Abstract

Twisted light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a special kind of structured light that has a helical phase front, a phase singularity, and a doughnut intensity profile. Beyond widespread developments in manipulation, microscopy, metrology, astronomy, nonlinear and quantum optics, OAM-carrying twisted light has seen emerging application of optical communications in free space and specially designed fibers. Instead of specialty fibers, here we show the direct use of a conventional graded-index multi-mode fiber (MMF) for OAM communications. By exploiting fiber-compatible mode exciting and filtering elements, we excite the first four OAM mode groups in an MMF. We demonstrate 2.6-km MMF transmission using four data-carrying OAM mode groups (OAM0,1, OAM+1,1/OAM-1,1, OAM+2,1, OAM+3,1). Moreover, we demonstrate two data-carrying OAM mode groups multiplexing transmission over the 2.6-km MMF with low-level crosstalk free of multiple-input multiple-output digital signal processing (MIMO-DSP). The demonstrations may open up new perspectives to fiber-based OAM communication/non-communication applications using already existing conventional fibers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (6)

G. Milione, E. Ip, M.-J. Li, J. Stone, G. Peng, and T. Wang, “Mode crosstalk matrix measurement of a 1 km few mode elliptical core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 41(12), 2755–2758 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photon. Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Vieira, R. M. G. M. Trines, E. P. Alves, R. A. Fonseca, J. T. Mendonça, R. Bingham, P. Norreys, and L. O. Silva, “Amplification and generation of ultra-intense twisted laser pulses via stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10371 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krenn, J. Handsteiner, M. Fink, R. Fickler, R. Ursin, M. Malik, and A. Zeilinger, “Twisted light transmission over 143 km,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(48), 13648–13653 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Forbes, A. Dudley, and M. McLaren, “Creation and detection of optical modes with spatial light modulators,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(2), 200–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

N. Cvijetic, G. Milione, E. Ip, and T. Wang, “Detecting lateral motion using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15422 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Ip, G. Milione, M.-J. Li, N. Cvijetic, K. Kanonakis, J. Stone, G. Peng, X. Prieto, C. Montero, V. Moreno, and J. Liñares, “SDM transmission of real-time 10GbE traffic using commercial SFP + transceivers over 0.5km elliptical-core few-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17120–17126 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. W. Clark, R. Barankov, M. G. Huber, M. Arif, D. G. Cory, and D. A. Pushin, “Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum,” Nature 525(7570), 504–506 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Karinou, L. Deng, R. Lopez, K. Prince, J. Jensen, and I. Monroy, “Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(3), 206–212 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Franz and H. Bulow, “Mode group division multiplexing in graded-index multimode fibers,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 18(3), 153–172 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A different angle on light communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

K. Dholakia and T. Čižmár, “Shaping the future of manipulation,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 335–342 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett and R. Bowman, “Tweezers with a twist,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 343–348 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Yao and M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Uchida and A. Tonomura, “Generation of electron beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Nature 464(7289), 737–739 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. J. Winzer, “Modulation and multiplexing in optical communication systems,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 23, 4–10 (2009).

2008 (2)

N. M. Elias, “Photon orbital angular momentum in astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 492(3), 883–922 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412(6844), 313–316 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Padgett, J. Courtial, and L. Allen, “Light’s orbital angular momentum,” Phys. Today 57(5), 35–40 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alves, E. P.

J. Vieira, R. M. G. M. Trines, E. P. Alves, R. A. Fonseca, J. T. Mendonça, R. Bingham, P. Norreys, and L. O. Silva, “Amplification and generation of ultra-intense twisted laser pulses via stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10371 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An Nguyen, T.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. An Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre,” Sci. Rep. 5, 14931 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrekson, P. A.

J. M. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, B. Lane, K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, T. Lengyel, J. S. Gustavsson, A. Larsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “48.7-Gb/s 4-PAM transmission over 200 m of high bandwidth MMF using an 850-nm VCSEL,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1799–1801 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Szczerba, P. Westbergh, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, and A. Larsson, “70 Gbps 4-PAM and 56 Gbps 8-PAM using an 850 nm VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1395–1401 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arif, M.

C. W. Clark, R. Barankov, M. G. Huber, M. Arif, D. G. Cory, and D. A. Pushin, “Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum,” Nature 525(7570), 504–506 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, L.

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barankov, R.

C. W. Clark, R. Barankov, M. G. Huber, M. Arif, D. G. Cory, and D. A. Pushin, “Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum,” Nature 525(7570), 504–506 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnett, S.

Barnett, S. M.

M. P. J. Lavery, F. C. Speirits, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “Detection of a spinning object using light’s orbital angular momentum,” Science 341(6145), 537–540 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, J.

B. Thidé, H. Then, J. Sjöholm, K. Palmer, J. Bergman, T. D. Carozzi, Y. N. Istomin, N. H. Ibragimov, and R. Khamitova, “Utilization of photon orbital angular momentum in the low-frequency radio domain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 087701 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

Bingham, R.

J. Vieira, R. M. G. M. Trines, E. P. Alves, R. A. Fonseca, J. T. Mendonça, R. Bingham, P. Norreys, and L. O. Silva, “Amplification and generation of ultra-intense twisted laser pulses via stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10371 (2016).
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Bowman, R.

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F. Feng, X. Guo, G. S. Gordon, X. Jin, F. Payne, Y. Jung, Q. Kang, S. Alam, P. Barua, J. Sahu, D. J. Richardson, I. H. White, and T. D. Wilkinson, “All-optical mode-group division multiplexing over a graded-index ring-core fiber with single radial mode,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W3D.5.
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L. Zhu, A. Wang, J. Liu, J. Wang, C. Du, and Q. Mo, “Experimental demonstration of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes transmission in a 2.6 km conventional graded-index multimode fiber assisted by high efficient modegroup excitation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W2A.32.
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept and principle of OAM mode groups excitation and multiplexing transmission in a conventional MMF. The homemade mode exciting and filtering elements and OAM mode groups multiplexing benefit twisted light multiplexing transmission with low-level crosstalk.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fiber refractive index profiles and mode group characteristics. (a) Measured refractive index profile of a conventional MMF. (b) 10 OAM mode groups supported in the conventional MMF. (c) Measured refractive index profile of a short section of large-core fiber, which is fusion spliced with MMF to make mode exciting and filtering elements. (d) Four OAM mode groups supported in the short section of large-core fiber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental configuration of OAM mode groups excitation and multiplexing transmission in a conventional MMF. Col.: collimator; Pol.: polarizer; SLM1-SLM3: spatial light modulator; BS: beam splitter; L1-L4: lens; OL1, OL2: objective lens; MMF: multi-mode fiber; HWP: half-wave plate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Implementation details of the transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in the experimental configuration. QPSK: quadrature phase-shift keying; I/Q modulator: in-phase/quadrature modulator; AWG: arbitrary waveform generator; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OC: optical coupler; SMF: single-mode fiber; PC: polarization controller; VOA: variable optical attenuator; LO: local oscillator.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured intensity profiles for OAM mode groups multiplexing transmission. (a) Intensity profiles and interferograms (interference between OAM modes and a reference Gaussian beam) of OAM0,1, OAM+1,1, OAM-1,1, OAM+2,1 and OAM+3,1 modes at the input of MMF. (b) Intensity profiles of OAM0,1, OAM+1,1, OAM-1,1, OAM+2,1 and OAM+3,1 and back converted Gaussian-like intensity profiles (bright spot at beam center) at the output of MMF. (c) Intensity profiles for the multiplexing and demultiplexing of OAM-1,1 and OAM+2,1 modes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BER curves versus received OSNR. (a) Single OAM mode (OAM0,1, OAM+1,1, OAM-1,1, OAM+2,1 and OAM+3,1 from the first four mode groups) transmission over the 2.6-km MMF without OAM mode groups multiplexing. (b) OAM mode groups multiplexing (OAM-1,1 and OAM+2,1 from two mode groups) transmission over the 2.6-km MMF. Insets show constellations of QPSK signals. B-to-B: back to back; w/o crosstalk: without crosstalk; w/ crosstalk: with crosstalk.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured mode crosstalk matrix for OAM+1,1, OAM-1,1, OAM+2,1 and OAM-2,1 modes having the same polarization.

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