Abstract

A comparative study of the optical and electro-optic properties of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal (PS-BPLC) cells with photoalignment layers and rubbing alignment layers is performed. The optical microscope (OM) images of the photoaligned and rubbing-aligned cells depict that they have uniform PS-BPLC textures, while the post-processed OM images of the two cells reveal that the former has a more uniform PS-BPLC texture than the latter. The relatively uniform PS-BPLC texture in the photoaligned cell is verified by the reflective spectra of the two cells. The voltage-dependent transmittance curves and time-dependent transmittance curves of another two photoaligned and rubbing-aligned cells with in-plane-switching (IPS) electrodes indicate that the contrast ratio of the former is 41% larger than that of the latter, and the operation voltage (response time) of the former is 11 (10) % smaller than that of the latter. This result arises from the fact that the photoaligned cell with the IPS electrodes exhibits a relatively uniform PS-BPLC texture and relatively weak voltage-shielding effect. Therefore, the photoalignment can improve the electro-optic properties of PS-BPLC cells with alignment layers. The photoaligned and rubbing-aligned cells have no thermal hysteresis in low voltage regions due to the uniform surface alignment layers, and exhibit very low voltage-induced hysteresis in high voltage regions owing to no thermal hysteresis. Briefly, uniform surface alignment layers can eliminate the thermal hysteresis of PS-BPLC cells, suppressing their voltage-induced hysteresis. In other words, the hysteresis of PS-BPLC cells with alignment layers is independent of alignment methods as long as the alignment layers have strong surface anchoring energy.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [PubMed]
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2017 (1)

J. A. Martínez-González, X. Li, M. Sadati, Y. Zhou, R. Zhang, P. F. Nealey, and J. J. de Pablo, “Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15854 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (2)

P. J. Chen, M. Chen, S. Y. Ni, H. S. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “Influence of alignment layers on crystal growth of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid lattices,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(4), 1003–1010 (2016).

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, V. Kolosova, R. Hyman, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Continuous phase modulation in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 9769, 976912 (2016).

2015 (3)

R. M. Hyman, A. Lorenz, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Phase modulation using different orientations of a chiral nematic in liquid crystal over silicon devices,” Liq. Cryst. 43(1), 1–8 (2015).

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

L. Rao and S. T. Wu, “Low-voltage blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. Today 24(1), 3–12 (2015).

2014 (3)

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid lattices stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(08), 081114 (2014).

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).

2013 (7)

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(08), 081102 (2013).

N. Kasch, I. Dierking, and M. Turner, “Stabilization of the liquid crystalline blue phase by the addition of short-chain polystyrene,” Soft Matter 9, 4789–4793 (2013).

M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

J. Yan, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171110 (2013).

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

2012 (3)

2011 (6)

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Pinning effect on the photonic bandgaps of blue-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1606–1609 (2011).
[PubMed]

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “High-resolution thin “guest-host” micropolarizer arrays for visible imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5565–5573 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[PubMed]

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

2010 (2)

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).

2009 (2)

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE 7232, 723205 (2009).

2006 (1)

K. Y. Lo, C. C. Shiah, and C. Y. Huang, “Actual capacitance function of nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 891–895 (2006).

2005 (3)

V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu, “Photo-aligning by azo-dyes: Physics and applications,” Liq. Cryst. Today 14(4), 1–15 (2005).

B. Zhang, K. Li, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, and H. C. Huang, “Application of photoalignment technology to liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3983–3991 (2005).

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Rastegar, M. Škarabot, B. Blij, and T. Rasing, “Mechanism of liquid crystal alignment on submicron patterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 960–964 (2001).

1996 (1)

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

1991 (1)

H. S. Kitzerow, “The effect of electric fields on blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 202(1), 51–83 (1991).

1989 (2)

H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 751–775 (1989).

1983 (1)

G. Heppke, M. Krumrey, and F. Oestreicher, “Observation of Electro-Optical Effects in Blue Phase Systems,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 99(1), 99–105 (1983).

Akahane, T.

Bermak, A.

Blij, B.

A. Rastegar, M. Škarabot, B. Blij, and T. Rasing, “Mechanism of liquid crystal alignment on submicron patterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 960–964 (2001).

Boussaid, F.

Braun, L.

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, V. Kolosova, R. Hyman, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Continuous phase modulation in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 9769, 976912 (2016).

Chen, H. S.

Chen, K. M.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).

Chen, M.

Chen, P. J.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171110 (2013).

J. Yan, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Yan, Y. Liu, J. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a negative Kerr constant,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1135–1140 (2012).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).

Cheng, K. L.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(08), 081102 (2013).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Chigrinov, V.

V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu, “Photo-aligning by azo-dyes: Physics and applications,” Liq. Cryst. Today 14(4), 1–15 (2005).

Chigrinov, V. G.

X. Zhao, F. Boussaid, A. Bermak, and V. G. Chigrinov, “High-resolution thin “guest-host” micropolarizer arrays for visible imaging polarimetry,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5565–5573 (2011).
[PubMed]

B. Zhang, K. Li, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, and H. C. Huang, “Application of photoalignment technology to liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3983–3991 (2005).

Coles, H. J.

H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).

Crooker, P. P.

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 751–775 (1989).

Cui, J.

Cuypers, D.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

de Pablo, J. J.

J. A. Martínez-González, X. Li, M. Sadati, Y. Zhou, R. Zhang, P. F. Nealey, and J. J. de Pablo, “Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15854 (2017).
[PubMed]

Dierking, I.

N. Kasch, I. Dierking, and M. Turner, “Stabilization of the liquid crystalline blue phase by the addition of short-chain polystyrene,” Soft Matter 9, 4789–4793 (2013).

Dubruel, P.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Endo, N.

Fan, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

Gauza, S.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).

Gleeson, H. F.

H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).

Heppke, G.

G. Heppke, M. Krumrey, and F. Oestreicher, “Observation of Electro-Optical Effects in Blue Phase Systems,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 99(1), 99–105 (1983).

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hoischen, A.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Hsieh, P. J.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Hsu, C. Y.

Hsu, H. K.

Huang, C. Y.

K. Y. Lo, C. C. Shiah, and C. Y. Huang, “Actual capacitance function of nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 891–895 (2006).

Huang, H. C.

B. Zhang, K. Li, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, and H. C. Huang, “Application of photoalignment technology to liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3983–3991 (2005).

Huang, T. H.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

Hyman, R.

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, V. Kolosova, R. Hyman, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Continuous phase modulation in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 9769, 976912 (2016).

Hyman, R. M.

R. M. Hyman, A. Lorenz, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Phase modulation using different orientations of a chiral nematic in liquid crystal over silicon devices,” Liq. Cryst. 43(1), 1–8 (2015).

Islamai, E.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Jau, H. C.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

Jeong, H.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).

Joshi, P.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kang, S. W.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Kasch, N.

N. Kasch, I. Dierking, and M. Turner, “Stabilization of the liquid crystalline blue phase by the addition of short-chain polystyrene,” Soft Matter 9, 4789–4793 (2013).

Kikuchi, H.

M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Kimura, M.

Kitzerow, H.

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Kitzerow, H. S.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).

H. S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: a review,” Proc. SPIE 7232, 723205 (2009).

H. S. Kitzerow, “The effect of electric fields on blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 202(1), 51–83 (1991).

Kolosova, V.

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, V. Kolosova, R. Hyman, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Continuous phase modulation in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 9769, 976912 (2016).

Krumrey, M.

G. Heppke, M. Krumrey, and F. Oestreicher, “Observation of Electro-Optical Effects in Blue Phase Systems,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 99(1), 99–105 (1983).

Kwok, H. S.

B. Zhang, K. Li, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, and H. C. Huang, “Application of photoalignment technology to liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3983–3991 (2005).

V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu, “Photo-aligning by azo-dyes: Physics and applications,” Liq. Cryst. Today 14(4), 1–15 (2005).

Lai, Y. C.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

Lee, G. D.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Lee, H. J.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Lee, S. H.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Li, K.

B. Zhang, K. Li, V. G. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, and H. C. Huang, “Application of photoalignment technology to liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3983–3991 (2005).

Li, X.

J. A. Martínez-González, X. Li, M. Sadati, Y. Zhou, R. Zhang, P. F. Nealey, and J. J. de Pablo, “Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15854 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liang, X.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Lin, T. H.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

H. Y. Liu, C. T. Wang, C. Y. Hsu, and T. H. Lin, “Pinning effect on the photonic bandgaps of blue-phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1606–1609 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, C.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

Liu, H. Y.

Liu, S. H.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Liu, Y.

Lo, K. Y.

K. Y. Lo, C. C. Shiah, and C. Y. Huang, “Actual capacitance function of nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 891–895 (2006).

Lorenz, A.

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, V. Kolosova, R. Hyman, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Continuous phase modulation in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 9769, 976912 (2016).

R. M. Hyman, A. Lorenz, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Phase modulation using different orientations of a chiral nematic in liquid crystal over silicon devices,” Liq. Cryst. 43(1), 1–8 (2015).

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Lu, Z. H.

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

Luo, Q.

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

Luo, Z.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

Martínez-González, J. A.

J. A. Martínez-González, X. Li, M. Sadati, Y. Zhou, R. Zhang, P. F. Nealey, and J. J. de Pablo, “Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15854 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

Nagumo, N.

Nayek, P.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Nealey, P. F.

J. A. Martínez-González, X. Li, M. Sadati, Y. Zhou, R. Zhang, P. F. Nealey, and J. J. de Pablo, “Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15854 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ni, S. Y.

Nordendorf, G.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Oestreicher, F.

G. Heppke, M. Krumrey, and F. Oestreicher, “Observation of Electro-Optical Effects in Blue Phase Systems,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 99(1), 99–105 (1983).

Oo, T. N.

Parl, H. S.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Parl, H. J. Lee, H. S. Kim, and G. D. Lee, “Effect of the grain size on hysteresis of liquid-crystalline blue phase I,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 318–325 (2012).

Rao, L.

L. Rao and S. T. Wu, “Low-voltage blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. Today 24(1), 3–12 (2015).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).

Rasing, T.

A. Rastegar, M. Škarabot, B. Blij, and T. Rasing, “Mechanism of liquid crystal alignment on submicron patterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 960–964 (2001).

Rastegar, A.

A. Rastegar, M. Škarabot, B. Blij, and T. Rasing, “Mechanism of liquid crystal alignment on submicron patterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 960–964 (2001).

Sadati, M.

J. A. Martínez-González, X. Li, M. Sadati, Y. Zhou, R. Zhang, P. F. Nealey, and J. J. de Pablo, “Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15854 (2017).
[PubMed]

Schadt, M.

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid lattices stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(08), 081114 (2014).

Schmidtke, J.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Shang, X.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Shiah, C. C.

K. Y. Lo, C. C. Shiah, and C. Y. Huang, “Actual capacitance function of nematic liquid crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(2A), 891–895 (2006).

Shiu, J. W.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(08), 081102 (2013).

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Škarabot, M.

A. Rastegar, M. Škarabot, B. Blij, and T. Rasing, “Mechanism of liquid crystal alignment on submicron patterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 960–964 (2001).

Smet, H. D.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Smet, J. D.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Steenberge, G. V.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Sugiura, N.

C. Y. Fan, H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Influence of polymerization temperature on hysteresis and residual birefringence of polymer stabilized blue phase LCs,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(11), 615–618 (2011).

Sun, J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

Sun, Z. M.

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

Takada, H.

V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu, “Photo-aligning by azo-dyes: Physics and applications,” Liq. Cryst. Today 14(4), 1–15 (2005).

Takatsu, H.

V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu, “Photo-aligning by azo-dyes: Physics and applications,” Liq. Cryst. Today 14(4), 1–15 (2005).

Tang, J. H.

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

Tsai, Y. C.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

Turner, M.

N. Kasch, I. Dierking, and M. Turner, “Stabilization of the liquid crystalline blue phase by the addition of short-chain polystyrene,” Soft Matter 9, 4789–4793 (2013).

Vlierberghe, S. V.

P. Joshi, X. Shang, J. D. Smet, E. Islamai, D. Cuypers, G. V. Steenberge, S. V. Vlierberghe, P. Dubruel, and H. D. Smet, “On the effect of alignment layers on blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(10), 101105 (2015).

Wang, C. T.

Wang, Q.

Wei, Y.

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

Wilkes, D.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Wilkinson, T. D.

A. Lorenz, L. Braun, V. Kolosova, R. Hyman, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Continuous phase modulation in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 9769, 976912 (2016).

R. M. Hyman, A. Lorenz, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Phase modulation using different orientations of a chiral nematic in liquid crystal over silicon devices,” Liq. Cryst. 43(1), 1–8 (2015).

Wittek, M.

G. Nordendorf, A. Lorenz, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, H. Kitzerow, D. Wilkes, and M. Wittek, “Hysteresis and memory factor of the Kerr effect in blue phases,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173104 (2013).

Wu, C. H.

Wu, H. M.

H. M. Wu, J. H. Tang, Q. Luo, Z. M. Sun, Y. M. Zhu, Z. H. Lu, and Y. Wei, “Liquid-crystal alignment of rubbed polyimide films: A microscopic investigation,” Appl. Phys. B 62(6), 613–618 (1996).

Wu, S. T.

L. Rao and S. T. Wu, “Low-voltage blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Liq. Cryst. Today 24(1), 3–12 (2015).

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal materials and devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid lattices stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(08), 081114 (2014).

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Electric field-induced monodomain blue phase liquid lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171110 (2013).

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(08), 081102 (2013).

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S. T. Wu, J. W. Shiu, Y. C. Lai, K. L. Cheng, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, and Y. C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(01), 011113 (2013).

J. Yan, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).

Y. Li, Y. Chen, J. Yan, Y. Liu, J. Cui, Q. Wang, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal with a negative Kerr constant,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1135–1140 (2012).

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals: a tutorial [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(8), 1527–1535 (2011).

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stablized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201105 (2011).

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).

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J. Yan, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 OM images of (a) photoaligned, (b) rubbing-aligned, and (c) unaligned PS-BPLC cells. Post-processed OM images of (d) photoaligned and (e) rubbing-aligned cells. (f) Kossel diagram of photoaligned cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflective spectra of photoaligned, rubbing-aligned, and unaligned cells.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Configurations of (a) photoaligned and (b) rubbing-aligned PS-BPLC cells with IPS electrodes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for measuring electro-optical properties of photoaligned and rubbing-aligned cells with IPS electrodes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Hysteresis loops of photoaligned and rubbing-aligned PS-BPLC cells with IPS electrodes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Response times of (a) photoaligned and (b) rubbing-aligned PS-BPLC cells with IPS electrodes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Properties of Photoaligned Cell, Rubbing-aligned Cell, Unaligned Cell and Their Duplicate Cells

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ= 2na h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ,
n= ( n e +2 n o )/3 .
ε //_eff = 1 2 d a d × 1 ε a +( 1 2 d a d )× 1 ε // ,
ε _eff = 1 2 d a d × 1 ε a +( 1 2 d a d )× 1 ε ,
Δ n i =λK E 2 ,
τ d = γ 1 P 2 k (2π) 2 ,
τ r = γ 1 P 2 ε 0 Δε E 2 P 2 k (2π) 2 ,
K=ΔnΔε ε 0 P 2 kλ (2π) 2 ,

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