b) Upper panel: Modulation of the total HHG intensity as a function of φRB. Lower panel: The HHG spectra measured at the maximum (A) and the minimum (B) HHG intensities. The spectra were de-convoluted by considering the transmission rate of 200 nm Al filter [47]. c) Illustration of the quantum path interference of the interferometric laser-assisted photoemission with HHG field generated by ω-2ω driving fields.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measuring the harmonic phases. a) 2D map of photoelectron yields at φRB ≈ 0 as a function of photoelectron energy and pump-probe time delay (τd). The experimentally measured interferogram phase α(ω) as a function of photoelectron energy is plotted in the right panel, in comparison with the reconstructed phases obtained from phase retrieval program (black solid line). The good agreement between the two indicates that the correct harmonic phases are retrieved from the experimental results. b) Phases of major harmonic orders measured at φRB ≈ 0 and φRB ≈ 0.5π. The uncertainty is determined as the standard deviation of phase values retrieved from multiple trials. For the comparison, the harmonic phases for both cases are offset so that the phase of the 13th harmonic is zero. The solid lines highlight the variation of the harmonic phases and serve the purpose of guiding the eyes. The difference of harmonic phases between φRB ≈ 0.5π and φRB ≈ 0 is plotted in the inset. The phase difference obtained in our numerical simulation is also plotted for comparison (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quasi-isolated attosecond pulses generated via macroscopic two-color phase-matching gating. a) The quasi-isolated attosecond pulses reconstructed using experimentally measured spectra and phases for φRB ≈ 0. b) same as (a) for φRB ≈ 0.5π. c) Time-dependent coherence length for a one-color (λR=775 nm, dashed line) and two-colors (λR=775 nm, λB=387.5 nm, solid lines) HHG driven in a 30 torr Ar-filled waveguide. In the one-color case we represent the coherence length of the 21st harmonic (33.6 eV, dashed black), whereas in the two-color case we have selected the 15th harmonic (24 eV, red solid, corresponding to nR=nB=5), the 18th harmonic (28.8 eV, green solid, nR=nB=6), and the 21st harmonic (33.6 eV, blue solid, nR=nB=7). The dot-dashed line represents 5Labs, where the absorption length is Labs =1 mm for 33.6 eV harmonics [63]. d) The attosecond pulse trains obtained from numerical simulation with two-color driving fields at φRB=0. The results are calculated by considering the 1D propagation in an Ar-filled waveguide with different interaction length (L= 1 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm). We can clearly distinguish that the number of attosecond bursts decreases as L increases, due to the reduction of phase-matching window, consistent with the analytical representation in (c). When L= 10 mm, only three attosecond pulses are isolated for HHG emission, which is consistent with the experimental results shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Controlling attosecond fields using two-color driving lasers. a) Experimentally measured HHG intensity and FWHM pulse width of the attosecond bursts as a function of φRB. b) Same as (a) obtained from the numerical simulation. The yellow-colored section highlights the range of φRB probed in our experiments as shown in (a). c) The time-dependent electric field contributed by the combined two-color driving fields with relative phase between two fields at φRB = 0 and φRB = 0.5π. d) Time-frequency analysis for the pulse train generated at φRB = 0 obtained from the numerical simulation. The electron ionization (magenta open circles) and recombination times (green open diamonds) are plotted and overlaid on the figure. Clearly, at φRB = 0 electrons recombine and harmonics are efficiently generated only in a single time window ( τ 1 emit ) within every IR optical cycle, corresponding to a single ionization time τ 1 ion (also see (c)). e) Same as the (d) for φRB = 0.5π. Different from the situation when φRB = 0, the two-color fields drive electrons to recombine and emit HHG photons in two time windows ( τ 2 emit and τ 3 emit) every IR optical cycle, which corresponds to ionization times τ 2 ion and τ 3 ion, respectively. This additional ionization and recombination time window leads to additional attosecond temporal structure in the HHG pulse trains driven by two-color laser field as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Equations (2)

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tan [ α ( ω n ) ] = I 0 ( ω n + 1 ) sin [ ϕ ( ω n ) ϕ ( ω n + 1 ) ] I 0 ( ω n 1 ) sin [ ϕ ( ω n 1 ) ϕ ( ω n ) ] I 0 ( ω n + 1 ) cos [ ϕ ( ω n ) ϕ ( ω n + 1 ) ] I 0 ( ω n 1 ) cos [ ϕ ( ω n 1 ) ϕ ( ω n ) ]
Δ k q ω 2 ω ( t ) Δ k q waveguide + Δ k q plasma + Δ k q neutral { n R λ R u 11 2 4 π a 2 + 2 n B λ B u 11 2 4 π a 2 } + { n R P λ R e 2 m e c 2 η ( t ) + 2 n B P λ B e 2 m e c 2 η ( t ) } { n R P 4 π χ 0 λ R [ 1 η ( t ) ] + 2 n B P 4 π 2 χ 0 λ B [ 1 η ( t ) ] }

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