Abstract

A novel method to realize high spatial resolution distributed strain measurement is proposed based on phase demodulation scheme of optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Strain information can be demodulated directly by analyzing the phase change of Rayleigh backscattered light. Strain location can be obtained with high spatial resolution by cross-correlation method using a wide scanning range of tunable laser source. Based on the above scheme, breakpoint detection with 0.1 mm spatial resolution has been demonstrated, static and dynamic strain up to 100 Hz could be distributedly measured with 10 cm spatial resolution over 200 m sensing fiber, and the minimum measurable strain is about 1 με.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [PubMed]
  2. X. Y. Bao, D. P. Zhou, C. Baker, and L. Chen, “Recent development in the distributed fiber optic acoustic and ultrasonic detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3256–3267 (2017).
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  26. Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).
  27. J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

2017 (7)

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

S. Wang, X. Fan, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from time-gated digital OFDR,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33301–33309 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

D. Arbel and A. Eyal, “Dynamic optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express 22(8), 8823–8830 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Peng, H. Wu, X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, and Z. P. Peng, “Ultra-long high-sensitivity Φ-OTDR for high spatial resolution intrusion detection of pipelines,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13804–13810 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Q. Z. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. R. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1538–1544 (2008).

2007 (1)

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2027–2029 (2007).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

Arbel, D.

Ba, D.

Baker, C.

Bao, X.

Bao, X. Y.

X. Y. Bao, D. P. Zhou, C. Baker, and L. Chen, “Recent development in the distributed fiber optic acoustic and ultrasonic detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(16), 3256–3267 (2017).

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

Belal, M.

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “Distributed dynamic large strain optical fiber sensor based on the detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3312–3315 (2013).
[PubMed]

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).

Bernini, R.

Brady, K. R. C.

Cameron, C. B.

C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, and S. L. Garrett, “A symmetrical analogue demodulator for optical fiber interferometric sensors,” in Proceedings of the 34th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 1991).

Cao, C. Q.

F. Wang, Y. Pan, M. J. Zhang, C. Q. Cao, and X. P. Zhang, “Detection of two identical frequency vibrations by phase discrimination in polarization-OTDR,” Opt. Commun. 389, 247–252 (2017).

Chen, D.

Chen, L.

Chung, Y. J.

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2027–2029 (2007).

Dakin, J. P.

Dong, Y.

Eyal, A.

Fan, X.

Fan, Z.

Feng, H.

Froggatt, M.

Gabet, R.

Gan, J. L.

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

Garrett, S. L.

C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, and S. L. Garrett, “A symmetrical analogue demodulator for optical fiber interferometric sensors,” in Proceedings of the 34th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 1991).

He, Q.

He, Z.

Heng, X. B.

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

Jaouen, Y.

Jia, X. H.

Keolian, R. M.

C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, and S. L. Garrett, “A symmetrical analogue demodulator for optical fiber interferometric sensors,” in Proceedings of the 34th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 1991).

Lamour, V.

Li, H.

Li, Q. Y.

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

Li, W.

Li, W. H.

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

Liu, D.

Q. Z. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. R. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1538–1544 (2008).

Liu, H. R.

Q. Z. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. R. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1538–1544 (2008).

Liu, Q.

Lu, P.

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

Lu, Z.

Maraval, D.

Masoudi, A.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “High spatial resolution distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor with enhanced frequency and strain resolution,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 290–293 (2017).
[PubMed]

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed Review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(1), 011501 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “Distributed dynamic large strain optical fiber sensor based on the detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3312–3315 (2013).
[PubMed]

Minardo, A.

Moon, D. S.

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2027–2029 (2007).

Moore, J.

Mou, C. B.

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Newson, T. P.

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “High spatial resolution distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor with enhanced frequency and strain resolution,” Opt. Lett. 42(2), 290–293 (2017).
[PubMed]

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed Review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(1), 011501 (2016).
[PubMed]

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “Distributed dynamic large strain optical fiber sensor based on the detection of spontaneous Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3312–3315 (2013).
[PubMed]

Pan, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Pan, M. J. Zhang, C. Q. Cao, and X. P. Zhang, “Detection of two identical frequency vibrations by phase discrimination in polarization-OTDR,” Opt. Commun. 389, 247–252 (2017).

Peng, F.

Peng, Z. P.

Qin, Z.

Rao, Y. J.

Ruffin, P. B.

Russell, S. J.

Sha, Z.

Shiloh, L.

Song, J.

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

Song, M.

Sun, G. Y.

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2027–2029 (2007).

Sun, Q. Z.

Q. Z. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. R. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1538–1544 (2008).

Sun, Z. Y.

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Wang, B.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Pan, M. J. Zhang, C. Q. Cao, and X. P. Zhang, “Detection of two identical frequency vibrations by phase discrimination in polarization-OTDR,” Opt. Commun. 389, 247–252 (2017).

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Wang, J.

Q. Z. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. R. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1538–1544 (2008).

Wang, S.

Wang, X. C.

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Wang, Z. N.

Wu, H.

Wu, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

Xiao, X.

Xu, Y. P.

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

Yan, Z. J.

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Yang, Z. M.

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

Yin, M.

Yin, S.

Zeng, Z.

Zeni, L.

Zhang, L.

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Zhang, M. J.

F. Wang, Y. Pan, M. J. Zhang, C. Q. Cao, and X. P. Zhang, “Detection of two identical frequency vibrations by phase discrimination in polarization-OTDR,” Opt. Commun. 389, 247–252 (2017).

Zhang, X. P.

F. Wang, Y. Pan, M. J. Zhang, C. Q. Cao, and X. P. Zhang, “Detection of two identical frequency vibrations by phase discrimination in polarization-OTDR,” Opt. Commun. 389, 247–252 (2017).

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

Zhang, Z. S.

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

Zhou, D.

Zhou, D. P.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photonics J. (3)

Y. Q. Wu, J. L. Gan, Q. Y. Li, Z. S. Zhang, X. B. Heng, and Z. M. Yang, “Distributed fiber voice sensor based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 6803810 (2015).

J. Song, W. H. Li, P. Lu, Y. P. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Y. Bao, “Long-range high spatial resolution distributed temperature and strain sensing based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(3), 6801408 (2014).

X. C. Wang, Z. J. Yan, F. Wang, Z. Y. Sun, C. B. Mou, X. P. Zhang, and L. Zhang, “SNR enhanced distributed vibration fiber sensing system employing polarization OTDR and ultraweak FBGs,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 6800511 (2015).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Y. Sun, D. S. Moon, and Y. J. Chung, “Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement using two types of high-birefringence fibers in Sagnac loop mirror,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(24), 2027–2029 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Masoudi, M. Belal, and T. P. Newson, “A distributed optical fiber dynamic strain sensor based on phase-OTDR,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(8), 085204 (2013).

Opt. Commun. (2)

Q. Z. Sun, D. Liu, J. Wang, and H. R. Liu, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor using a ring Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1538–1544 (2008).

F. Wang, Y. Pan, M. J. Zhang, C. Q. Cao, and X. P. Zhang, “Detection of two identical frequency vibrations by phase discrimination in polarization-OTDR,” Opt. Commun. 389, 247–252 (2017).

Opt. Express (9)

D. P. Zhou, Z. Qin, W. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13138–13145 (2012).
[PubMed]

D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. Zhu, Q. He, X. Xiao, and X. Bao, “Modulated pulses based distributed vibration sensing with high frequency response and spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2953–2963 (2013).
[PubMed]

F. Peng, H. Wu, X. H. Jia, Y. J. Rao, Z. N. Wang, and Z. P. Peng, “Ultra-long high-sensitivity Φ-OTDR for high spatial resolution intrusion detection of pipelines,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13804–13810 (2014).
[PubMed]

Z. Sha, H. Feng, and Z. Zeng, “Phase demodulation method in phase-sensitive OTDR without coherent detection,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4831–4844 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Wang, X. Fan, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Distributed fiber-optic vibration sensing based on phase extraction from time-gated digital OFDR,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33301–33309 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Chen, Q. Liu, and Z. He, “Phase-detection distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor without fading-noise based on time-gated digital OFDR,” Opt. Express 25(7), 8315–8325 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Arbel and A. Eyal, “Dynamic optical frequency domain reflectometry,” Opt. Express 22(8), 8823–8830 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Shiloh and A. Eyal, “Sinusoidal frequency scan OFDR with fast processing algorithm for distributed acoustic sensing,” Opt. Express 25(16), 19205–19215 (2017).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, “Contributed Review: Distributed optical fibre dynamic strain sensing,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(1), 011501 (2016).
[PubMed]

Other (1)

C. B. Cameron, R. M. Keolian, and S. L. Garrett, “A symmetrical analogue demodulator for optical fiber interferometric sensors,” in Proceedings of the 34th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (IEEE, 1991).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the setup to generate an interference signal within the 3 × 3 optical coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Block diagram of phase demodulation scheme.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup: TLS: tunable laser source; PC: polarization controller; FUT: fiber under test; PZT: Lead zirconate titanate; BPD: balanced photodetector; PD: photodetector; DAQ: data acquisition.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FUT setup: an approximately 200 m SMF contacts with a short fiber by a pair of APC-APC; a 30 cm long fiber is wrapped on a PZT.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Rayleigh backscattered signal as a function of distance. Inset: the enlarge image of the reflection point caused by the open APC connector.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Rayleigh backscattered signal as a function of distance. Inset: the enlarge image of the gap between two reflection points.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Determine the vibration location according to the results of cross-correlation calculation: (a) represents the unperturbed area; (b) is the comparison between the unperturbed segment (blue line) and perturbed segment affected by static strain (orange line); (c) represents the perturbed segment affected by the dynamic strain.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Static strain detection under different strain by phase demodulation scheme.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Dynamic strain detection at 199.0 m of the FUT: black line is a 20 Hz (a) and 100 Hz (b) sinusoidal vibration caused by the PZT and red line is the detected result without applying vibration (noise).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E r ( t ) = E 0 exp { j [ 2 π f 0 t + π γ t 2 + Φ ( t ) ] }
E s ( t ) = R ( τ ) E 0 exp { j [ 2 π f 0 ( t τ ) + π γ ( t τ ) 2 + Φ ( t τ ) ] }
I i o u t = M E 0 2 + P ( E r E S * + E r * E s ) , i = 1 , 2 , 3
I 1 o u t = M E 0 2 + P 2 R E 0 2 cos ( 2 π f b t + Δ φ ( t ) )
I 2 o u t = M E 0 2 + P 2 R E 0 2 cos ( 2 π f b t + Δ φ ( t ) + 2 π 3 )
I 3 o u t = M E 0 2 + P 2 R E 0 2 cos ( 2 π f b t + Δ φ ( t ) 2 π 3 )
V o u t ( t ) = 3 Δ φ ( t )
n g k 0 ξ ε L ε ( t ) = Δ φ ( t ) + 2 n π
ε ( t ) = V o u t ( t ) 3 n g k 0 ξ ε L

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