Abstract

A tunable acoustic gradient (TAG) lens has been introduced in the fast axial scanning in optical imaging. However, it still needs additional imaging time for depth scanning. In this study, we split a single laser pulse into three sub-pulses and introduce them into three fibers with different lengths. The sub-pulses out of the fibers were combined thereafter. We then obtained a pulse train with a time interval of 120 ns. By controlling the fire time of the pulse train and the driving signal of the TAG lens, we can receive three focal spots in one A line data acquisition using a single input laser pulse. The depth of focus (DoF) of the system was measured to be 360 μm, which is three times of that of previous systems without the sacrifice of time resolution. A mouse ear and mouse cerebral vasculature were imaged in-vivo to demonstrate the feasibility of the extended DoF of our system.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 96011 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 76007 (2013).
[PubMed]

P. Hajireza, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “Multifocus optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using stimulated Raman scattering and chromatic aberration,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2711–2713 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, and R. J. Zemp, “Label-free in vivo fiber-based optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4107–4109 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. Shotton and N. White, “Confocal scanning microscopy: three-dimensional biological imaging,” Trends Biochem. Sci. 14(11), 435–439 (1989).
[PubMed]

Arbeit, J. M.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Arnold, C. B.

Deng, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 76007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Forbrich, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gong, H.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 76007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hajireza, P.

Hu, S.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 96011 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[PubMed]

Huang, C.-H.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jiang, B.

Kovalski, J.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Krumholz, A.

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 76007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Maslov, K.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 96011 (2014).
[PubMed]

McLeod, E.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Noordam, C.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[PubMed]

Oladipupo, S.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Rao, B.

Santeford, A.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shi, W.

Shohet, R.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Shotton, D.

D. Shotton and N. White, “Confocal scanning microscopy: three-dimensional biological imaging,” Trends Biochem. Sci. 14(11), 435–439 (1989).
[PubMed]

Soetikno, B.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 96011 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sohn, R. E.

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Song, X.

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 76007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[PubMed]

B. Rao, L. Li, K. Maslov, and L. Wang, “Hybrid-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo vasculature imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1521–1523 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 96011 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. Hu, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Second-generation optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with improved sensitivity and speed,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1134–1136 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wei, J.

White, N.

D. Shotton and N. White, “Confocal scanning microscopy: three-dimensional biological imaging,” Trends Biochem. Sci. 14(11), 435–439 (1989).
[PubMed]

Wong, T. T.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Xu, G.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 76007 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yang, J.-M.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yang, X.

Yao, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

A. Krumholz, L. Wang, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy of diabetic vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(6), 060502 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. Oladipupo, S. Hu, J. Kovalski, J. Yao, A. Santeford, R. E. Sohn, R. Shohet, K. Maslov, L. V. Wang, and J. M. Arbeit, “VEGF is essential for hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated neovascularization but dispensable for endothelial sprouting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13264–13269 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 96011 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zemp, R. J.

Zhang, C.

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[PubMed]

Zou, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J.-M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. Wong, L. Li, C.-H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy: auscultation of biological systems at the cellular level,” Biophys. J. 105(4), 841–847 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (6)

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) scheme of the system. A, amplifier; BC1, BC2, BC3, BC4, beamsplitter cube; BS, beam sampler; DAQ, data acquisition card; D, D type flip-flop; FP, fiber port; FG, function generator; L1, L2, …, L12, optical lenses; M1, M2 and M3, mirrors; MMF, multimode fiber; NDF1, NDF2 and NDF3, neutral density filter; Obj, objectives; P, prism; PD, photodiode; PH, pinhole; S, sample; SMF, single mode fiber; TAG, TAG lens; UT, ultrasonic transducer; W, water tank; WS, work station. The blue, green and red dots represent different focus in depth, respectively. (b) sequential chart of laser pulses and sinusoidal driving signal of TAG lens in one A-line; (c) and (d) are PA signals of the carbon fiber which is placed at the center focus of the MF-PAM in one A line when TAG lens is on and off, respectively. The blue and red arrows in (c) indicated the position of the other two laser pulses. NSA, normalized signal amplitude. NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram for vertically tilted carbon fiber. (a) Side view. (b) Top view.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 DoF estimation of the system. (a) and (b) are MAP images of a vertically tilted carbon fiber when TAG lens is on and off, respectively. (c) and (d), Distribution of the lateral resolution along the depth direction of (a) and (b), respectively. f1, f2, f2’ and f3, focal planes indicated by white arrows; NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Images of a mouse ear. (a) and (b) are the depth-coding MAP images of mouse ear when TAG lens on and off, respectively. (c) and (d) are close-up images of the areas indicated by the yellow dashed rectangles in (a) and (b), respectively; (e) and (f) are close-up images of the areas indicated by the white dashed rectangles in (a) and (b), respectively. The white arrows in (c) and (e) denote the vessels which cannot be resolved in (d) and (f). (g) is the width variations of the vessel (indicated by the white dashed curves in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b)) when TAG lens on and off, respectively. (h) is the SNR variations of the vessel we chose, which is corresponds to Fig. 3(g). NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude. SNR, Signal Noise Ratio. Scale, 100 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Images of an open-skull mouse cerebral vasculature. (a) and (b) are the depth-coding MAP images of open-skull mouse cerebral vasculature when TAG lens on and off, respectively. (c) and (e) are close-up images of the areas indicated by the yellow dashed rectangles in (a) and (b), respectively; (d) and (f) are close-up images of the areas indicated by the white dashed rectangles in (a) and (b), respectively. The white arrows in (c) and (d) denote the vessels which cannot be resolved in (e) and (f). NPA, normalized amplitude distribution. Scale, 200 μm.

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