Abstract

Polarization variations in the installed fibers are complex and volatile, and would severely affect the performances of polarization-sensitive quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Based on the recorded data about polarization variations of different installed fibers, we establish an analytical methodology to quantitatively evaluate the influence of polarization variations on polarization-sensitive QKD systems. Using the increased quantum bit error rate induced by polarization variations as a key criteria, we propose two parameters - polarization drift time and required tracking speed - to characterize polarization variations. For field buried and aerial fibers with different length, we quantitatively evaluate the influence of polarization variations, and also provide requirements and suggestions for polarization basis alignment modules of QKD systems deployed in different kind of fibers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

H. Chen, M. Li, W.-Y. Liang, D. Wang, D.-Y. He, S. Wang, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “New scheme for finite-retardation limitations of linear retarders with fixed axes in polarization control,” Opt. Commun. 358, 208–214 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, P. Huang, D. Lin, and G. Zeng, “Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19201 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

C. Wang, X.-T. Song, Z.-Q. Yin, S. Wang, W. Chen, C.-M. Zhang, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Phase-Reference-Free Experiment of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 160502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, Z.-Q. Yin, W. Chen, D.-Y. He, X.-T. Song, H.-W. Li, L.-J. Zhang, Z. Zhou, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Experimental demonstration of a quantum key distribution without signal disturbance monitoring,” Nat. Photon. 9, 832–836 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, B. Qi, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 190503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, W. Chen, Z.-Q. Yin, H.-W. Li, D.-Y. He, Y.-H. Li, Z. Zhou, X.-T. Song, F.-Y. Li, D. Wang, H. Chen, Y.-G. Han, J.-Z. Huang, J.-F. Guo, P.-L. Hao, M. Li, C.-M. Zhang, D. Liu, W.-Y. Liang, C.-H. Miao, P. Wu, G.-C. Guo, and Z.-F. Han, “Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network,” Opt. Express 22, 21739–21756 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sasaki, Y. Yamamoto, and M Koashi, “Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance,” Nature 509, 475–478 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhang, K. Aungskunsiri, E. Martin-Lopez, J. Wabnig, M. Lobino, R. W. Nock, J. Munns, D. Bonneau, P. Jiang, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. G. Rarity, A. O. Niskanen, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum-key-distribution server with a telecom tether for an on-chip client,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Liang, S. Wang, H. W. Li, Z. Q. Yin, W. Chen, Y. Yao, J. Z. Huang, G. C. Guo, and Z. F. Han, “Proof-of-principle experiment of reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution with phase coding,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3617 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

N. J. Muga, M. F. S. Ferreira, and A. N. Pinto, “QBER estimation in QKD systems with polarization encoding,” J. Light. Technol. 29, 355–361 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legre, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Langer, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the tokyo QKD network,” Opt. Express,  19, 10387–10409 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Hostettler, W. Birk, and M. L. Nordenvaad, “Feasibility of road vibrations-based vehicle property sensing,” IET Intell. Transp. Sy. 4, 356–364 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Laing, V. Scarani, J. G. Rarity, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 82(1), 012304 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

B. D. Huang, Y. Shu, J. Ruan, and Y. Hu, “Ultra high voltage transmission in China: developments, current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 555–583 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, and W. Tittel, “Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames,” New J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, G. Wu, L. Xu, X. Gu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Stable quantum key distribution with active polarization control based on time-division multiplexing,” New J. Phys. 11, 065004 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Xavier, N. Walenta, G. V. De Faria, G. P. Temporao, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, and J. P. Von der Weid, “Experimental polarization encoded quantum key distribution over optical fibers with real-time continuous birefringence compensation,” New J. Phys. 11, 045015 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N.J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

L. Ma, H. Xu, and X. Tang, “Polarization recovery and auto-compensation in Quantum Key Distribution network,” Proc. SPIE 6305, 630513 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

L. Auersch, “The excitation of ground vibration by rail traffic: theory of vehicle-track-soil interaction and measurements on high-speed lines,” J. Sound Vib. 284, 103–132 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. L. Yuan and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fiber,” Opt. Express 13, 660–665 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z. F. Han, Y. Z. Gui, and G. C. Guo, “Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2632 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wuttke, P. M. Krummrich, and J. Rosch, “Polarization oscillations in aerial fiber caused by wind and power-line current,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 882–884 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Elliott, “Building the quantum network,” New J. Phys. 4, 46.1 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. S. Cheng, F. T. K. Au, and Y. K. Cheung, “Vibration of railway bridges under a moving train by using bridge-track-vehicle element,” Eng. Struct. 23, 1597–1606 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. D. Franson and B. C. Jacobs, “Operational system for quantum cryptography,” Electron. Lett. 31, 232–234 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

H. E. M. Hunt, “Stochastic modelling of traffic-induced ground vibration,” J. Sound Vib. 144, 53–70 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, and K. Emura, “Highly Practical Fiber Squeezer Polarization Controller,” J. Light. Technol. 9, 1217–1224 (1991).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Alleaume, R.

Asai, T.

Au, F. T. K.

Y. S. Cheng, F. T. K. Au, and Y. K. Cheung, “Vibration of railway bridges under a moving train by using bridge-track-vehicle element,” Eng. Struct. 23, 1597–1606 (2001).
[Crossref]

Auersch, L.

L. Auersch, “The excitation of ground vibration by rail traffic: theory of vehicle-track-soil interaction and measurements on high-speed lines,” J. Sound Vib. 284, 103–132 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aungskunsiri, K.

P. Zhang, K. Aungskunsiri, E. Martin-Lopez, J. Wabnig, M. Lobino, R. W. Nock, J. Munns, D. Bonneau, P. Jiang, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. G. Rarity, A. O. Niskanen, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum-key-distribution server with a telecom tether for an on-chip client,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N.J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, (IEEE, New York), 175–179 (1984).

Birk, W.

R. Hostettler, W. Birk, and M. L. Nordenvaad, “Feasibility of road vibrations-based vehicle property sensing,” IET Intell. Transp. Sy. 4, 356–364 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonneau, D.

P. Zhang, K. Aungskunsiri, E. Martin-Lopez, J. Wabnig, M. Lobino, R. W. Nock, J. Munns, D. Bonneau, P. Jiang, H. W. Li, A. Laing, J. G. Rarity, A. O. Niskanen, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Reference-frame-independent quantum-key-distribution server with a telecom tether for an on-chip client,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers Systems, and Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, (IEEE, New York), 175–179 (1984).

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J.-B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the SwissQuantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cerf, N.J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N.J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chan, P.

I. Lucio-Martinez, P. Chan, X. Mo, S. Hosier, and W. Tittel, “Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames,” New J. Phys. 11, 095001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, G. Wu, L. Xu, X. Gu, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Stable quantum key distribution with active polarization control based on time-division multiplexing,” New J. Phys. 11, 065004 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, G. Wu, Y. Li, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Active polarization stabilization in optical fibers suitable for quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 15, 17928–17936 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005);
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The sketch map of two categories of PBA modules. (a) The interrupted PBA modules; (b) The real time PBA modules.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Overview of buried fiber networks.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sudden polarization variations in inter-city links. (a) The time series of the Stokes parameter S1 within 3400 s of the CHB-TR link. Inset: 2 seconds time series of S1 of sudden polarization variations. (b) PSD analysis of sudden polarization variations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The sketch map of the polarization variations test of aerial fiber in ultra high voltage (UHV) direct current test yard of China. The rated voltage of the UHV direct current source are ±800 kV, and the tower height is up to 70 m [36]. Laser, 1550nm c.w. laser ; LPA, lightwave polarization analyzer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temporal variations of Stokes parameters (S1, S2, S3) in the field aerial fiber.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The polarization drift time 〈τ〉 and the required tracking speed υ on PBA modules for aerial fiber over different threshold eth of QBER.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Temporal variations of Stokes parameter (S1, S2, S3) under the galloping induced vibration with different length of aerial fibers. The value (75 m, 150 m, 300 m, 825 m) is the length of aerial part of the test fiber.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The polarization drift time 〈τ〉 and the required tracking speed υ on PBA modules for different length of aerial fibers, the threshold of increased QBER is set at 3%.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Temporal variations of Stokes parameters (S1, S2, S3) in the vortex shedding simulation experiment with 300 m aerial fiber. Inset: details of S1 parameter during 0.5 second.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristics of all buried fiber links under test.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The mean value of polarization drift time 〈τ〉 (in s) of buried fiber over given threshold of eth of increased QBER introduced by polarization variations.

Tables Icon

Table 3 The required tracking speed υ (in rad/s) over a given threshold of QBER eth.

Equations (7)

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| ϕ t 0 + t = α | ϕ t 0 + β | ϕ t 0 ,
Q B E R = | β | 2 | α | 2 + | β | 2 = | β | 2 .
S t 0 + t · S t 0 = ( U S t 0 + t ) · ( U S t 0 ) = | α | 2 | β | 2
Q B E R = 1 S t 0 + t · S t 0 2 .
S t 0 + τ · S t 0 = 1 2 e t h ,
P s p = cos 1 ( S t 0 + τ · S t 0 ) / τ = cos 1 ( 1 2 e t h ) / τ ,
υ P s p + 3 σ ,

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