Abstract

We report the experimental evidence of nonlinear optical response in DNA lyotropic nematic liquid crystals. Pump-probe experiments indicate that the non-linearity is remarkably large. Quantitative assessment of the non-linear optical coefficient by transient optical grating demonstrates that the response is of the same order of the well-known Giant Optical Nonlinearity (GON) of thermotropic nematics. These results represent a further incentive to the current investigation of potential applications of DNA in biophotonics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Livolant and M. F. Maestre, “Circular Dichroism Microscopy of Compact Forms of DNA and Chromatin in Vivo and in Vitro: Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Phases of DNA and Single Dinoflagellate Nuclei,” Biochemistry 27(8), 3056–3068 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Leforestier and F. Livolant, “Supramolecular ordering of DNA in the cholesteric liquid crystalline phase: an ultrastructural study,” Biophys. J. 65(1), 56–72 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Jones, N. C. Seeman, and C. A. Mirkin, “Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond,” Science 347(6224), 1260901 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
  7. F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  18. I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous Optical Freedericksz Transition in an Absorbing Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179, 1 (1990).
  19. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 253–255 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Bouligand and F. Livolant, “The organization of cholesteric spherulites,” J. Phys. 45(12), 1899–1923 (1984).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  26. C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. Lucchetti and F. Simoni, “Role of Space Charges on Light-Induced Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped by Methyl Red,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 89(3), 032507 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

M. R. Jones, N. C. Seeman, and C. A. Mirkin, “Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond,” Science 347(6224), 1260901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

L. Lucchetti and F. Simoni, “Role of Space Charges on Light-Induced Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped by Methyl Red,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 89(3), 032507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex Nonlinear Refractive Index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 253–255 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Leforestier and F. Livolant, “Supramolecular ordering of DNA in the cholesteric liquid crystalline phase: an ultrastructural study,” Biophys. J. 65(1), 56–72 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous Optical Freedericksz Transition in an Absorbing Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179, 1 (1990).

1989 (1)

F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

F. Livolant and M. F. Maestre, “Circular Dichroism Microscopy of Compact Forms of DNA and Chromatin in Vivo and in Vitro: Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Phases of DNA and Single Dinoflagellate Nuclei,” Biochemistry 27(8), 3056–3068 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

F. Livolant, “Cholesteric organization of DNA in vivo and in vitro,” Eur. J. Cell Biol. 33(2), 300–311 (1984).
[PubMed]

Y. Bouligand and F. Livolant, “The organization of cholesteric spherulites,” J. Phys. 45(12), 1899–1923 (1984).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

B. Y. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipestkii, A. V. Sukov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 31, 264 (1980).

1978 (1)

Aga, R. S.

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartsch, C. M.

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bellini, T.

L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benoit, J. P.

F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bethge, L.

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouligand, Y.

Y. Bouligand and F. Livolant, “The organization of cholesteric spherulites,” J. Phys. 45(12), 1899–1923 (1984).
[Crossref]

Buscaglia, M.

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, A.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerbino, R.

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Champoux, J. J.

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, B. D.

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Check, M.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Ciciulla, F.

L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, N. A.

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crispini, A.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cross, J. O.

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Agnano, I.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, L.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Michele, C.

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Di Fabrizio, M.

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doucet, J.

F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englander, J.

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrarini, A.

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fraccia, T. P.

L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francescangeli, O.

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Frezza, E.

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Orduña, P.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giavazzi, F.

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grote, J.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grote, J. G.

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex Nonlinear Refractive Index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guenther, B. D.

Gwak, J.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heckman, E. M.

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hol, W. G. J.

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janossy, I.

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous Optical Freedericksz Transition in an Absorbing Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179, 1 (1990).

Jeong, H.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, C. D.

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, M. R.

M. R. Jones, N. C. Seeman, and C. A. Mirkin, “Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond,” Science 347(6224), 1260901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajiyama, T.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kassani, S. H

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khazaeinezhad, R.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

Klussmann, S.

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuhn, P.

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leforestier, A.

A. Leforestier and F. Livolant, “Supramolecular ordering of DNA in the cholesteric liquid crystalline phase: an ultrastructural study,” Biophys. J. 65(1), 56–72 (1993).
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Levelut, A. M.

F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levin-Zaidman, S.

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liguori, P. F.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Livolant, F.

A. Leforestier and F. Livolant, “Supramolecular ordering of DNA in the cholesteric liquid crystalline phase: an ultrastructural study,” Biophys. J. 65(1), 56–72 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Livolant and M. F. Maestre, “Circular Dichroism Microscopy of Compact Forms of DNA and Chromatin in Vivo and in Vitro: Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Phases of DNA and Single Dinoflagellate Nuclei,” Biochemistry 27(8), 3056–3068 (1988).
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F. Livolant, “Cholesteric organization of DNA in vivo and in vitro,” Eur. J. Cell Biol. 33(2), 300–311 (1984).
[PubMed]

Y. Bouligand and F. Livolant, “The organization of cholesteric spherulites,” J. Phys. 45(12), 1899–1923 (1984).
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Lloyd, A. L.

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous Optical Freedericksz Transition in an Absorbing Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179, 1 (1990).

Lucchetti, L.

L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti and F. Simoni, “Role of Space Charges on Light-Induced Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped by Methyl Red,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 89(3), 032507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maestre, M. F.

F. Livolant and M. F. Maestre, “Circular Dichroism Microscopy of Compact Forms of DNA and Chromatin in Vivo and in Vitro: Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Phases of DNA and Single Dinoflagellate Nuclei,” Biochemistry 27(8), 3056–3068 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minsky, A.

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minton, K. W.

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

M. R. Jones, N. C. Seeman, and C. A. Mirkin, “Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond,” Science 347(6224), 1260901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moharam, M. G.

Moran, M. J.

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naik, R.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakata, M.

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nava, G.

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogata, N.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulson, B.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilipestkii, N. F.

B. Y. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipestkii, A. V. Sukov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 31, 264 (1980).

Pindak, R.

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pirillo, S.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pucci, D.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Redinbo, M. R.

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossbach, A. T.

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rossi, M.

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samoc, A.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex Nonlinear Refractive Index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

Samoc, M.

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex Nonlinear Refractive Index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, S.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seeman, N. C.

M. R. Jones, N. C. Seeman, and C. A. Mirkin, “Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond,” Science 347(6224), 1260901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, A. K.

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, M. Y.

Shimoni, E.

S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simoni, F.

L. Lucchetti and F. Simoni, “Role of Space Charges on Light-Induced Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped by Methyl Red,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 89(3), 032507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Smith, G. P.

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stewart, L.

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramanyam, G.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukov, A. V.

B. Y. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipestkii, A. V. Sukov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 31, 264 (1980).

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N. V.

B. Y. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipestkii, A. V. Sukov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 31, 264 (1980).

Telek, B. A.

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, E.

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valentini, A.

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Walba, D. M.

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wherret, B. S.

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous Optical Freedericksz Transition in an Absorbing Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179, 1 (1990).

Wood, W. V.

Yeom, D.-I.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, J.

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Young, L.

Zanchetta, G.

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeldovich, B. Y.

B. Y. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipestkii, A. V. Sukov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 31, 264 (1980).

ACS Macro Lett. (1)

C. De Michele, G. Zanchetta, T. Bellini, E. Frezza, and A. Ferrarini, “Hierarchical Propagation of Chirality through Reversible Polymerization: The Cholesteric Phase of DNA Oligomers,” ACS Macro Lett. 5(2), 208–212 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

Q. Sun, G. Subramanyam, L. Dai, M. Check, A. Campbell, R. Naik, J. Grote, and Y. Wang, “Highly Efficient Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes with DNA-CTMA as a Combined Hole-Transporting and Electron-Blocking Layer,” ACS Nano 3(3), 737–743 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. Fraccia, G. P. Smith, L. Bethge, G. Zanchetta, G. Nava, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers,” ACS Nano 10(9), 8508–8516 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. M. Heckman, R. S. Aga, A. T. Rossbach, B. A. Telek, C. M. Bartsch, and J. G. Grote, “DNA biopolymer conductive cladding for polymer electro-optic waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(10), 103304 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biochemistry (1)

F. Livolant and M. F. Maestre, “Circular Dichroism Microscopy of Compact Forms of DNA and Chromatin in Vivo and in Vitro: Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Phases of DNA and Single Dinoflagellate Nuclei,” Biochemistry 27(8), 3056–3068 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Leforestier and F. Livolant, “Supramolecular ordering of DNA in the cholesteric liquid crystalline phase: an ultrastructural study,” Biophys. J. 65(1), 56–72 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

L. Wang, J. Yoshida, N. Ogata, S. Sasaki, and T. Kajiyama, “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Films Derived from Marine Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)−Cationic Surfactant Complexes: Large-Scale Preparation and Optical and Thermal Properties,” Chem. Mater. 13(4), 1273–1281 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, and J. G. Grote, “Complex Nonlinear Refractive Index of DNA,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 431(1-3), 132–134 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1)

F. Livolant, “Cholesteric organization of DNA in vivo and in vitro,” Eur. J. Cell Biol. 33(2), 300–311 (1984).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. (1)

Y. Bouligand and F. Livolant, “The organization of cholesteric spherulites,” J. Phys. 45(12), 1899–1923 (1984).
[Crossref]

MedChemComm (1)

D. Pucci, T. Bellini, A. Crispini, I. D’Agnano, P. F. Liguori, P. Garcia-Orduña, S. Pirillo, A. Valentini, and G. Zanchetta, “DNA binding and cytotoxicity of fluorescent curcumin-based Zn (II) complexes,” MedChemComm 3(4), 462 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

I. Janossy, A. L. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherret, “Anomalous Optical Freedericksz Transition in an Absorbing Liquid Crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179, 1 (1990).

Nature (1)

F. Livolant, A. M. Levelut, J. Doucet, and J. P. Benoit, “The highly concentrated liquid-crystalline phase of DNA is columnar hexagonal,” Nature 339(6227), 724–726 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Lucchetti, M. Di Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

L. Lucchetti and F. Simoni, “Role of Space Charges on Light-Induced Effects in Nematic Liquid Crystals Doped by Methyl Red,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 89(3), 032507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Rossi, G. Zanchetta, S. Klussmann, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Propagation of Chirality in Mixtures of Natural and Enantiomeric DNA Oligomers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 107801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

G. Zanchetta, F. Giavazzi, M. Nakata, M. Buscaglia, R. Cerbino, N. A. Clark, and T. Bellini, “Right-handed double-helix ultrashort DNA yields chiral nematic phases with both right- and left-handed director twist,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17497–17502 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bellini, G. Zanchetta, T. P. Fraccia, R. Cerbino, E. Tsai, G. P. Smith, M. J. Moran, D. M. Walba, and N. A. Clark, “Liquid crystal self-assembly of random-sequence DNA oligomers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(4), 1110–1115 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (2)

L. Lucchetti, T. P. Fraccia, F. Ciciulla, and T. Bellini, “Non-linear optical measurement of the twist elastic constant in thermotropic and DNA lyotropic chiral nematics,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 4959 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H Kassani, B. Paulson, H. Jeong, J. Gwak, F. Rotermund, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of thin-solid DNA film and their application as a saturable absorber in femtosecond mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 7, 41480 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (4)

M. Nakata, G. Zanchetta, B. D. Chapman, C. D. Jones, J. O. Cross, R. Pindak, T. Bellini, and N. A. Clark, “End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes,” Science 318(5854), 1276–1279 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Jones, N. C. Seeman, and C. A. Mirkin, “Programmable materials and the nature of the DNA bond,” Science 347(6224), 1260901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Redinbo, L. Stewart, P. Kuhn, J. J. Champoux, and W. G. J. Hol, “Crystal structures of human topoisomerase I in covalent and noncovalent complexes with DNA,” Science 279(5356), 1504–1513 (1998).
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S. Levin-Zaidman, J. Englander, E. Shimoni, A. K. Sharma, K. W. Minton, and A. Minsky, “Ringlike structure of the Deinococcus radiodurans genome: a key to radioresistance?” Science 299(5604), 254–256 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Y. Zeldovich, N. F. Pilipestkii, A. V. Sukov, and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant Optical Nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC),” Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 31, 264 (1980).

Other (1)

F. Simoni, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals and Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Polarized optical transmission microscopy picture of the racemic L-R AAT mixture. The two images are taken form the same cell upon rotating polarizer and analyzer by 45°. Typical textures of LC nematic phase are clearly recognizable. Non-homogeneous director orientation is due to the lack of an efficient planar surface treatment for DNA aqueous solutions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sketch of the experimental set ups. Pump probe measurements (a) and grating recording (b). The different optical components are indicated: P = polarizers, L = lens, S = sample, B.S. = beam splitter, A = analyzer, D = detector, F = filter, M = mirror.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmitted probe signal for different values of the pump power as a function of time. The pump beam polarization is parallel to the incidence plane.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diffraction efficiency as a function of the total incident intensity. In the case here reported both pump and probe are polarized parallel to the incidence plane. Similar results have been obtained with different combinations of the polarizations of probe and pump beams. Inset: diffraction efficiency vs I2. A linear fit of the data is shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intensity of the first order diffracted beam as a function of time. t = 0 corresponds to the switching off of the writing beams.

Equations (3)

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λd/ Λ 2 <<  1
η =  | J 1 ( ξ ) | 2
η   ( πd n 2   I P /λ ) 2

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