Abstract

We report on the first implementation of ultrafast near field measurements carried out with the transient pseudoheterodyne detection method (Tr-pHD). This method is well suited for efficient and artifact free pump-probe scattering-type near-field optical microscopy with nanometer scale resolution. The Tr-pHD technique is critically compared to other data acquisition methods and found to offer significant advantages. Experimental evidence for the advantages of Tr-pHD is provided in the near-IR frequency range. Crucial factors involved in achieving proper performance of the Tr-pHD method with pulsed laser sources are analyzed and detailed in this work. We applied this novel method to femtosecond time-resolved and nanometer spatially resolved studies of the photo-induced effects in the insulator-to-metal transition system vanadium dioxide.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (6)

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–86 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, and D. N. Basov, “Nanoscale electrodynamics of strongly correlated quantum materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(1), 014501 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ó. Nájera, M. Civelli, V. Dobrosavljević, and M. J. Rozenberg, “Resolving the VO2 controversy: Mott mechanism dominates the insulator-to-metal transition,” Phys. Rev. B 95(3), 035113 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Hu, Y. Luan, M. E. Scott, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, X. Xu, and Z. Fei, “Imaging exciton-polariton transport in MoSe2 waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 356–360 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Dubrovkin, G. Adamo, J. Yin, L. Wang, C. Soci, Q. J. Wang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Visible Range Plasmonic Modes on Topological Insulator Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600768 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (11)

D. Nicoletti and A. Cavalleri, “Nonlinear light–matter interaction at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(3), 401–464 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Polaritons in van der Waals materials,” Science 354(6309), aag1992 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Kravtsov, R. Ulbricht, J. M. Atkin, and M. B. Raschke, “Plasmonic nanofocused four-wave mixing for femtosecond near-field imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 459–464 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, B. Phillabaum, E. W. Carlson, K. A. Dahmen, N. S. Vidhyadhiraja, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Random Field Driven Spatial Complexity at the Mott Transition in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(3), 036401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, M. Eisele, R. E. Marvel, F. Sandner, T. Korn, C. Schüller, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and T. L. Cocker, “Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Nanoscopy of Strained Vanadium Dioxide Nanobeams,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1421–1427 (2016).
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S. A. Dönges, O. Khatib, B. T. O’Callahan, J. M. Atkin, J. H. Park, D. Cobden, and M. B. Raschke, “Ultrafast Nanoimaging of the Photoinduced Phase Transition Dynamics in VO2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3029–3035 (2016).
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G. X. Ni, L. Wang, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, F. Keilmann, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, J. Hone, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast optical switching of infrared plasmon polaritons in high-mobility graphene,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 244–247 (2016).
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H. Wang, L. Wang, and X. G. Xu, “Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with low-repetition-rate pulsed light source through phase-domain sampling,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13212 (2016).
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Y. Zhu, Z. Cai, P. Chen, Q. Zhang, M. J. Highland, I. W. Jung, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, J. Jeong, M. G. Samant, S. S. P. Parkin, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, and H. Wen, “Mesoscopic structural phase progression in photo-excited VO2 revealed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21999 (2016).
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J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. N. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15(9), 956–960 (2016).
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Z. He and A. J. Millis, “Photoinduced phase transitions in narrow-gap Mott insulators: The case of VO2,” Phys. Rev. B 93(11), 115126 (2016).
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2015 (7)

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
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F. Kuschewski, S. C. Kehr, B. Green, Ch. Bauer, M. Gensch, and L. M. Eng, “Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12582 (2015).
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B. T. O’Callahan, A. C. Jones, J. Hyung Park, D. H. Cobden, J. M. Atkin, and M. B. Raschke, “Inhomogeneity of the ultrafast insulator-to-metal transition dynamics of VO2.,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6849 (2015).
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M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
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K. Moon, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Do, S. Lee, G. Lee, H. Kang, and H. Han, “Subsurface Nanoimaging by Broadband Terahertz Pulse Near-Field Microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 549–552 (2015).
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J. S. Wu, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Topological insulators are tunable waveguides for hyperbolic polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 92(20), 205430 (2015).
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R. Singla, G. Cotugno, S. Kaiser, M. Först, M. Mitrano, H. Y. Liu, A. Cartella, C. Manzoni, H. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, S. R. Clark, D. Jaksch, and A. Cavalleri, “THz-Frequency Modulation of the Hubbard U in an Organic Mott Insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(18), 187401 (2015).
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2014 (11)

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable Phonon Polaritons in Atomically Thin van der Waals Crystals of Boron Nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
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Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E. M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90(20), 205422 (2014).
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J. A. Gerber, S. Berweger, B. T. O’Callahan, and M. B. Raschke, “Phase-Resolved Surface Plasmon Interferometry of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 055502 (2014).
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D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 13–22 (2014).
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H. T. Stinson, J. S. Wu, B. Y. Jiang, Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, A. S. McLeod, A. Castro Neto, Y. S. Lee, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanospectroscopy and imaging of collective superfluid excitations in anisotropic superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(1), 014502 (2014).
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M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, S. J. Maddox, Z. Fei, M. Liu, R. D. Averitt, M. M. Fogler, S. R. Bank, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Surface Plasmons in InAs by Time-Resolved Infrared Nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4529–4534 (2014).
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L. Stojchevska, I. Vaskivskyi, T. Mertelj, P. Kusar, D. Svetin, S. Brazovskii, and D. Mihailovic, “Ultrafast Switching to a Stable Hidden Quantum State in an Electronic Crystal,” Science 344(6180), 177–180 (2014).
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M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
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M. Eisele, T. L. Cocker, M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Huber, “Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 841–845 (2014).
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A. McLeod, P. Kelly, M. D. Goldflam, Z. Gainsforth, A. J. Westphal, G. Dominguez, M. H. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Model for quantitative tip-enhanced spectroscopy and the extraction of nanoscale-resolved optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 085136 (2014).
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V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
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2013 (5)

M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, E. Abreu, S. Kittiwatanakul, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, M. M. Fogler, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. D. Averitt, and D. N. Basov, “Anisotropic Electronic State via Spontaneous Phase Separation in Strained Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 096602 (2013).
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T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
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S. Berweger, D. M. Nguyen, E. A. Muller, H. A. Bechtel, T. T. Perkins, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-Chemical Infrared Imaging of Membrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(49), 18292–18295 (2013).
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T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. De Los Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
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J. H. Park, J. M. Coy, T. S. Kasirga, C. Huang, Z. Fei, S. Hunter, and D. H. Cobden, “Measurement of a solid-state triple point at the metal-insulator transition in VO2.,” Nature 500(7463), 431–434 (2013).
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2012 (6)

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric Soft Mode in a SrTiO3 Thin Film Impulsively Driven to the Anharmonic Regime Using Intense Picosecond Terahertz Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097401 (2012).
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S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate Two-Quantum Coherences Induced by Time-Delayed THz Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(12), 123603 (2012).
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J. M. Atkin, S. Berweger, A. C. Jones, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-optical imaging and spectroscopy of order, phases, and domains in complex solids,” Adv. Phys. 61(6), 745–842 (2012).
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J. Orenstein, “Ultrafast spectroscopy of quantum materials,” Phys. Today 65(9), 44–50 (2012).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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2011 (5)

D. Fausti, R. I. Tobey, N. Dean, S. Kaiser, A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Light-Induced Superconductivity in a Stripe-Ordered Cuprate,” Science 331(6014), 189–191 (2011).
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D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
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F. Chen, M. Xu, Q. Q. Ge, Y. Zhang, Z. R. Ye, L. X. Yang, J. Jiang, B. P. Xie, R. C. Che, M. Zhang, A. F. Wang, X. H. Chen, D. W. Shen, J. P. Hu, and D. L. Feng, “Electronic identification of the parental phases and mesoscopic phase separation of KxFe2-ySe2 superconductors,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021020 (2011).
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A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
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T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5(1), 31–34 (2011).
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2010 (1)

A. C. Jones, S. Berweger, J. Wei, D. Cobden, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-optical Investigations of the Metal-Insulator Phase Behavior of Individual VO2 Microcrystals,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1574–1581 (2010).
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2009 (1)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, A. V. Balatsky, O. G. Shpyrko, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
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2007 (3)

S. Lysenko, A. Rúa, V. Vikhnin, F. Fernández, and H. Liu, “Insulator-to-metal phase transition and recovery processes in VO2 thin films after femtosecond laser excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035104 (2007).
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M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
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D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced Photosusceptibility near Tc for the Light-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
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2006 (1)

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
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2005 (1)

E. Dagotto, “Complexity in Strongly Correlated Electronic Systems,” Science 309(5732), 257–262 (2005).
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2004 (1)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).
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2003 (1)

2002 (1)

R. D. Averitt and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast optical and far-infrared quasiparticle dynamics in correlated electron materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(50), R1357–R1390 (2002).
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2001 (1)

E. Dagotto, T. Hotta, and A. Moreo, “COLOSSAL MAGNETORESISTANT MATERIALS: THE KEY ROLE OF PHASE SEPARATION,” Phys. Rep. 344(1-3), 1–153 (2001).
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2000 (3)

A. H. Zewaii, “Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104(24), 5660–5694 (2000).
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B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
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R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
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1997 (1)

W. K. Hiebert, A. Stankiewicz, and M. R. Freeman, “Direct Observation of Magnetic Relaxation in a Small Permalloy Disk by Time-Resolved Scanning Kerr Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(6), 1134–1137 (1997).
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Abreu, E.

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
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M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, E. Abreu, S. Kittiwatanakul, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, M. M. Fogler, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. D. Averitt, and D. N. Basov, “Anisotropic Electronic State via Spontaneous Phase Separation in Strained Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 096602 (2013).
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Adamo, G.

A. M. Dubrovkin, G. Adamo, J. Yin, L. Wang, C. Soci, Q. J. Wang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Visible Range Plasmonic Modes on Topological Insulator Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600768 (2017).
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Amarie, S.

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
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Anderegg, L.

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–86 (2017).
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Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
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M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, A. V. Balatsky, O. G. Shpyrko, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
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M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
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Aoki, H.

I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric Soft Mode in a SrTiO3 Thin Film Impulsively Driven to the Anharmonic Regime Using Intense Picosecond Terahertz Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097401 (2012).
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Arrighetti, G.

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
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Ashida, M.

I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric Soft Mode in a SrTiO3 Thin Film Impulsively Driven to the Anharmonic Regime Using Intense Picosecond Terahertz Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097401 (2012).
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Atkin, J. M.

V. Kravtsov, R. Ulbricht, J. M. Atkin, and M. B. Raschke, “Plasmonic nanofocused four-wave mixing for femtosecond near-field imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(5), 459–464 (2016).
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S. A. Dönges, O. Khatib, B. T. O’Callahan, J. M. Atkin, J. H. Park, D. Cobden, and M. B. Raschke, “Ultrafast Nanoimaging of the Photoinduced Phase Transition Dynamics in VO2,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3029–3035 (2016).
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B. T. O’Callahan, A. C. Jones, J. Hyung Park, D. H. Cobden, J. M. Atkin, and M. B. Raschke, “Inhomogeneity of the ultrafast insulator-to-metal transition dynamics of VO2.,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6849 (2015).
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J. M. Atkin, S. Berweger, A. C. Jones, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-optical imaging and spectroscopy of order, phases, and domains in complex solids,” Adv. Phys. 61(6), 745–842 (2012).
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Averitt, R. D.

J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. N. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15(9), 956–960 (2016).
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M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, S. J. Maddox, Z. Fei, M. Liu, R. D. Averitt, M. M. Fogler, S. R. Bank, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Surface Plasmons in InAs by Time-Resolved Infrared Nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4529–4534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, E. Abreu, S. Kittiwatanakul, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, M. M. Fogler, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. D. Averitt, and D. N. Basov, “Anisotropic Electronic State via Spontaneous Phase Separation in Strained Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 096602 (2013).
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M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced Photosusceptibility near Tc for the Light-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Averitt and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast optical and far-infrared quasiparticle dynamics in correlated electron materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(50), R1357–R1390 (2002).
[Crossref]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, A. V. Balatsky, O. G. Shpyrko, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bank, S. R.

M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, S. J. Maddox, Z. Fei, M. Liu, R. D. Averitt, M. M. Fogler, S. R. Bank, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Surface Plasmons in InAs by Time-Resolved Infrared Nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4529–4534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Barba, L.

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

A. S. McLeod, E. van Heumen, J. G. Ramirez, S. Wang, T. Saerbeck, S. Guenon, M. Goldflam, L. Anderegg, P. Kelly, A. Mueller, M. K. Liu, I. K. Schuller, and D. N. Basov, “Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3,” Nat. Phys. 13(1), 80–86 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, and D. N. Basov, “Nanoscale electrodynamics of strongly correlated quantum materials,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80(1), 014501 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. X. Ni, L. Wang, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, F. Keilmann, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, J. Hone, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast optical switching of infrared plasmon polaritons in high-mobility graphene,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 244–247 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, X. Tan, M. Liu, S. W. Teitelbaum, K. W. Post, F. Jin, K. A. Nelson, D. N. Basov, W. Wu, and R. D. Averitt, “Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films,” Nat. Mater. 15(9), 956–960 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, B. Phillabaum, E. W. Carlson, K. A. Dahmen, N. S. Vidhyadhiraja, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Random Field Driven Spatial Complexity at the Mott Transition in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(3), 036401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Polaritons in van der Waals materials,” Science 354(6309), aag1992 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wu, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Topological insulators are tunable waveguides for hyperbolic polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 92(20), 205430 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. T. Stinson, J. S. Wu, B. Y. Jiang, Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, A. S. McLeod, A. Castro Neto, Y. S. Lee, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanospectroscopy and imaging of collective superfluid excitations in anisotropic superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(1), 014502 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable Phonon Polaritons in Atomically Thin van der Waals Crystals of Boron Nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, S. J. Maddox, Z. Fei, M. Liu, R. D. Averitt, M. M. Fogler, S. R. Bank, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast Dynamics of Surface Plasmons in InAs by Time-Resolved Infrared Nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4529–4534 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McLeod, P. Kelly, M. D. Goldflam, Z. Gainsforth, A. J. Westphal, G. Dominguez, M. H. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Model for quantitative tip-enhanced spectroscopy and the extraction of nanoscale-resolved optical constants,” Phys. Rev. B 90(8), 085136 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Liu, M. Wagner, E. Abreu, S. Kittiwatanakul, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, M. M. Fogler, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, R. D. Averitt, and D. N. Basov, “Anisotropic Electronic State via Spontaneous Phase Separation in Strained Vanadium Dioxide Films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(9), 096602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

D. N. Basov, R. D. Averitt, D. van der Marel, M. Dressel, and K. Haule, “Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 471–541 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, A. V. Balatsky, O. G. Shpyrko, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, Ch.

F. Kuschewski, S. C. Kehr, B. Green, Ch. Bauer, M. Gensch, and L. M. Eng, “Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12582 (2015).
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Bechtel, H. A.

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berweger, D. M. Nguyen, E. A. Muller, H. A. Bechtel, T. T. Perkins, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-Chemical Infrared Imaging of Membrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(49), 18292–18295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berweger, S.

J. A. Gerber, S. Berweger, B. T. O’Callahan, and M. B. Raschke, “Phase-Resolved Surface Plasmon Interferometry of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(5), 055502 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berweger, D. M. Nguyen, E. A. Muller, H. A. Bechtel, T. T. Perkins, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-Chemical Infrared Imaging of Membrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(49), 18292–18295 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Atkin, S. Berweger, A. C. Jones, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-optical imaging and spectroscopy of order, phases, and domains in complex solids,” Adv. Phys. 61(6), 745–842 (2012).
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A. C. Jones, S. Berweger, J. Wei, D. Cobden, and M. B. Raschke, “Nano-optical Investigations of the Metal-Insulator Phase Behavior of Individual VO2 Microcrystals,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1574–1581 (2010).
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Bianconi, A.

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianconi, G.

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
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Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 13–22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brassard, D.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced Photosusceptibility near Tc for the Light-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brazovskii, S.

L. Stojchevska, I. Vaskivskyi, T. Mertelj, P. Kusar, D. Svetin, S. Brazovskii, and D. Mihailovic, “Ultrafast Switching to a Stable Hidden Quantum State in an Electronic Crystal,” Science 344(6180), 177–180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brehm, M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, A. V. Balatsky, O. G. Shpyrko, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruhács, A.

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bud’ko, S. L.

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Burgess, J. A. J.

T. L. Cocker, V. Jelic, M. Gupta, S. J. Molesky, J. A. J. Burgess, G. De Los Reyes, L. V. Titova, Y. Y. Tsui, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 620–625 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burghammer, M.

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Z.

Y. Zhu, Z. Cai, P. Chen, Q. Zhang, M. J. Highland, I. W. Jung, D. A. Walko, E. M. Dufresne, J. Jeong, M. G. Samant, S. S. P. Parkin, J. W. Freeland, P. G. Evans, and H. Wen, “Mesoscopic structural phase progression in photo-excited VO2 revealed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21999 (2016).
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Campi, G.

G. Campi, A. Bianconi, N. Poccia, G. Bianconi, L. Barba, G. Arrighetti, D. Innocenti, J. Karpinski, N. D. Zhigadlo, S. M. Kazakov, M. Burghammer, M. Zimmermann, M. Sprung, and A. Ricci, “Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor,” Nature 525(7569), 359–362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canfield, P. C.

M. Liu, A. J. Sternbach, M. Wagner, T. V. Slusar, T. Kong, S. L. Bud’ko, S. Kittiwatanakul, M. M. Qazilbash, A. McLeod, Z. Fei, E. Abreu, J. Zhang, M. Goldflam, S. Dai, G. X. Ni, J. Lu, H. A. Bechtel, M. C. Martin, M. B. Raschke, R. D. Averitt, S. A. Wolf, H. T. Kim, P. C. Canfield, and D. N. Basov, “Phase transition in bulk single crystals and thin films of VO2 by nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Rev. B 91(24), 245155 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carlson, E. W.

S. Liu, B. Phillabaum, E. W. Carlson, K. A. Dahmen, N. S. Vidhyadhiraja, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Random Field Driven Spatial Complexity at the Mott Transition in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(3), 036401 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cartella, A.

R. Singla, G. Cotugno, S. Kaiser, M. Först, M. Mitrano, H. Y. Liu, A. Cartella, C. Manzoni, H. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, S. R. Clark, D. Jaksch, and A. Cavalleri, “THz-Frequency Modulation of the Hubbard U in an Organic Mott Insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(18), 187401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro Neto, A.

H. T. Stinson, J. S. Wu, B. Y. Jiang, Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, A. S. McLeod, A. Castro Neto, Y. S. Lee, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanospectroscopy and imaging of collective superfluid excitations in anisotropic superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(1), 014502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

G. X. Ni, L. Wang, M. D. Goldflam, M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, F. Keilmann, B. Özyilmaz, A. H. Castro Neto, J. Hone, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast optical switching of infrared plasmon polaritons in high-mobility graphene,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 244–247 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wagner, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, A. S. Rodin, W. Bao, E. G. Iwinski, Z. Zhao, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, S. Amarie, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Ultrafast and nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in exfoliated graphene revealed by infrared pump-probe nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 894–900 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dai, Z. Fei, Q. Ma, A. S. Rodin, M. Wagner, A. S. McLeod, M. K. Liu, W. Gannett, W. Regan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, A. H. Castro Neto, A. Zettl, F. Keilmann, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Tunable Phonon Polaritons in Atomically Thin van der Waals Crystals of Boron Nitride,” Science 343(6175), 1125–1129 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, A. S. McLeod, M. Wagner, L. M. Zhang, Z. Zhao, M. Thiemens, G. Dominguez, M. M. Fogler, A. H. Castro Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Gate-tuning of graphene plasmons revealed by infrared nano-imaging,” Nature 487(7405), 82–85 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

D. Nicoletti and A. Cavalleri, “Nonlinear light–matter interaction at terahertz frequencies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(3), 401–464 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Singla, G. Cotugno, S. Kaiser, M. Först, M. Mitrano, H. Y. Liu, A. Cartella, C. Manzoni, H. Okamoto, T. Hasegawa, S. R. Clark, D. Jaksch, and A. Cavalleri, “THz-Frequency Modulation of the Hubbard U in an Organic Mott Insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(18), 187401 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fausti, R. I. Tobey, N. Dean, S. Kaiser, A. Dienst, M. C. Hoffmann, S. Pyon, T. Takayama, H. Takagi, and A. Cavalleri, “Light-Induced Superconductivity in a Stripe-Ordered Cuprate,” Science 331(6014), 189–191 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced Photosusceptibility near Tc for the Light-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Phase Transition in Vanadium Dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, B. G.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, H. T. Kim, A. V. Balatsky, O. G. Shpyrko, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott Transition in VO2 Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Nano-Imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaker, M.

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapler, B. C.

H. T. Stinson, J. S. Wu, B. Y. Jiang, Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, B. C. Chapler, A. S. McLeod, A. Castro Neto, Y. S. Lee, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanospectroscopy and imaging of collective superfluid excitations in anisotropic superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 90(1), 014502 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chatelain, R. P.

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Che, R. C.

F. Chen, M. Xu, Q. Q. Ge, Y. Zhang, Z. R. Ye, L. X. Yang, J. Jiang, B. P. Xie, R. C. Che, M. Zhang, A. F. Wang, X. H. Chen, D. W. Shen, J. P. Hu, and D. L. Feng, “Electronic identification of the parental phases and mesoscopic phase separation of KxFe2-ySe2 superconductors,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021020 (2011).
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Chen, F.

F. Chen, M. Xu, Q. Q. Ge, Y. Zhang, Z. R. Ye, L. X. Yang, J. Jiang, B. P. Xie, R. C. Che, M. Zhang, A. F. Wang, X. H. Chen, D. W. Shen, J. P. Hu, and D. L. Feng, “Electronic identification of the parental phases and mesoscopic phase separation of KxFe2-ySe2 superconductors,” Phys. Rev. X 1(2), 021020 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Infrared time-resolved nano-imaging experiment and results. a) Diagram showing the experimental apparatus. The ultrafast probe beam (purple) is focused onto the apex of an AFM probe at a precise time delay following a perturbation caused with a second ultrafast pump beam (red). Static infrared image, which was collected with the Tr-pHD method using the 5th harmonic of the tip-tapping frequency with a pulsed laser source. This image was obtained on a representative 10x10 μm2 region. This image reveals metallic regions (gold) due to the compressive strain of the substrate as well as insulating regions (blue), where the film is strain relieved. b) Tr-sHD results obtained on the VO2/TiO2 [001] sample in a 5x5 μm2 region at the pump probe time delay Δtps = 300 ps. c) Tr-pHD results obtained on the VO2/TiO2 [001] sample in a 5x5 μm2 region at the same time delay as in panel (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of detection methods. a-c) Various detection methods with the radiation from the probe (purple), reference arm (blue) and pump (red) shown. BMS = 50/50 Beamsplitter; RM = Reference Mirror; D = Detector. a) sHD method, backscattered light from the AFM is steered into the detector. b) HD method where a reference arm is added. c) pHD method where the reference arm position is modulated at a frequency M. d-f) Signals acquired using the detection methods in a-c. d) sHD signal, which shows peaks at high harmonics of the tip tapping frequency nΩ. e) HD signal, which shows that the magnitude of the peaks at nΩ are enhanced. f) pHD signal, which shows that, the peak at nΩ has returned to its sHD value. Additional peaks appear at the sum and or difference frequencies between the high harmonics of the tip tapping frequency and the reference arm nΩ +/−NM. g) Schematic of the pulses involved and relevant time scales. In the schematic we show the individual pump (red), probe (purple) and reference (blue) pulses on the femtosecond timescale. A much longer time delay, Δtss – which is the inverse of the repetition rate of the laser system – is indicated by the dashed line. The dashed line separates the first (ON) event, where both the pump and probe pulses arrive at the sample and a second (OFF) event where only the probe pulse arrives at the sample. This process is periodically repeated, and data are collected by separately integrating the detected voltage from many ON and OFF events. In the case of HD and pHD methods radiation in the reference arm (blue) temporally overlaps with the probe radiation. In the case of the pHD method, the time delay between reference and probe light, Δtrs is modulated sinusoidally at a frequency M.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Modeling amplitude errors in Tr-pHD method. a) Spectral field used in our calculation, ξ(ω),vs frequency,ω. The Fourier transform of this field is displayed in the inset. b) Near-field amplitude collected with a pulsed laser normalized to the value that is anticipated for a monochromatic source, sn/scw. We plot this quantity against the relative bandwidth of the laser source, Δ(ω)/ ω c , as shown in panel a. We include this calculation for two values of the near-field phase relative to that of the reference arm, Δϕref = 0 (black) and Δϕref = π/2 (red). A zoom in of the narrow bandwidth region is shown in the inset.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Artifact-free near-field data with a pulsed laser source. a) AFM data, which measures the topography, or local height, of the film in a 2x2 μm2 region. b) pHD data with a pulsed laser source corresponding to the topography in panel a. c) Tr-pHD data that was collected simultaneously with Figs. 4(a) and (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Numerical values of the near-field and background contributions in s-SNOM measurements and the spectroscopic observables that may be explored with Tr-pHD. In Vis - Near-IR spectral regions the temporal duration of laser pulses δts is typically greater than 4 fs. In Mid-IR typical values of δts are greater than 40 fs. In THz region one usually deals with δts greater than 400 fs. Various spectroscopic observables are highlighted. TI = Topological Insulator; SC = Superconducting; TMD = Transition Metal Dichalcogenides; hBN = Hexagonal Boron nitride; FM = Ferromagnetic; AM = Anti-Ferromagnetic; CT = Charge Transfer; MH = Mott-Hubbard; 2DEG = 2D-Electron Gas. The main panel shows the magnitude of the background electric field phasor (solid lines) calculated as described in Appendix A for harmonics of the tip-tapping frequency s1 (red), s2 (yellow), s3 (green), s4 (light blue), s5 (dark blue), s6 (purple). We also show the calculated magnitude of the electric field phasor from the near-field (dots at 10 μm) in the identical color scheme. In the inset we show a schematic representation of scattering processes that yield the background electric fields plotted here and discussed in Appendix A, with radiation from the near-field indicated by the red arrow, radiation that is directly scattered from the tip-shaft indicated by the black arrow and radiation that is scattered off of the sample, and then by the tip-shaft indicated by the green arrow. The near-field contribution to the signal is found to significantly outweigh the background contribution for high harmonics of the tapping frequency throughout the entire spectral range plotted.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Model calculations for the Tr-sHD and Tr-HD signals in near-IR. a) Schematic showing the AFM probe on a pixelated surface. The dominant area of the sample is state indicated with red, and is assigned the near-field phase ϕr. A single pixel is blue, and is assigned the near-field phase ϕb. The numeric values of these phases are shown in the inset. b) Transient response of the sHD signal at a red pixel (red) and blue pixel (blue). c) Transient response of the HD signal at a red pixel (red) and blue pixel (blue). The solid line shows the predictions for a typical ratio of reference arm to sHD intensities. The dashed line shows the case that the sHD intensity is set to zero, where the fictitious result at the blue pixel is removed.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Model calculations for the Tr-sHD and Tr-HD signals for VO2 film in near-IR range. The results of Tr-sHD were calculated using Eq. (23). The results of Tr-HD (I) were calculated using Eq. (24) with realistic magnitudes for the electric field of the reference arm relative to that of the background. The results of Tr-HD (II) were calculated using Eq. (24) with |EBG| = 0. The values displayed for Tr-pHD can be obtained using Eq. (7)-(10).

Equations (24)

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u| E ˜ ref + E ˜ BG + E ˜ NF | 2
u n E ˜ ref * E ˜ NF + E ˜ BG * E ˜ NF + E ˜ NF * E ˜ NF + C.C.
  s sHD 2| E ˜ BG || E ˜ NF |cos(Δ φ BG )
s H D 2 | E ˜ r e f | | E ˜ N F | cos ( Δ φ r e f ) + 2 | E ˜ B G | | E ˜ N F | cos ( Δ φ B G )
s p H D 2 | E ˜ r e f | | E ˜ N F | cos ( Δ φ r e f )
ξ ˜ r ( ω )=| ξ ˜ r ( ω ) | e i( ω a m cos( Mt )+ φ ref ( ω ) ) = N= | ξ ˜ r ( ω ) | J N (ω a m ) e i( φ ref ( ω )+ Nπ 2 ) e i(NMt)
u n,N  | ξ ˜ NF ( ω 0 ) || ξ ˜ ref ( ω 0 ) | J N ( ω 0 a m )cos(Δ φ ref ( ω 0 ) Nπ 2 )
s n    u n,1 2 + u n,2 2
φ n   a tan 2 ( u n,2 / u n,1 )
u n,N R( ω )| ξ NF ( ω ) || ξ ref ( ω ) | J N ( ω a m )cos( Δ φ ref (ω) Nπ 2 )dω
s n ( Δ φ ref )/ s cw = [ ( ξ(ω) J 1 ( ω a m )sin( Δ φ ref )dω) 2 + ( ξ(ω) J 2 ( ω a m )cos( Δ φ ref )dω) 2 ] 1/2 J 1 ( 2.63 rad ) ξ(ω)dω
E BG =| E | e iγcosΩt =| E | n= J n ( γ ) e i nπ 2 e inΩt
E BG =| E | r Scatt ( Δ t ps ) e iγcosΩt =| E | n= r Scatt (Δ t ps ) J n (γ) e i nπ 2 e inΩt
E n | E NF (x,Δ t ps ) | e i φ NF (x,Δ t ps ) +| E BG | (iγ) n n! (1+ (1) n r Scatt ( Δ t ps ))
E n | E NF (x,Δ t ps ) | e i φ NF (x,Δ t ps ) +| E BG | (iγ) n n! (1+ (1) n r Scatt ( Δ t ps ))
E(t)= p |E( tpΔ t ss )|exp[i( ωt+φ( tpΔ t ss ) )]
E n = n 0 p | E n ( tpΔ t ss )|exp[i( ωt+ φ n ( tpΔ t ss )+nΩt )]
E ref = p | E ref ( tpΔ t ss ) |exp[ i( ωt+ a m cos( NMt )+ φ ref ( tpΔ t ss ) ) ]= N p | E ref ( tpΔ t ss )| J N ( a m )exp[i( ωt+NMt+Nπ/2+ φ ref ( tpΔ t ss ) )]
I= n exp[inΩt] N J N ( a m )exp[ iNπ 2 ]exp[ iNMt ] p | E k ( tpΔ t ss ) || E ref ( tpΔ t ss ) |exp[ i( φ ref ( tpΔ t ss ) ) φ n ( tpΔ t ss ) ]+C.C.
u n,N = u p,n,N c n c N * + c n * c N
E ˜ s =| E ˜ 0 | e i φ 0 +| E ˜ 1 | e i(Ωt+ φ 1 ) +| E ˜ 2 | e i(2Ωt+ φ 2 ) += n | E ˜ n | e i(nΩt+ φ n )
u sHD 2| E ˜ BG || E ˜ NF |cos(Δ φ BG ) E ˜
Δ u sHD ( x,Δ t ps ) | E ˜ BG ( Δ t ps ) || E ˜ NF ( x,Δ t ps ) |cos( Δ φ BG ( x,Δ t ps ) )  | E ˜ BG ( Δ t ps <0 ) || E ˜ NF ( x,Δ t ps <0 ) |cos( Δ φ BG ( x,Δ t ps <0 ) )
Δ u HD ( x,Δ t ps )( | E ˜ BG ( Δ t ps ) |cos( Δ φ BG )+| E ˜ ref |cos( Δ φ ref ) )| E ˜ NF ( x,Δ t ps ) | (| E ˜ BG ( Δ t ps <0 ) |cos( Δ φ BG )+| E ˜ ref |cos( Δ φ ref ))| E ˜ NF ( x,Δ t ps <0 ) |  

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