Abstract

Attosecond metrology has so far largely remained limited to titanium:sapphire lasers combined with an active stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). These sources limit the achievable photon energy to ∼100 eV which is too low to access X-ray absorption edges of most second- and third-row elements which are central to chemistry, biology and material science. Therefore, intense efforts are underway to extend attosecond metrology to the soft-X-ray (SXR) domain using mid-infrared (mid-IR) drivers. Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a method that solves the long-standing problem of the complete temporal characterization of ultra-broadband (≫10 eV) attosecond pulses. We generalize the recently proposed Volkov-transform generalized projection algorithm (VTGPA) to the case of multiple overlapping photoelectron spectra and demonstrate its application to isolated attosecond pulses. This new approach overcomes all key limitations of previous attosecond-pulse reconstruction methods, in particular the central-momentum approximation (CMA), and it incorporates the physical, complex-valued and energy-dependent photoionization matrix elements. These properties make our approach general and particularly suitable for attosecond supercontinua of arbitrary bandwidth. We apply this method to attosecond SXR pulses generated from a two-cycle mid-IR driver, covering a bandwidth of ∼100 eV and reaching photon energies up to 180 eV. We extract an SXR pulse duration of (43±1) as from our streaking measurements, defining a new world record. Our results prove that the popular and broadly available scheme of post-compressing the output of white-light-seeded optical parametric amplifiers is adequate to produce high-contrast isolated attosecond pulses covering the L-edges of silicon, phosphorous and sulfur. Our new reconstruction method and experimental results open the path to the production and characterization of attosecond pulses lasting less than one atomic unit of time (24 as) and covering X-ray absorption edges of most light elements.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (3)

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, N. G. Kling, T. Gaumnitz, C. Burger, R. Siemering, J. Schötz, Q. Liu, L. Ban, Y. Pertot, J. Wu, A. M. Azzeer, R. de Vivie-Riedle, H. J. Wörner, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle steering of the deprotonation of acetylene by intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser fields,” Opt. Express 25, 14192 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (7)

D. R. Austin, T. Witting, S. J. Weber, P. Ye, T. Siegel, P. Matía-Hernando, A. S. Johnson, J. W. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Spatio-temporal characterization of intense few-cycle 2 μm pulses,” Opt. Express 24, 24786–24798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 3.2 μm pulses,” Optica 3, 1308–1311 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35594 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 49, 155601 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov-transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18, 073009 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photon. 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-μm 1-kHz pulses for carbon K-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

G. Laurent, W. Cao, I. Ben-Itzhak, and C. L. Cocke, “Attosecond pulse characterization,” Opt. Express 21, 16914 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063404 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photon. 5, 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, P. Lassonde, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “CEP stable 1.6 cycle laser pulses at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Express 19, 6858–6864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, B. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X-ray generation by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 71, 1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Carroll, J. Bozek, E. Kukk, V. Myrseth, L. Sæthre, T. Thomas, and K. Wiesner, “Xenon N4,5OO Auger spectrum–a useful calibration source,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125, 127–132 (2002).
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2001 (3)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689 (2001).
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1976 (1)

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences,  349, 397–421 (1976).
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Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689 (2001).
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Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
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Andriukaitis, G.

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 3.2 μm pulses,” Optica 3, 1308–1311 (2016).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Anumula, S.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Augé, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689 (2001).
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Austin, D.

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
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Austin, D. R.

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
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Ayuso, D.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Azzeer, A. M.

Balciunas, T.

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 3.2 μm pulses,” Optica 3, 1308–1311 (2016).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689 (2001).
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Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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Baltuška, A.

G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 3.2 μm pulses,” Optica 3, 1308–1311 (2016).
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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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Ban, L.

Bandrauk, A. D.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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Baykusheva, D.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Béjot, P.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
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Belshaw, L.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
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Ben-Itzhak, I.

Bhardwaj, S.

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov-transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18, 073009 (2016).
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Biegert, J.

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
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F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
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S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-μm 1-kHz pulses for carbon K-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
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Bisson, E.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
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Blaga, C. I.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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Bozek, J.

T. Carroll, J. Bozek, E. Kukk, V. Myrseth, L. Sæthre, T. Thomas, and K. Wiesner, “Xenon N4,5OO Auger spectrum–a useful calibration source,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125, 127–132 (2002).
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Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Brahms, C.

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
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Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689 (2001).
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Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Buades, B.

Burgdorfer, J.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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Burger, C.

Calegari, F.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Carroll, T.

T. Carroll, J. Bozek, E. Kukk, V. Myrseth, L. Sæthre, T. Thomas, and K. Wiesner, “Xenon N4,5OO Auger spectrum–a useful calibration source,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125, 127–132 (2002).
[Crossref]

Catoire, F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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Cederbaum, L. S.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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Cerullo, G.

Chang, C.-L.

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 49, 155601 (2016).
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Chang, Z.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photon. 8, 178–186 (2014).
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S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
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M. Chini, S. Gilbertson, S. D. Khan, and Z. Chang, “Characterizing ultrabroadband attosecond lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13006 (2010).
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Chang, Zenghu

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Chauvet, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Yan

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Chew, Andrew

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Chini, M.

Chini, Michael

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Chirla, R.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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Colosimo, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Corkum, P. B.

A. D. Shiner, B. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
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S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-μm 1-kHz pulses for carbon K-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
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Cunningham, Eric

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Decleva, P.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Dudovich, N.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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Feist, J.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
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Flöry, T.

Frassetto, F.

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Gagnon, J.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
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Gasilov, S.

Gaumnitz, T.

Gerrity, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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Giguere, M.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
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Gilbertson, S.

Goulielmakis, E.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
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Grassi, G.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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Greene, C. H.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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Hauri, C.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
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Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Hemmer, M.

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Cousin, F. Silva, S. Teichmann, M. Hemmer, B. Buades, and J. Biegert, “High-flux table-top soft X-ray source driven by sub-2-cycle, CEP stable, 1.85-μm 1-kHz pulses for carbon K-edge spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5383–5386 (2014).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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Hernandez-Garcia, C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Hong, K.-H.

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 49, 155601 (2016).
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P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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Hu, Shuyuan

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
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M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 123106 (2015).
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Ishii, N.

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35594 (2016).
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N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
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Ishikawa, K. L.

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X-ray generation by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
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Itatani, J.

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35594 (2016).
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N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
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Ivanov, M.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
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Ivanov, M. Y.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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Jaron-Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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Jarosch, S.

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
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Jensen, F.

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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Johnson, A.

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
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Johnson, A. S.

Johnsson, P.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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Jordan, I.

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kanai, T.

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35594 (2016).
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G. Fan, T. Balčiūnas, T. Kanai, T. Flöry, G. Andriukaitis, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, and A. Baltuška, “Hollow-core-waveguide compression of multi-millijoule CEP-stable 3.2 μm pulses,” Optica 3, 1308–1311 (2016).
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N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X-ray generation by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
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Kaneshima, K.

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Kärtner, F. X.

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 49, 155601 (2016).
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P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov-transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18, 073009 (2016).
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Kasparian, J.

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
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Keathley, P. D.

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 49, 155601 (2016).
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P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov-transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18, 073009 (2016).
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Kelkensberg, F.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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A. D. Shiner, B. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
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B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. D. Shiner, B. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. E. Schmidt, A. D. Shiner, P. Lassonde, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, and F. Légaré, “CEP stable 1.6 cycle laser pulses at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Express 19, 6858–6864 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Conta, A.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, S. Gasilov, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Millijoule-level phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle infrared parametric source,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2957–2959 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wang, Yang

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35594 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, S. J.

West, J. B.

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences,  349, 397–421 (1976).
[Crossref]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wheeler, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wiesner, K.

T. Carroll, J. Bozek, E. Kukk, V. Myrseth, L. Sæthre, T. Thomas, and K. Wiesner, “Xenon N4,5OO Auger spectrum–a useful calibration source,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125, 127–132 (2002).
[Crossref]

Witting, T.

Wolf, J.-P.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wood, D.

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wörner, H. J.

Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, N. G. Kling, T. Gaumnitz, C. Burger, R. Siemering, J. Schötz, Q. Liu, L. Ban, Y. Pertot, J. Wu, A. M. Azzeer, R. de Vivie-Riedle, H. J. Wörner, and M. F. Kling, “Sub-cycle steering of the deprotonation of acetylene by intense few-cycle mid-infrared laser fields,” Opt. Express 25, 14192 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. D. Shiner, B. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wu, Y.

Wu, Yi

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ye, P.

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Austin, T. Witting, S. J. Weber, P. Ye, T. Siegel, P. Matía-Hernando, A. S. Johnson, J. W. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Spatio-temporal characterization of intense few-cycle 2 μm pulses,” Opt. Express 24, 24786–24798 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Yanchun

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, K.

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photon. 8, 178–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Zhao, Q. Zhang, M. Chini, Y. Wu, X. Wang, and Z. Chang, “Tailoring a 67 attosecond pulse through advantageous phase-mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3891–3893 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Kun

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Gagnon, E. Goulielmakis, and V. S. Yakovlev, “The accurate FROG characterization of attosecond pulses from streaking measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 25–32 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. E. Schmidt, P. Béjot, M. Giguere, A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, E. Bisson, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, D. M. Villeneuve, J.-C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and F. Légaré, “Compression of 1.8 μm laser pulses to sub-two optical cycles with bulk material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 121109 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

T. Carroll, J. Bozek, E. Kukk, V. Myrseth, L. Sæthre, T. Thomas, and K. Wiesner, “Xenon N4,5OO Auger spectrum–a useful calibration source,” J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125, 127–132 (2002).
[Crossref]

Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (1)

G. J. Stein, P. D. Keathley, P. Krogen, H. Liang, J. P. Siqueira, C.-L. Chang, C.-J. Lai, K.-H. Hong, G. M. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Water-window soft X-ray high-harmonic generation up to the nitrogen K-edge driven by a kHz, 2.1 μm OPCPA source,” Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 49, 155601 (2016).
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Nat. Commun. (4)

S. M. Teichmann, F. Silva, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “0.5-keV soft X-ray attosecond continua,” Nat. Commun. 7, 11493 (2016).
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F. Silva, S. M. Teichmann, S. L. Cousin, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Spatiotemporal isolation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in the water window,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6611 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jie Li, Xiaoming Ren, Yanchun Yin, Kun Zhao, Andrew Chew, Yan Cheng, Eric Cunningham, Yang Wang, Shuyuan Hu, Yi Wu, Michael Chini, and Zenghu Chang, “53-attosecond X-ray pulses reach the carbon K-edge,” Nat. Commun. 8, 186 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-envelope phase-dependent high harmonic generation in the water window using few-cycle infrared pulses,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (3)

M. Chini, K. Zhao, and Z. Chang, “The generation, characterization and applications of broadband isolated attosecond pulses,” Nat. Photon. 8, 178–186 (2014).
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G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photon. 5, 655–663 (2011).
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S. R. Leone, C. W. McCurdy, J. Burgdorfer, L. S. Cederbaum, Z. Chang, N. Dudovich, J. Feist, C. H. Greene, M. Ivanov, R. Kienberger, U. Keller, M. F. Kling, Z.-H. Loh, T. Pfeifer, A. N. Pfeiffer, R. Santra, K. Schafer, A. Stolow, U. Thumm, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “What will it take to observe processes in ’real time’?” Nat. Photon. 8, 162–166 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Dimauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. D. Shiner, B. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 7, 464–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
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G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’Huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465, 763–766 (2010).
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New J. Phys. (1)

P. D. Keathley, S. Bhardwaj, J. Moses, G. Laurent, and F. X. Kärtner, “Volkov-transform generalized projection algorithm for attosecond pulse characterization,” New J. Phys. 18, 073009 (2016).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. S. Kheifets, “Time delay in valence-shell photoionization of noble-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 063404 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. J. Takahashi, T. Kanai, K. L. Ishikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Coherent water window X-ray generation by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in neutral media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253901 (2008).
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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft X-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 173901 (2010).
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Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (1)

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 71, 1–4 (2005).
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Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (1)

J. B. West and G. V. Marr, “The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences,  349, 397–421 (1976).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Huppert, I. Jordan, and H. J. Wörner, “Attosecond beamline with actively stabilized and spatially separated beam paths,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 123106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

N. Saito, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Attosecond streaking measurement of extreme ultraviolet pulses using a long-wavelength electric field,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35594 (2016).
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Science (6)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV X-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287–1291 (2012).
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G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Calegari, D. Ayuso, A. Trabattoni, L. Belshaw, S. De Camillis, S. Anumula, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, A. Palacios, P. Decleva, J. B. Greenwood, F. Martìn, and M. Nisoli, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in phenylalanine initiated by attosecond pulses,” Science 346, 336–339 (2014).
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P. M. Kraus, B. Mignolet, D. Baykusheva, A. Rupenyan, L. Horný, E. F. Penka, G. Grassi, O. I. Tolstikhin, J. Schneider, F. Jensen, L. B. Madsen, A. D. Bandrauk, F. Remacle, and H. J. Wörner, “Measurement and laser control of attosecond charge migration in ionized iodoacetylene,” Science 350, 790–795 (2015).
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P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689 (2001).
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Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355, 264–267 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Structural Dynamics (1)

A. Johnson, L. Miseikis, D. Wood, D. Austin, C. Brahms, S. Jarosch, C. Strüber, P. Ye, and J. Marangos, “Measurement of sulfur l2, 3L2,3 and carbon K-edge Xanes in a polythiophene film using a high-harmonic supercontinuum,” Structural Dynamics 3, 062603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. A. van Bokhoven and C. Lamberti, eds., X-Ray Absorption and X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrum of the mid-IR pulse and TG-FROG measurement. A) Typical spectrum of our mid-IR pulses after broadening in the hollow-core fiber (blue) and correction for the spectrometer response (orange). B) Fourier-transform-limited pulse duration calculated from (A) (blue) and reconstructed electric-field envelope from a TG-FROG measurement (red). An exemplary retrieved FROG trace is shown as an inset. Eleven reconstructions have been performed leading to a pulse duration of τrec = (11.5 ± 0.8) fs, with a FROG error of (6.8 ± 1.6) · 10−3 for the reconstruction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental realization of the attosecond streak camera with a mid-IR driver. Isolated attosecond pulses are created through high-harmonic generation in a high-pressure gas cell filled with neon or argon. The residual mid-IR pulse is separated from the attosecond soft-X-ray pulse by means of a perforated mirror. Broadband reflection of the SXR super-continuum is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection on 3 flat mirrors coated with diamond-like carbon and one gold-coated toroidal mirror (The calculated overall reflectivity curve is presented in Fig. 3(a) black line.) that focuses the SXR beam into the interaction region of a photoelectron time-of-flight spectrometer. A 100-nm Zr foil acts as a high-pass filter and simultaneously compensates the attochirp. Recombination of mid-IR and SXR pulses is achieved with another perforated mirror that focuses the mid-IR beam to the same spot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental HHG spectra and corresponding Fourier-transform-limited pulses. A) SXR supercontinua generated in Ar (blue) or Ne (red) detected with a home-built flat-field SXR spectrometer. HHG spectrum with aluminum-zirconium filter stack for calibration (green). B) Intensity profile of the corresponding Fourier-transform limited pulses from the spectra in (A) and the FTL pulse duration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Xenon photoelectron spectrum. Photoelectron spectra recorded by ionizing Xe atoms with an isolated attosecond pulse generated in argon without (black) and with streaking field (blue/red). Auger-electron lines are labeled according to [38].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CEP dependence of SXR supercontinua and attosecond streaking trace. A) CEP scan of SXR continua generated in argon and transmitted through a 100-nm Zr filter. A controlled variation of the CEP and pulse duration is achieved by scanning a pair of fused-silica wedges, which translates to a modulation of the shape and cut-off of the SXR continuum. B) Photoelectron streaking spectrogram obtained by ionizing xenon with an attosecond pulse generated in argon by varying the delay between the SXR and mid-IR pulses. The data consists of 350 spectra recorded with a step size of 100 as.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoionization cross sections of xenon and multi-line VTGPA flow chart. A) Cross section for xenon 4d, 5s, and 5p photoelectron bands [40], SXR photon energy region (red box). B) Flow chart of the ML-VTGPA method. Initial guesses for XUV(t) and the mid-IR vector potential A(t) enter the iterative algorithm which consists of numerical integration of equations (1) and (2) using the PMEs d(i)(p). The errors are minimized with least-squares and Brent’s method for the SXR and mid-IR pulses, respectively, before the new guesses are fed into the next iteration of the algorithm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Analysis of streaking spectrogram and reconstructed attosecond pulse. A) Measured attosecond streaking trace obtained in xenon and B) Retrieved spectrogram with scaled mid-IR vector potential obtained using the ML-VTGPA algorithm. C) Temporal amplitude (blue) and phase (black) of the isolated attosecond pulse. The reconstruction by our ML-VTGPA algorithm provides an SXR pulse duration of τSXR = (43 ± 1) as and a mid-IR pulse duration of τmid–IR = (11.1±0.7) fs. The merit was found to be 4.3 · 10−3. The Fourier-transform-limited pulse (dashed red) calculated from the SXR photon spectrum measured in parallel to the streaking experiment. Measured (red) and reconstructed (blue) spectra with the reconstructed spectral phase (black) of the attosecond pulse are presented in the inset. D) The vector potential of the mid-IR pulse obtained from the VTGPA reconstruction in comparison with the Fourier-transform-limited pulse (dashed red) calculated from the measured spectrum shown in Fig. 1(a) and the pulse measured with our home-built TG-FROG (dotted green).

Equations (2)

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S ( p , τ ) = i = 1 M S i ( p , τ ) ,
S i ( p , t ) = | E ˜ XUV ( t τ ) d i ( p + A ( t ) ) e i ϕ ( p , t ) e i ( p 2 / 2 + I p , i ) t d t | 2 ϕ ( p , t ) = t ( p A ( t ) + A 2 ( t ) / 2 ) d t .

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