Abstract

In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Pospíšilová, G. Kuncová, and J. Trögl, “Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 15(10), 25208–25259 (2015).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  11. Z. Li, C. Liao, D. Chen, J. Song, W. Jin, G.-D. Peng, F. Zhu, Y. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Label-free detection of bovine serum albumin based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17105–17113 (2017).
    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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  16. M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

2017 (3)

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

Z. Li, C. Liao, D. Chen, J. Song, W. Jin, G.-D. Peng, F. Zhu, Y. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Label-free detection of bovine serum albumin based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17105–17113 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

K. Goya, T. Itoh, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm secondharmonic Ti:Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-literspectrometer,” Sens. Actuat. B 210, 685–691 (2015).

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO2 nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Pospíšilová, G. Kuncová, and J. Trögl, “Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 15(10), 25208–25259 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

S. Lepinay, A. Staff, A. Ianoul, and J. Albert, “Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 52, 337–344 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).

2011 (3)

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Oh, J. Myoung, J. S. Bae, and S. Lim, “Etch Behavior of ALD Al2O3 on HfSiO and HfSiON Stacks in Acidic and Basic Etchants,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), D217–D222 (2011).

L. Jiang, L. Zhao, S. Wang, J. Yang, and H. Xiao, “Femtosecond laser fabricated all-optical fiber sensors with ultrahigh refractive index sensitivity: modeling and experiment,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17591–17598 (2011).
[PubMed]

Abdulagatov, A. I.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Albert, J.

S. Lepinay, A. Staff, A. Ianoul, and J. Albert, “Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 52, 337–344 (2014).
[PubMed]

Bae, J. S.

J. Oh, J. Myoung, J. S. Bae, and S. Lim, “Etch Behavior of ALD Al2O3 on HfSiO and HfSiON Stacks in Acidic and Basic Etchants,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), D217–D222 (2011).

Bock, W. J.

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Towards refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings at level of tens of µm per refractive index unit: fiber cladding etching and nano-coating deposition,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11897–11904 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO2 nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).

Brzozowska, E.

Cavanagh, A. S.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Celebanska, A.

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

Chen, D.

Cheng, Y.

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cooper, J. R.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cusano, A.

Dominik, M.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Firek, P.

Gamian, A.

M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

George, S. M.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Gibbs, Z. M.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Godlewski, M.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO2 nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[PubMed]

Górska, S.

M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

Goya, K.

K. Goya, T. Itoh, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm secondharmonic Ti:Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-literspectrometer,” Sens. Actuat. B 210, 685–691 (2015).

He, F.

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

He, J.

Holdynski, M.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ianoul, A.

S. Lepinay, A. Staff, A. Ianoul, and J. Albert, “Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 52, 337–344 (2014).
[PubMed]

Itoh, T.

K. Goya, T. Itoh, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm secondharmonic Ti:Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-literspectrometer,” Sens. Actuat. B 210, 685–691 (2015).

Janczuk, M.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Janik, M.

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

Jiang, L.

Jin, W.

Koba, M.

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

R. Różycki-Bakon, M. Koba, P. Firek, E. Roźniecka, J. Niedziółka-Jonsson, and M. Śmietana, “Stack of nano-films on optical fiber end-face for label-free bio-recognition,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 5357–5362 (2016).

M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Towards refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings at level of tens of µm per refractive index unit: fiber cladding etching and nano-coating deposition,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11897–11904 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO2 nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

Krogulski, K.

Kuncová, G.

M. Pospíšilová, G. Kuncová, and J. Trögl, “Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 15(10), 25208–25259 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, Y. C.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lepinay, S.

S. Lepinay, A. Staff, A. Ianoul, and J. Albert, “Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 52, 337–344 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lesniewski, A.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, Z.

Liao, C.

Liao, Y.

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lim, S.

J. Oh, J. Myoung, J. S. Bae, and S. Lim, “Etch Behavior of ALD Al2O3 on HfSiO and HfSiON Stacks in Acidic and Basic Etchants,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), D217–D222 (2011).

Lin, J.

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

Mikulic, P.

Myoung, J.

J. Oh, J. Myoung, J. S. Bae, and S. Lim, “Etch Behavior of ALD Al2O3 on HfSiO and HfSiON Stacks in Acidic and Basic Etchants,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), D217–D222 (2011).

Mysliwiec, A. K.

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

Mysliwiec, M.

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).

Nakonieczny, J.

Niedziólka-Jonsson, J.

Niedziólka-Jönsson, J.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

Oh, J.

J. Oh, J. Myoung, J. S. Bae, and S. Lim, “Etch Behavior of ALD Al2O3 on HfSiO and HfSiON Stacks in Acidic and Basic Etchants,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), D217–D222 (2011).

Pawlik, K.

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

Peng, G.-D.

Pospíšilová, M.

M. Pospíšilová, G. Kuncová, and J. Trögl, “Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 15(10), 25208–25259 (2015).
[PubMed]

Qiao, L.

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

Rozniecka, E.

Rózycki-Bakon, R.

Seki, A.

K. Goya, T. Itoh, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm secondharmonic Ti:Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-literspectrometer,” Sens. Actuat. B 210, 685–691 (2015).

Smietana, M.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Towards refractive index sensitivity of long-period gratings at level of tens of µm per refractive index unit: fiber cladding etching and nano-coating deposition,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11897–11904 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Koba, M. Śmietana, E. Brzozowska, S. Górska, M. Janik, A. Gamian, P. Mikulic, A. Cusano, and W. J. Bock, “Bacteriophage Adhesin-Coated Long-Period Grating-Based Sensor: Bacteria Detection Specificity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 4531–4536 (2016).

R. Różycki-Bakon, M. Koba, P. Firek, E. Roźniecka, J. Niedziółka-Jonsson, and M. Śmietana, “Stack of nano-films on optical fiber end-face for label-free bio-recognition,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 5357–5362 (2016).

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO2 nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[PubMed]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).

Song, J.

Z. Li, C. Liao, D. Chen, J. Song, W. Jin, G.-D. Peng, F. Zhu, Y. Wang, J. He, and Y. Wang, “Label-free detection of bovine serum albumin based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17105–17113 (2017).
[PubMed]

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

Staff, A.

S. Lepinay, A. Staff, A. Ianoul, and J. Albert, “Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 52, 337–344 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sugioka, K.

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

Trögl, J.

M. Pospíšilová, G. Kuncová, and J. Trögl, “Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 15(10), 25208–25259 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wachnicki, L.

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO2 nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Watanabe, K.

K. Goya, T. Itoh, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm secondharmonic Ti:Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-literspectrometer,” Sens. Actuat. B 210, 685–691 (2015).

Witkowski, B. S.

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).

Xiao, H.

Yan, Y.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Yang, J.

Yang, R. G.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhao, L.

Zhu, F.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. I. Abdulagatov, Y. Yan, J. R. Cooper, Y. Zhang, Z. M. Gibbs, A. S. Cavanagh, R. G. Yang, Y. C. Lee, and S. M. George, “Al2O3 and TiO2 Atomic Layer Deposition on Copper for Water Corrosion Resistance,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(12), 4593–4601 (2011).
[PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (3)

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Lepinay, A. Staff, A. Ianoul, and J. Albert, “Improved detection limits of protein optical fiber biosensors coated with gold nanoparticles,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 52, 337–344 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Dominik, A. Leśniewski, M. Janczuk, J. Niedziółka-Jönsson, M. Hołdyński, Ł. Wachnicki, M. Godlewski, W. J. Bock, and M. Śmietana, “Titanium oxide thin films obtained with physical and chemical vapour deposition methods for optical biosensing purposes,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 93, 102–109 (2017).
[PubMed]

IEEE Sensors (1)

M. Janik, A. K. Myśliwiec, M. Koba, A. Celebańska, W. J. Bock, and M. Smietana, “Sensitivity Pattern of Femtosecond Laser Micromachined and Plasma-Processed In-Fiber Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, as Applied to Small-Scale Refractive Index Sensing,” IEEE Sensors 17, 3316–3322 (2017).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. Oh, J. Myoung, J. S. Bae, and S. Lim, “Etch Behavior of ALD Al2O3 on HfSiO and HfSiON Stacks in Acidic and Basic Etchants,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(4), D217–D222 (2011).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (4)

Sens. Actuat. B (1)

K. Goya, T. Itoh, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Efficient deep-hole drilling by a femtosecond, 400 nm secondharmonic Ti:Sapphire laser for a fiber optic in-line/pico-literspectrometer,” Sens. Actuat. B 210, 685–691 (2015).

Sensors (Basel) (3)

M. Pospíšilová, G. Kuncová, and J. Trögl, “Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 15(10), 25208–25259 (2015).
[PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).

F. He, Y. Liao, J. Lin, J. Song, L. Qiao, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, “Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass,” Sensors (Basel) 14(10), 19402–19440 (2014).
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Investigated μIMZI structure, where (a) shows it schematically with thin Al2O3 film when filled with liquid and (b) shows microscopic image of its cross-section. During the experiment slow chemical etching of the Al2O3 thin film in the cavity took place. In (a) arrow indicates the thickness t of the etched layer. In (b) the feature on the right is a cut residue.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response of the μIMZI to Al2O3 film etching recorded for water-filled cavity, where (a) shows evolution of the transmission spectrum during the process in reference to the response before deposition and (b) plots wavelengths and transmission corresponding to local minima (I) and (II). After 323 minutes of etching in 10 mM NaOH, due to low process effectiveness the solution was replaced with 1 M NaOH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of increase in RI of liquid in the micro-cavity for different thicknesses of the Al2O3 film, where (a) shows spectral response at a selected stage of the etching experiment and (b) gives a summary of the measurements with determined sensitivity at each stage of etching. In (b) the measurement points marked in blue correspond to results shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the cavity depth (different amount of fs laser runs) on spectral response to RI, where (a) shows initial spectra for cavity filled with water and (b) shows wavelength shift of minima with RI. Diameter of the cavity was d = 50 μm.

Equations (1)

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λ m = 2πdΔ n eff ( 2m+1 )π φ 0 ,

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