Abstract

Ultrahigh-Q Photonic Crystal cavities were realized in a suspended Silicon Rich Nitride (SiNx) platform for applications at telecom wavelengths. Using a line width modulated cavity design we achieved a simulated Q of 520,000 with a modal volume of 0.77(λ/n)3. The fabricated cavities were measured using the resonance scattering technique and we demonstrated a measured Q of 120,000. The experimental spectra at different input power also indicate that the non-linear losses are negligible in this material platform.

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  29. The coupling efficiency is here defined as the ratio between the optical power coupled to the cavity mode and the total optical power incident on the cavity. As detailed in ref. [27], the peak intensity I of the resonant scattering spectrum is proportional to the light intensity that has been coupled to the cavity mode and reflected back to the detector in crossed polarizations. To normalize this quantity, we determine the intensity I0 of the incident light by replacing the sample with a nearly ideal dielectric mirror and measuring the reflected intensity, under the same focusing conditions but with parallel polarizations. Thus, we define the coupling efficiency as ηC=8I/I0. The factor 8 accounts for the double passage of light through the polarizer and analyser (see Fig. 2(a)) and the fact that only the backward resonant scattering signal is collected.
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  31. Z. Yin and F. W. Smith, “Optical dielectric function and infrared absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films: Experimental results and effective-medium-approximation analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(6), 3666–3675 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. H. Mäckel and R. Lüdemann, “Detailed study of the composition of hydrogenated SiNx layers for high-quality silicon surface passivation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2602–2609 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2017 (4)

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, T. D. Bucio, A. Al-Attili, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Saito, and F. Y. Gardes, “Photonic crystal waveguides on silicon rich nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3214–3221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, T. Klintberg, J. Bengtsson, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25827–25837 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, K. Welna, M. Ferrera, K. Deasy, D. G. Lidzey, and L. O’Faolain, “Highly efficient optical filter based on vertically coupled photonic crystal cavity and bus waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 154–156 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q aluminum nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091105 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

2009 (3)

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Mäckel and R. Lüdemann, “Detailed study of the composition of hydrogenated SiNx layers for high-quality silicon surface passivation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2602–2609 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Z. Yin and F. W. Smith, “Optical dielectric function and infrared absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films: Experimental results and effective-medium-approximation analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(6), 3666–3675 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Al-Attili, A.

Alpeggiani, F.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, “Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26613–26624 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P. A.

Asano, T.

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzini, S.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babinec, T.

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bajoni, D.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P.

Barth, M.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, J.

Benson, O.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brimont, C.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bucio, T. D.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, T. D. Bucio, A. Al-Attili, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Saito, and F. Y. Gardes, “Photonic crystal waveguides on silicon rich nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3214–3221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmon, T.

Checoury, X.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chee, A. K. L.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. F. R.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, S.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Deasy, K.

Debnath, K.

Deotare, P.

Di Falco, A.

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duboz, J. Y.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fält, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrera, M.

Fromherz, T.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fülöp, A.

Galli, M.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, “Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26613–26624 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Debnath, T. D. Bucio, A. Al-Attili, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Saito, and F. Y. Gardes, “Photonic crystal waveguides on silicon rich nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3214–3221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gayral, B.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, “Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26613–26624 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grassani, D.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guillet, T.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guizzetti, G.

Gulde, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haret, L. D.

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawamoto, Y.

Khan, M.

Khokhar, A. Z.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, T. D. Bucio, A. Al-Attili, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Saito, and F. Y. Gardes, “Photonic crystal waveguides on silicon rich nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3214–3221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klintberg, T.

Knights, A. P.

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, “Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26613–26624 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krückel, C. J.

Kuramochi, E.

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lacava, C.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lidzey, D. G.

Lim, K. P.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liscidini, M.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Löchel, B.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

Lüdemann, R.

H. Mäckel and R. Lüdemann, “Detailed study of the composition of hydrogenated SiNx layers for high-quality silicon surface passivation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2602–2609 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mäckel, H.

H. Mäckel and R. Lüdemann, “Detailed study of the composition of hydrogenated SiNx layers for high-quality silicon surface passivation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2602–2609 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

McCutcheon, M. W.

Mexis, M.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

Néel, D.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ng, D. K. T.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, S. K.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nüsse, N.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Painter, O.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patrini, M.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W. H.

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q aluminum nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Portalupi, S. L.

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rashid, M. J.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reardon, C.

Reed, G. T.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, S.

Sam-Giao, D.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schäffler, F.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schatzl, M.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, C.

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q aluminum nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scullion, M. G.

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Semond, F.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sergent, S.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Simbula, A.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sleeckx, E.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, F. W.

Z. Yin and F. W. Smith, “Optical dielectric function and infrared absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films: Experimental results and effective-medium-approximation analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(6), 3666–3675 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

Srinivasan, K.

Stankovic, S.

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Steffan, A. G.

Stingl, J.

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, D. T. H.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanabe, T.

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

Tang, H. X.

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q aluminum nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toh, Y. T.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Torres-Company, V.

Upham, J.

Vahala, K.

Velha, P.

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Welna, K.

Winger, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, C.

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q aluminum nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamada, S.

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Z.

Z. Yin and F. W. Smith, “Optical dielectric function and infrared absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films: Experimental results and effective-medium-approximation analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(6), 3666–3675 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zagaglia, L.

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

D. K. T. Ng, Q. Wang, T. Wang, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, K. P. Lim, Y. Yang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Exploring High Refractive Index Silicon-Rich Nitride Films by Low-Temperature Inductively Coupled Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition and Applications for Integrated Waveguides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(39), 21884–21889 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

APL Photon. (1)

A. Simbula, M. Schatzl, L. Zagaglia, F. Alpeggiani, L. C. Andreani, F. Schäffler, T. Fromherz, M. Galli, and D. Gerace, “Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential,” APL Photon. 2(5), 056102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Debnath, F. Y. Gardes, A. P. Knights, G. T. Reed, T. F. Krauss, and L. O’Faolain, “Dielectric waveguide vertically coupled to all-silicon photodiodes operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(17), 171106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Azzini, D. Grassani, M. Galli, D. Gerace, M. Patrini, M. Liscidini, P. Velha, and D. Bajoni, “Stimulated and spontaneous four-wave mixing in silicon-on-insulator coupled photonic wire nano-cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 031117 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “High-Q aluminum nitride photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091105 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Barth, N. Nüsse, J. Stingl, B. Löchel, and O. Benson, “Emission properties of high-Q silicon nitride photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021112 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

M. G. Scullion, A. Di Falco, and T. F. Krauss, “Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 27(1), 101–105 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Mäckel and R. Lüdemann, “Detailed study of the composition of hydrogenated SiNx layers for high-quality silicon surface passivation,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2602–2609 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, P. Petropoulos, and F. Y. Gardes, “Material and optical properties of low-temperature NH3-free PECVD SiNx layers for photonic applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(2), 025106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

T. Wang, D. K. T. Ng, S. K. Ng, Y. T. Toh, A. K. L. Chee, G. F. R. Chen, Q. Wang, and D. T. H. Tan, “Supercontinuum generation in bandgap engineered, back-end CMOS compatible silicon rich nitride waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(5), 498–506 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4742–4750 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, and O. Painter, “Nonlinear response of silicon photonic crystal microresonators excited via an integrated waveguide and fiber taper,” Opt. Express 13(3), 801–820 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Galli, D. Gerace, K. Welna, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, G. Guizzetti, and L. C. Andreani, “Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26613–26624 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Krückel, A. Fülöp, T. Klintberg, J. Bengtsson, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Linear and nonlinear characterization of low-stress high-confinement silicon-rich nitride waveguides,” Opt. Express 23(20), 25827–25837 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Debnath, T. D. Bucio, A. Al-Attili, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Saito, and F. Y. Gardes, “Photonic crystal waveguides on silicon rich nitride platform,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3214–3221 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Yamada, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Demonstration of two-dimensional photonic crystals based on silicon carbide,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11084–11089 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Upham, Y. Tanaka, Y. Kawamoto, Y. Sato, T. Nakamura, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Time-resolved catch and release of an optical pulse from a dynamic photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23377–23385 (2011).
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K. Debnath, L. O’Faolain, F. Y. Gardes, A. G. Steffan, G. T. Reed, and T. F. Krauss, “Cascaded modulator architecture for WDM applications,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27420–27428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

Z. Yin and F. W. Smith, “Optical dielectric function and infrared absorption of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films: Experimental results and effective-medium-approximation analysis,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 42(6), 3666–3675 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(9), 096501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

C. Lacava, S. Stankovic, A. Z. Khokhar, T. D. Bucio, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, D. J. Richardson, and P. Petropoulos, “Si-rich silicon nitride for nonlinear signal processing applications,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 22 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

The coupling efficiency is here defined as the ratio between the optical power coupled to the cavity mode and the total optical power incident on the cavity. As detailed in ref. [27], the peak intensity I of the resonant scattering spectrum is proportional to the light intensity that has been coupled to the cavity mode and reflected back to the detector in crossed polarizations. To normalize this quantity, we determine the intensity I0 of the incident light by replacing the sample with a nearly ideal dielectric mirror and measuring the reflected intensity, under the same focusing conditions but with parallel polarizations. Thus, we define the coupling efficiency as ηC=8I/I0. The factor 8 accounts for the double passage of light through the polarizer and analyser (see Fig. 2(a)) and the fact that only the backward resonant scattering signal is collected.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the PhC cavity design by line width modulation [3]. The cavity is defined in a W1 PhC cavity by shifting several holes away from the center of the waveguide. The holes in red, yellow and purple are shifted along y-direction by ΔA (y), ΔB ( = 2 3 y ) and ΔC ( = 1 3 y ) respectively. (b) Simulated dominant electric field (│Ey│) profile of the cavity resonant mode for y = 12 nm. (c) SEM image of the fabricated PhC cavity. The hole shifts were too small to be distinguished visually. (d) SEM image showing the cross-section of the suspended PhC structure. The inset shows a zoomed in view of the structure. Surface roughness due to the deposition process is visible at this scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A schematic of the resonance scattering setup, the inset shows the orientation of the PhC cavity with respect to the axis of the polarizer and analyzer. (b) Measured RS spectrum around the resonance wavelength for the PhC cavity with y = 6 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cavity Q-factors as a function of inner-most hole shift (y). Blue diamonds represents the simulated Q values and red circles represent the measured Q- values. (b) Cavity resonance wavelengths as a function of inner-most hole shift (y). Green circles represents the simulated resonance wavelengths and yellow squares represent the measured resonance wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) RS spectrum of the cavity with y = 12 nm for different coupled powers showing characteristic bistability line shape. (b) Plot of resonance wavelength as a function of coupled power showing a clear linear relationship.

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