Abstract

We proposed a polarization division multiplexed (PDM) silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC) suitable for intra-chip optical interconnection. The PDM PIC is composed of two micro-ring modulators, two gain peaked germanium photodetectors and the multiplexer as well as demultiplexer based on polarization rotator splitter. 20 Gb/s on-chip PDM system is successfully demonstrated with clear eye diagrams. Under 10−9 bit error ratio level, the power penalty is about 1 dB between the single and dual polarization tributes, which validates the superior link performance of the proposed PIC.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (2)

G. Chen, Y. Yu, S. Deng, L. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25700–25706 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

2009 (1)

Akagawa, T.

Akiyama, S.

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Baba, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Barwicz, T.

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[PubMed]

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman and K. Bergman, “Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(4), 046402 (2012).
[PubMed]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Buhl, L. L.

Capellini, G.

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Che, D.

Chen, G.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y.-K.

Chi, H.-K.

Cho, M. H.

Chu, T.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dai, D.

Deng, S.

Dong, P.

Fujikata, J.

Gardes, F.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).

Georgas, M. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gould, M.

Hatori, N.

Hirayama, N.

Hochberg, M.

Horikawa, T.

Hu, Y.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).

Hwang, M.-S.

Imai, M.

Ishizaka, M.

Jang, K.-S.

Jeong, D.-K.

Joo, J.

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, G.

Kim, H.-C.

Kim, I. G.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J.-K.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. A.

Kumar, R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, J. M.

Lee, J. Y.

Lee, Y.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Leu, J. C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).

Li, Z.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Lim, A. E.

Lin, S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Manipatruni, S.

Mashanovich, G.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).

Mervis, J.

J. Mervis, “U.S. science policy. agencies rally to tackle big data,” Science 336(6077), 22 (2012).
[PubMed]

Miura, M.

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Mori, M.

Moss, B. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

Noguchi, M.

Noguchi, Y.

Novack, A.

Oh, J. H.

Okamoto, D.

Okano, M.

Okayama, H.

Orcutt, J. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ou, A. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Park, G. S.

Park, J. M.

Park, J. W.

Park, K.-S.

Pavanello, F.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Poon, J. K. S.

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Preston, K.

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Reed, G.

G. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).

Sacher, W. D.

Saito, E.

Saitou, S.

Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shieh, W.

Shimizu, T.

Shimura, D.

Stojanovic, V. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Streshinsky, M.

Sun, C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, M.

Taylor, B. J. F.

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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed PDM PIC. The inserted pictures are the details of (a) silicon MRM, (b) Ge PD and (c) PRS based multiplexer. MUX: multiplexer; DEMUX: demultiplexer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Top view microscope image of the fabricated PDM PIC; the detail microscope images of the (b) grating coupler, (c) modulator, (d) multiplexer and (e) photodetector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) DC spectrum shift versus thermal heating voltage; (b) measured S21 of the MRM under 2V reverse biased voltage.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured spectra at the (a) through and (b) cross ports when input two orthogonal polarized light from port 3 (denoted in Fig. 1(b)). Measured spectra from both through and cross ports when input (c) TE0 and (d) TM0 polarized light from port 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured dark current and responsivity of the referenced Ge PD. (b) Measured S21 curve of the Ge PD when the reverse biased voltage is 3V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Link performance experiment setup. Amp: microwave amplifier.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured eye diagram (time scale: 40 ps/div) when inputting single polarized and PDM signals. (b) Measured BER results when inputting single polarized signal and PDM signals.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured transmission spectra of the straight waveguide for TE0 and TM0 modes.

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