Abstract

This article presents a method and results based on confocal microscopy for non-contact axial distance measurement from a lens to a partially reflective surface using an array of photodetectors. The ratio of the photodetector signals is independent of the surface reflectivity and light source variations over a range of distance. By using logarithmic photodetector signals the object distance is proportional to the difference between the signals. This technique potentially allows measurement of sound produced by single living cells, or the high velocity surface shape changes in the hohlraum in laser fusion experiments.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

B. Fischer, “Optical microphone hears ultrasound,” Nat. Photon. 10, 356–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

V. Magidson and A. Khodjakov, “Circumventing photodamage in live-cell microscopy,” Methods in Cell Biology 114, 545–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2004 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. E. Bass, L. C. Sutherland, and A. J. Zuckerwar, “Atmospheric absorption of sound: Update,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2019–2020 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bass, H. E.

H. E. Bass, L. C. Sutherland, and A. J. Zuckerwar, “Atmospheric absorption of sound: Update,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2019–2020 (1990).
[Crossref]

Berkovic, G.

Endo, S.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Endoh, K.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, “Optical microphone hears ultrasound,” Nat. Photon. 10, 356–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harata, A.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hyodo, M.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, T.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khodjakov, A.

V. Magidson and A. Khodjakov, “Circumventing photodamage in live-cell microscopy,” Methods in Cell Biology 114, 545–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy, “Introduction to Color Theory” (2010).

Magidson, V.

V. Magidson and A. Khodjakov, “Circumventing photodamage in live-cell microscopy,” Methods in Cell Biology 114, 545–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mano, Y.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Matsuhashi, M.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Miyoi, H.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Murayama, K.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ohshima, H.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Otani, S.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pankrushina, A. N.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Qiu, L.

Sawada, T.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shafir, E.

Squire, L.

L. Squire, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience: Volume One, vol. 1 (Elsevier Science, 2009).

Sutherland, L. C.

H. E. Bass, L. C. Sutherland, and A. J. Zuckerwar, “Atmospheric absorption of sound: Update,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2019–2020 (1990).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, S.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tan, J.

Tobi, M.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, H.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yoshimura, S.

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

Zuckerwar, A. J.

H. E. Bass, L. C. Sutherland, and A. J. Zuckerwar, “Atmospheric absorption of sound: Update,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2019–2020 (1990).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

H. E. Bass, L. C. Sutherland, and A. J. Zuckerwar, “Atmospheric absorption of sound: Update,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2019–2020 (1990).
[Crossref]

Methods in Cell Biology (1)

V. Magidson and A. Khodjakov, “Circumventing photodamage in live-cell microscopy,” Methods in Cell Biology 114, 545–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

B. Fischer, “Optical microphone hears ultrasound,” Nat. Photon. 10, 356–358 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology (1)

M. Matsuhashi, A. N. Pankrushina, S. Takeuchi, H. Ohshima, H. Miyoi, K. Endoh, K. Murayama, H. Watanabe, S. Endo, M. Tobi, Y. Mano, M. Hyodo, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaneko, S. Otani, S. Yoshimura, A. Harata, and T. Sawada, “Production of sound waves by bacterial cells and the response of bacterial cells to sound,” The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 44, 49–55 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Levoy, “Introduction to Color Theory” (2010).

L. Squire, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience: Volume One, vol. 1 (Elsevier Science, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experimental setup used to capture data from an array of two photodetectors.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The experimental data for the two photodetectors PD1 and PD2 versus axial distance from the lens L2 in micrometers. The peak for PD2 occurs to the left of the peak for PD1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Three dimensional plot of photodetector signals PD1 and PD2 in the horizontal plane versus the axial distance in micrometers along the optical axis of lens L2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Plot of the log of the ratio between the photodetectors PD2:PD1 versus axial distance. The dashed vertical lines represent the peak intensity from each photodetector as the distance to the object is changed. In region A both photodiodes intensity increase. In region B, the photodiode PD1(PD2) signal increases (decreases) as the axial distance increases. In region C both photodiode signals decrease with increasing axial distance.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The configuration for an array of N confocal photodetectors.

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