Abstract

Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique employed for remote sensing has been so far based on the sophisticated narrow-band pulsed laser sources, which require intensive maintenance during operation. In this work, a continuous-wave (CW) NO2 DIAL system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a compact high-power CW multimode 450 nm laser diode as the light source. Laser emissions at the on-line and off-line wavelengths of the NO2 absorption spectrum are implemented by tuning the injection current of the laser diode. Lidar signals are detected by a 45° tilted area CCD image sensor satisfying the Scheimpflug principle. Range-resolved NO2 concentrations on a near-horizontal path are obtained by the NO2 DIAL system in the range of 0.3-3 km and show good agreement with those measured by a conventional air pollution monitoring station. A detection sensitivity of ± 0.9 ppbv at 95% confidence level in the region of 0.3-1 km is achieved with 15-minute averaging and 700 m range resolution during hours of darkness, which allows accurate concentration measurement of ambient NO2. The low-cost and robust DIAL system demonstrated in this work opens up many possibilities for field NO2 remote sensing applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

L. Mei and M. Brydegaard, “Atmospheric aerosol monitoring by an elastic Scheimpflug lidar system,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1613–A1628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mei and M. Brydegaard, “Continuous-wave differential absorption lidar,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 629–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

L. Mei, G. Y. Zhao, and S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system employed for background atomic mercury vertical profiling in south China,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 55, 128–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, “Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - Application to interacting flying insects,” PIER 147, 141–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

N. Berg, J. Mellqvist, J. P. Jalkanen, and J. Balzani, “Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1085–1098 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Beirle, S. Kuhl, J. Pukite, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 from combined SCIAMACHY nadir/limb measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(1), 283–299 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. N. Gruzdev and A. S. Elokhov, “Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 measurements using ground based NO2 measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 31(2), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

F. Blais, “Review of 20 years of range sensor development,” J. Electron. Imaging 13(1), 231–243 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, “Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3(6), 2225–2232 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Hu, H. Hu, Y. Zhang, J. Zhou, G. Yue, K. Tan, Y. Ji, and B. Xu, “A new differential absorption lidar for NO2 measurements using Raman-shifted technique,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 435 (2003).

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Atkinson, “Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx,” Atmos. Environ. 34(12-14), 2063–2101 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Toriumi, H. Tai, and N. Takeuchi, “Tunable solid-state blue laser differential absorption lidar system for NO2 monitoring,” Opt. Eng. 35(8), 2371–2375 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1974 (1)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, and H. Walther, “Applications of tunabledye lasers to air pollution detection: measurements of atmospheric NO2 concentrations by differential absorption,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 3(2), 115–119 (1974).
[Crossref]

Apituley, A.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atkinson, R.

R. Atkinson, “Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx,” Atmos. Environ. 34(12-14), 2063–2101 (2000).
[Crossref]

Balzani, J.

N. Berg, J. Mellqvist, J. P. Jalkanen, and J. Balzani, “Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1085–1098 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beirle, S.

S. Beirle, S. Kuhl, J. Pukite, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 from combined SCIAMACHY nadir/limb measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(1), 283–299 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, “Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3(6), 2225–2232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Belanger, K.

R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berg, N.

N. Berg, J. Mellqvist, J. P. Jalkanen, and J. Balzani, “Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1085–1098 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergwerff, J. B.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berkhout, A. J. C.

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blais, F.

F. Blais, “Review of 20 years of range sensor development,” J. Electron. Imaging 13(1), 231–243 (2004).
[Crossref]

Blechschmidt, A. M.

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boersma, K. F.

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bovensmann, H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bracken, M. B.

R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, U.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, and H. Walther, “Applications of tunabledye lasers to air pollution detection: measurements of atmospheric NO2 concentrations by differential absorption,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 3(2), 115–119 (1974).
[Crossref]

Brinksma, E. J.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brydegaard, M.

L. Mei and M. Brydegaard, “Atmospheric aerosol monitoring by an elastic Scheimpflug lidar system,” Opt. Express 23(24), A1613–A1628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mei and M. Brydegaard, “Continuous-wave differential absorption lidar,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 629–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, “Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - Application to interacting flying insects,” PIER 147, 141–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buchwitz, M.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bucsela, E. J.

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burrows, J. P.

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

Calabretta-Jongen, S.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, N.

N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Celarier, E. A.

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chance, K. V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chen, Z.

N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Collins, R. L.

N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
[Crossref]

De Sario, M.

G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeSmedt, I.

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dirksen, R.

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dirksen, R. J.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

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X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Elokhov, A. S.

A. N. Gruzdev and A. S. Elokhov, “Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 measurements using ground based NO2 measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 31(2), 497–511 (2010).
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P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
[Crossref]

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B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eskes, H. J.

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

Forastiere, F.

G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Fredriksson, K. A.

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H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

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N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Gao, S.

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

Gast, L. F. L.

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
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M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, “Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - Application to interacting flying insects,” PIER 147, 141–151 (2014).
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R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
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H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
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D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
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A. N. Gruzdev and A. S. Elokhov, “Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 measurements using ground based NO2 measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 31(2), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guan, P.

Hains, J.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
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Hao, N.

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
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Hertz, H. M.

Hilboll, A.

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
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Hu, S.

Huang, B.

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
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D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
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K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
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Jalkanen, J. P.

N. Berg, J. Mellqvist, J. P. Jalkanen, and J. Balzani, “Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1085–1098 (2012).
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Ji, Y.

Jia, S. T.

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Kölsch, H. J.

Kong, Z.

Kroon, M.

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
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S. Beirle, S. Kuhl, J. Pukite, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 from combined SCIAMACHY nadir/limb measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(1), 283–299 (2010).
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Lambert, J. C.

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
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R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
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Levelt, P. F.

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
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N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
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Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
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Liu, M. Y.

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
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X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Loyola, D.

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
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X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

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B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
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N. Berg, J. Mellqvist, J. P. Jalkanen, and J. Balzani, “Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1085–1098 (2012).
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T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
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T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
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Nayuki, T.

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
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T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
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B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
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Nemoto, K.

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
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T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
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H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
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Pinardi, G.

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
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Piters, A. J. M.

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
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S. Beirle, S. Kuhl, J. Pukite, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 from combined SCIAMACHY nadir/limb measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(1), 283–299 (2010).
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Richter, A.

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
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G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
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Rudich, Y.

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

Semenov, V. K.

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinyakov, V. P.

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, C. Q.

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steinbacher, M.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svanberg, S.

M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, “Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - Application to interacting flying insects,” PIER 147, 141–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Mei, G. Y. Zhao, and S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system employed for background atomic mercury vertical profiling in south China,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 55, 128–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nyström, and S. Svanberg, “Mobile lidar system for environmental probing,” Appl. Opt. 20(24), 4181–4189 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swart, D. P. J.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tai, H.

R. Toriumi, H. Tai, and N. Takeuchi, “Tunable solid-state blue laser differential absorption lidar system for NO2 monitoring,” Opt. Eng. 35(8), 2371–2375 (1996).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, N.

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, and N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3659–3664 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Toriumi, H. Tai, and N. Takeuchi, “Tunable solid-state blue laser differential absorption lidar system for NO2 monitoring,” Opt. Eng. 35(8), 2371–2375 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tan, K.

Tan, T.

Timofeyev, Y. M.

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

Toriumi, R.

R. Toriumi, H. Tai, and N. Takeuchi, “Tunable solid-state blue laser differential absorption lidar system for NO2 monitoring,” Opt. Eng. 35(8), 2371–2375 (1996).
[Crossref]

Trainic, M.

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

Triche, E.

R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tuzson, B.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Valks, P.

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van der Hoff, G. R.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van Roozendael, M.

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Strien, R. T.

R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlemmix, T.

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wagner, T.

S. Beirle, S. Kuhl, J. Pukite, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 from combined SCIAMACHY nadir/limb measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(1), 283–299 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, “Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3(6), 2225–2232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, and H. Walther, “Applications of tunabledye lasers to air pollution detection: measurements of atmospheric NO2 concentrations by differential absorption,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 3(2), 115–119 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, P.

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weiland, S. K.

G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinmayr, G.

G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenig, M.

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, “Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3(6), 2225–2232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J. P.

Wöste, L.

Wu, H. P.

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Xu, B.

Xu, Y.

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y. Y.

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Yi, H.

Yin, W. B.

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Yin, X. K.

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Yue, G.

Zahniser, M. S.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeyer, K.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, G. Y.

L. Mei, G. Y. Zhao, and S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system employed for background atomic mercury vertical profiling in south China,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 55, 128–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H. D.

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Zhou, B.

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Zien, A. W.

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ann. Chim. (1)

N. Hao, B. Zhou, D. Chen, Y. Sun, S. Gao, and L. Chen, “Measurements of NO2, SO2, O3, benzene and toluene using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in Shanghai, China,” Ann. Chim. 96(7-8), 365–375 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, and H. Walther, “Applications of tunabledye lasers to air pollution detection: measurements of atmospheric NO2 concentrations by differential absorption,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 3(2), 115–119 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Cao, T. Fukuchi, T. Fujii, R. L. Collins, S. Li, Z. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Error analysis for NO2 DIAL measurement in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 141–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (4)

A. W. Zien, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, A. M. Blechschmidt, and J. P. Burrows, “Systematic analysis of tropospheric NO2 long-range transport events detected in GOME-2 satellite data,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14), 7367–7396 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. F. Boersma, D. J. Jacob, M. Trainic, Y. Rudich, I. DeSmedt, R. Dirksen, and H. J. Eskes, “Validation of urban NO2 concentrations and their diurnal and seasonal variations observed from the SCIAMACHY and OMI sensors using in situ surface measurements in Israeli cities,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(12), 3867–3879 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Beirle, U. Platt, M. Wenig, and T. Wagner, “Weekly cycle of NO2 by GOME measurements: a signature of anthropogenic sources,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3(6), 2225–2232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Cui, J. T. Lin, C. Q. Song, M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Yan, Y. Xu, and B. Huang, “Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005-2013,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16(10), 6207–6221 (2016).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

R. Atkinson, “Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx,” Atmos. Environ. 34(12-14), 2063–2101 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (5)

P. Valks, G. Pinardi, A. Richter, J. C. Lambert, N. Hao, D. Loyola, M. Van Roozendael, and S. Emmadi, “Operational total and tropospheric NO2 column retrieval for GOME-2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(7), 1491–1514 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(4), 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Beirle, S. Kuhl, J. Pukite, and T. Wagner, “Retrieval of tropospheric column densities of NO2 from combined SCIAMACHY nadir/limb measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 3(1), 283–299 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Vlemmix, A. J. M. Piters, A. J. C. Berkhout, L. F. L. Gast, P. Wang, and P. F. Levelt, “Ability of the MAX-DOAS method to derive profile information for NO2: can the boundary layer and free troposphere be separated?” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4(12), 2659–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Berg, J. Mellqvist, J. P. Jalkanen, and J. Balzani, “Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5(5), 1085–1098 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Environ. Health Perspect. (1)

G. Weinmayr, E. Romeo, M. De Sario, S. K. Weiland, and F. Forastiere, “Short-Term Effects of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory health among children with asthma or asthma-like symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect. 118(4), 449–457 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Epidemiology (1)

R. T. van Strien, J. F. Gent, K. Belanger, E. Triche, M. B. Bracken, and B. P. Leaderer, “Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life,” Epidemiology 15(4), 471–478 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

A. N. Gruzdev and A. S. Elokhov, “Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 measurements using ground based NO2 measurements at Zvenigorod, Russia,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 31(2), 497–511 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noel, V. V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, and A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: Mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 127–150 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

F. Blais, “Review of 20 years of range sensor development,” J. Electron. Imaging 13(1), 231–243 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (2)

D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeyev, V. P. Sinyakov, V. K. Semenov, F. Goutail, J. P. Pommereau, E. J. Bucsela, E. A. Celarier, and M. Kroon, “Ground-based validation of EOS-Aura OMI NO2 vertical column data in the midlatitude mountain ranges of Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan) and Alps (France),” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113(D15), D15S08 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D24301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

L. Mei and M. Brydegaard, “Continuous-wave differential absorption lidar,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 629–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

T. Fukuchi, T. Nayuki, N. Cao, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, H. Mori, and N. Takeuchi, “Differential absorption lidar system for simultaneous measurement of O-3 and NO2: system development and measurement error estimation,” Opt. Eng. 42, 98–104 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Toriumi, H. Tai, and N. Takeuchi, “Tunable solid-state blue laser differential absorption lidar system for NO2 monitoring,” Opt. Eng. 35(8), 2371–2375 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

L. Mei, G. Y. Zhao, and S. Svanberg, “Differential absorption lidar system employed for background atomic mercury vertical profiling in south China,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 55, 128–135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

PIER (1)

M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, “Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - Application to interacting flying insects,” PIER 147, 141–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuli Xuebao (1)

X. K. Yin, H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, X. L. Liu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Design and optimization of off-beam NO2 QEPAS sensor by use of E-MOCAM with a high power blue laser diode,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 130701 (2015).

Other (4)

K. Bogumil, J. Orphal, and J. P. Burrows, “Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of O3, NO2, and other atmospheric trace gases measured with the SCIAMACHY spectrometer,” presented at the ERS-ENVISAT Sympos., 2000.

H. M. Merklinger, Focusing the View Camera (2010).

H. Volten, E. J. Brinksma, A. J. C. Berkhout, J. Hains, J. B. Bergwerff, G. R. Van der Hoff, A. Apituley, R. J. Dirksen, S. Calabretta-Jongen, and D. P. J. Swart, “NO2 lidar profile measurements for satellite interpretation and validation,” 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling 114, D24301 (2009).

G. G. Gimmestad, “Differential-Absorption Lidar for Ozone and Industrial Emissions,” in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, edited by Claus Weitkamp (Springer), pp. 187–212.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of the CW-DIAL system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectrum of NO2 measured at 293 K [36] and the recorded laser emission spectra at λ on and λ off wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental site map, the Qixianling national monitoring station is about 2.5 km away from the lidar system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Recorded lidar curves, the small peak at around 1 km is due to local emissions; (b) NO2 DIAL curves measured at several hours with different ambient NO2 concentrations, the dashed curves are the linear fittings in different subinterval region; (c) Trends of atmospheric NO2 concentrations measured by the DIAL technique and the national monitoring station, UTC time: 11:41 to 20:11, May 25th. The speed of the north wind is about 2-3 m/s during the measurements. Temperature varies in the region of 286-293 K. Atmosphere is more or less homogeneous with an extinction coefficient of approximately 0.1 km−1 during the measurement campaign.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System configurations of the CW-DIAL system based on the Scheimpflug principle.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P( λ on ,z) P( λ off ,z) =kexp[ -2 0 z ΔσN(z')dz' ],
Δσ= λ [ P 0 ( λ on ,λ')σ( λ on ,λ') P 0 ( λ off ,λ')σ( λ off ,λ') ] dλ'.
P( λ on ,z) P( λ off ,z) =k(1-2Δσ N 0 Δz).