Abstract

Terahertz (THz) coherent detectors are crucial for the stabilization and measurement of the properties of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). This paper describes the exploitation of intra-cavity sum frequency generation to up-convert the emission of a THz QCL to the near infrared for detection with fiber optic coupled components alone. Specifically, a low cost infrared photodiode is used to detect a radio frequency (RF) signal with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 20dB, generated by beating the up-converted THz wave and a near infrared local oscillator. This RF beat note allows direct analysis of the THz QCL emission in time and frequency domains. The application of this technique for QCL characterization is demonstrated by analyzing the continuous tuning of the RF signal over 2 GHz, which arises from mode tuning across the QCL’s operational current range.

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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Seeds, M. J. Fice, K. Balakier, M. Natrella, O. Mitrofanov, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. van Dijk, M. Pepper, G. Aeppli, A. G. Davies, P. Dean, E. Linfield, and C. C. Renaud, “Coherent terahertz photonics,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22988–23000 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, “Coherent detection in optical fiber systems,” Opt. Express 16(2), 753–791 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Aeppli, G.

Ajili, L.

Akalin, T.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alhathlool, R.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

Alton, J.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

Andrews, A. M.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balakier, K.

Barbieri, S.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barkan, A.

Barros, D. J. F.

Beere, H.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Benz, A.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

V. Berger and C. Sirtori, “Nonlinear phase matching in THz semiconductor waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 964–970 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bertling, K.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beverini, N.

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burnett, A. D.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calligaro, M.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carelli, G.

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cavalié, P.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, S.

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, S.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chtioui, M.

Colombelli, R.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J. D.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Seeds, M. J. Fice, K. Balakier, M. Natrella, O. Mitrofanov, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. van Dijk, M. Pepper, G. Aeppli, A. G. Davies, P. Dean, E. Linfield, and C. C. Renaud, “Coherent terahertz photonics,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22988–23000 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Michele, A.

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Rossi, A.

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dean, P.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Seeds, M. J. Fice, K. Balakier, M. Natrella, O. Mitrofanov, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. van Dijk, M. Pepper, G. Aeppli, A. G. Davies, P. Dean, E. Linfield, and C. C. Renaud, “Coherent terahertz photonics,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22988–23000 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dengler, R.

Dhillon, S. S.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

Fasching, G.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fice, M. J.

Filloux, P.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

Folland, T. G.

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, J.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freeman, J. R.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gellie, P.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giuliani, G.

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Graf, U. U.

Green, R. P.

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grier, A.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hensley, J. M.

Hui Li, X.

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Il’in, K.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Indjin, D.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ip, E.

Jagtap, V.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jie Wang, Q.

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jukam, N.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

Keeley, J.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khairuzzaman, M.

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Khanna, S. P.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lampin, J.-F.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lamponi, M.

Lau, A. P. T.

Li, L.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L. H.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. L.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E.

Linfield, E. H.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madéo, J.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mahler, L.

J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maineult, W.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Manquest, C.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marshall, O. P.

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maussang, K.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maysonnave, J.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meng, B.

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mitrofanov, O.

Mittleman, D. M.

Montoya, J.

Moretti, A.

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Natrella, M.

Novoselov, K. S.

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

Philipp, M.

Quan Zeng, Y.

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rabanus, D.

Rakic, A. D.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ravaro, M.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

Renaud, C. C.

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D.

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roch, T.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salih, M.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

Scamarcio, G.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scheuring, A.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schrenk, W.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A. J.

Siegel, M.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Siegel, P. H.

Sirtori, C.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ravaro, S. Barbieri, G. Santarelli, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, and E. H. Linfield, “Measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of terahertz quantum cascade lasers using a near-infrared frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25654–25661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. Berger and C. Sirtori, “Nonlinear phase matching in THz semiconductor waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 964–970 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, V.

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stockhausen, A.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, J.

Taimre, T.

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tamošiunas, V.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tao, J.

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thoma, P.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tignon, J.

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Tredicucci, A.

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hensley, J. Montoya, M. G. Allen, J. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Spectral behavior of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20476–20483 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Unterrainer, K.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Valavanis, A.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dean, A. Valavanis, J. Keeley, K. Bertling, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, A. D. Burnett, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, T. Taimre, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging using quantum cascade lasers—a review of systems and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374008 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Dijk, F.

Vitiello, M. S.

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vowinkel, B.

Walther, C.

Wiedner, M. C.

Wu, S.

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuensch, S.

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, J.-H.

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zobl, R.

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, M. Calligaro, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “THz sideband generation at telecom wavelengths in a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071101 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Maineult, L. Ding, P. Gellie, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, S. Barbieri, T. Akalin, J.-F. Lampin, I. Sagnes, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Microwave modulation of terahertz quantum cascade lasers: a transmission-line approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021108 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Meng, J. Tao, X. Hui Li, Y. Quan Zeng, S. Wu, and Q. Jie Wang, “Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 201106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, and V. Spagnolo, “Time-resolved measurement of the local lattice temperature in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101116 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. P. Green, J.-H. Xu, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, G. Giuliani, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth enhancement factor of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071106 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. P. Marshall, M. Khairuzzaman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Broadband photonic control for dual-mode terahertz laser emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Li, L. Chen, J. Zhu, J. Freeman, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with >1 W output powers,” Electron. Lett. 50(4), 309–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Fasching, V. Tamošiunas, A. Benz, A. M. Andrews, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, T. Roch, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Subwavelength microdisk and microring terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(8), 687–697 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

N. Beverini, G. Carelli, A. De Michele, A. Moretti, L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Frequency characterization of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56(2), 262–265 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

M. S. Vitiello and A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 76–84 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Scheuring, P. Dean, A. Valavanis, A. Stockhausen, P. Thoma, M. Salih, S. P. Khanna, S. Chowdhury, J. D. Cooper, A. Grier, S. Wuensch, K. Il’in, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and M. Siegel, “Transient Analysis of THz-QCL Pulses Using NbN and YBCO Superconducting Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(2), 172–179 (2013).
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J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (1)

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and S. Barbieri, “Spectral Properties of THz Quantum-Cascade Lasers: Frequency Noise, Phase-Locking and Absolute Frequency Measurement,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 34(5-6), 342–356 (2013).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

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Nat. Photonics (4)

S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 306–313 (2011).
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S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 636–640 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, A. de Rossi, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Terahertz transfer onto a telecom optical carrier,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 411–415 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, J. R. Freeman, N. Jukam, J. Maysonnave, K. Maussang, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “All-optical wavelength shifting in a semiconductor laser using resonant nonlinearities,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 519–524 (2012).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

S. Chakraborty, O. P. Marshall, T. G. Folland, Y.-J. Kim, A. N. Grigorenko, and K. S. Novoselov, “Applied optics: Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers,” Science 351(6270), 246–248 (2016).
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S. Chakraborty, “Terahertz Mixer and Optical Fiber Coupled Terahertz Mixer,” U.S. patent US20150248047 A1 (2015).

M. Khairuzzaman, “Digitally Selected Electronically Switchable Terahertz-over-Fibre,” PhD Thesis, The University of Manchester (2014).

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T. Folland, A. Ramos - Pulido, O. Marshall, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “High-accuracy heterodyne detection of THz radiation exploiting telecommunication technologies,” in CLEO: 2015 (OSA, 2015), paper STu4H.3.

T. G. Folland, A. Ramos-Pulido, O. P. Marshall, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and S. Chakraborty, “Time-resolved THz Laser spectra using a Fibre-interfaced Optical Heterodyne system,” in CLEO:2015 (OSA, 2015), paper STu4H.3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The all-fiber coupled THz to RF link. (a) Schematic of the optical process. THz radiation is converted to a NIR intermediate frequency (IF) before optical heterodyne detection in a photodiode. (b) The experimental setup, including a schematic of the waveguide integrated QCL (PC – polarization controller, LNA – low noise amplifier, LO – local oscillator, ESA – electrical spectrum analyser, RTO – real time oscilloscope).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Heterodyne detection of a THz sideband by NIR lasers. (a) Optical spectrum showing both the up-conversion of the THz emission to a sideband (black), and spectrum during heterodyne detection (red). Insets show the THz pulsed LIV curve and THz spectra of the QCL at the indicated operated currents. (b) RF beat frequency measurement of the THz QCL emission. The inset is a reference measurement of the beat signal generated between the NIR lasers used in the experiment.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Time domain waveforms (a) Illustration of the current pulse applied to the QCL, showing the period Trep and pulse length (b) RF waveforms recorded when a current pulse 2µs long is applied to the QCL. (i) Complete RF pulse detected by the oscilloscope (ii)/(iii) Time slices of the waveform showing the sinusoidal RF signal (iv)/(v) the Fourier transform of the two different time slices, revealing a small variation in beat note frequency across the waveform. (c) Transient analysis of the QCL waveform.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Continuous tuning of the THz QCL emission measured by (a) coherent detection and (b) FTIR spectrometry. FTIR spectra are normalized as power information was not available.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intra-pulse tuning of QCL emission. (a) The current pulse applied to the QCL, measured with an inductive probe with a 2 ns response time. (b) Beat note frequency across a 3 µs pulse of QCL emission. Inset shows the Fourier transform of the indicated time period, the final 1 µs of the pulse.

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