Abstract

Injection current, and temperature, dependences of the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum from green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW)-based light-emitting diodes (LED) grown on a Si substrate, are investigated over a wide range of injection currents (0.5 µA–350 mA) and temperatures (6–350 K). The results show that an increasing temperature can result in the change of injection current-dependent behavior of the EL spectrum in initial current range. That is, with increasing the injection current in the low current range, the emission process of the MQWs is dominated by filling effect of low-energetic localized states at the low temperature range of around 6 K, and by Coulomb screening of the quantum confinement Stark effect followed by a filling effect of the higher levels of the low-energetic localized states at the intermediate temperature range of around 160 K. However, when the temperature is further raised to the higher temperature range of around 350 K, the emission process of the MQWs in the low current range is dominated by carrier-scattering effect followed by non-radiative recombination process. The aforementioned current-dependent behaviors of the EL spectrum are mainly attributed to the strong localized effect of the green LED, as confirmed by the anomalous temperature dependence of the EL spectrum measured at the low injection current of 5 µA. In addition, the injection current dependence of external quantum efficiency at different temperatures shows that, with increasing temperature from 6 to 350 K, in addition to the enhanced non-radiative recombination, electron overflow becomes more significant, especially in the higher temperature range above 300 K.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Kim, S. Cho, J. Jeong, S. Kim, S. Hwang, G. Kim, S. Yoon, and B. G. Park, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode having direct hole injection plugs and its high-current operation,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6440–6449 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161113 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
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  9. D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Wang, Z. Ji, S. Qu, G. Wang, Y. Jiang, B. Liu, X. Xu, and H. Mino, “Influence of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3932–3940 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. K. Sheu, F. B. Chen, W. Y. Yen, Y. C. Wang, C. N. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and M. L. Lee, “GaN-based photon-recycling green light-emitting diodes with vertical-conduction structure,” Opt. Express 23(7), A371–A381 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Bakmiwewa, A. Hori, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence anomalies influenced by injection current level in InGaN single-quantum-well diodes,” Physica E 21(2-4), 636–640 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, W. Guo, and A. Banerjee, “Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 132103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. H. Zhu, Q. H. Zheng, and B. L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangularshaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. Ma and K. Pierz, “Carrier thermalization and activation within self-assembled InAs/AlAs quantum dot states,” Surf. Sci. 511(1), 57–64 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. C. Lee, Y. F. Wu, Y. P. Wang, and T. E. Nee, “Temperature and current dependences of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 5143–5146 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723–3725 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2–7 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, F. B. Chen, W. Y. Yen, Y. C. Wang, C. N. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and M. L. Lee, “GaN-based photon-recycling green light-emitting diodes with vertical-conduction structure,” Opt. Express 23(7), A371–A381 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Liu, X. Q. Meng, S. Yu, F. Xue, and X. Wan, “The optical and structural study of a blue emitting structure with dual InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 116(1), 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Z. Ji, S. Qu, G. Wang, Y. Jiang, B. Liu, X. Xu, and H. Mino, “Influence of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3932–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, W. Guo, and A. Banerjee, “Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 132103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. H. Zhu, Q. H. Zheng, and B. L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangularshaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. C. Lee, Y. F. Wu, Y. P. Wang, and T. E. Nee, “Temperature and current dependences of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 5143–5146 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Bakmiwewa, A. Hori, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence anomalies influenced by injection current level in InGaN single-quantum-well diodes,” Physica E 21(2-4), 636–640 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Z. Ma and K. Pierz, “Carrier thermalization and activation within self-assembled InAs/AlAs quantum dot states,” Surf. Sci. 511(1), 57–64 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723–3725 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2–7 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, H.

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakmiwewa, P.

P. Bakmiwewa, A. Hori, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence anomalies influenced by injection current level in InGaN single-quantum-well diodes,” Physica E 21(2-4), 636–640 (2004).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, W. Guo, and A. Banerjee, “Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 132103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, W. Guo, and A. Banerjee, “Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 132103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Callsen, G.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, L. C.

C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. B.

Chen, P.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Q.

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. A.

C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. M.

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.

Cho, Y. H.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. S.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J. I.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161113 (2008).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Domen, K.

K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2–7 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fan, B. F.

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z. H.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. K.

C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, K.

P. Bakmiwewa, A. Hori, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence anomalies influenced by injection current level in InGaN single-quantum-well diodes,” Physica E 21(2-4), 636–640 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723–3725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gainer, G. H.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Galler, B.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, W. Guo, and A. Banerjee, “Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 132103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ha, J. S.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, D. P.

D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, Y. J.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. B.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Heuken, L.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heuken, M.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hori, A.

P. Bakmiwewa, A. Hori, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence anomalies influenced by injection current level in InGaN single-quantum-well diodes,” Physica E 21(2-4), 636–640 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723–3725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. J.

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S.

Jeong, J.

Ji, Z.

Ji, Z. W.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jia, W. Q.

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. S.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, F.

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, F. Y.

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Jin, A. Z.

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kalisch, H.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karpov, S. Y.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ke, C. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

Kim, S.

Kuo, C. H.

C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuramata, A.

K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2–7 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kure, T.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. C.

J. C. Lee, Y. F. Wu, Y. P. Wang, and T. E. Nee, “Temperature and current dependences of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 5143–5146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. K.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, D. W.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H. T.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, S. T.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. C.

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, M.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. S.

H. C. Lin, R. S. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Enhancing the quantum efficiency of InGaN green light-emitting diodes by trimethylindium treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Liu, B. L.

L. H. Zhu, Q. H. Zheng, and B. L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangularshaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. N.

Liu, J.

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. L.

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. H.

Y. H. Liu, X. Q. Meng, S. Yu, F. Xue, and X. Wan, “The optical and structural study of a blue emitting structure with dual InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 116(1), 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. S.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lugauer, H. J.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lükens, G.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lv, X.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lv, Y. J.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

Z. Ma and K. Pierz, “Carrier thermalization and activation within self-assembled InAs/AlAs quantum dot states,” Surf. Sci. 511(1), 57–64 (2002).
[Crossref]

Marx, M.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meng, X. Q.

Y. H. Liu, X. Q. Meng, S. Yu, F. Xue, and X. Wan, “The optical and structural study of a blue emitting structure with dual InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 116(1), 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mino, H.

Mishra, U. K.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mu, Q.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nee, T. E.

J. C. Lee, Y. F. Wu, Y. P. Wang, and T. E. Nee, “Temperature and current dependences of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 5143–5146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nenstiel, C.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nippert, F.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. Y.

D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, B. G.

Pierz, K.

Z. Ma and K. Pierz, “Carrier thermalization and activation within self-assembled InAs/AlAs quantum dot states,” Surf. Sci. 511(1), 57–64 (2002).
[Crossref]

Qu, S.

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Z. Ji, S. Qu, G. Wang, Y. Jiang, B. Liu, X. Xu, and H. Mino, “Influence of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3932–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, Z. J.

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, Z. W.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reuters, B.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryu, B.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S. W.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Satake, A.

P. Bakmiwewa, A. Hori, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence anomalies influenced by injection current level in InGaN single-quantum-well diodes,” Physica E 21(2-4), 636–640 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723–3725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

Shi, M.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. I.

D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, D. S.

D. S. Shin, D. P. Han, J. Y. Oh, and J. I. Shim, “Study of droop phenomena in InGaN-based blue and green light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153506 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soejima, R.

K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2–7 (1998).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, J. J.

Y. H. Cho, G. H. Gainer, A. J. Fischer, J. J. Song, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, ““S-shaped” temperature-dependent emission shift and carrier dynamics in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1370–1372 (1998).
[Crossref]

Straßburg, M.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Strate, J.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tanahashi, T.

K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, and T. Tanahashi, “Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes,” MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2–7 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tao, X.

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tawfik, W. Z.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tong, J. H.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. Y.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vescan, A.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M. R.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H. J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: Hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(16), 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wan, X.

Y. H. Liu, X. Q. Meng, S. Yu, F. Xue, and X. Wan, “The optical and structural study of a blue emitting structure with dual InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 116(1), 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Z. Ji, S. Qu, G. Wang, Y. Jiang, B. Liu, X. Xu, and H. Mino, “Influence of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3932–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Z. Ji, S. Qu, G. Wang, Y. Jiang, B. Liu, X. Xu, and H. Mino, “Influence of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3932–3940 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. C.

S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. N.

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, M. Q.

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. F.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. S.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. C.

Wang, Y. P.

J. C. Lee, Y. F. Wu, Y. P. Wang, and T. E. Nee, “Temperature and current dependences of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 5143–5146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weng, G.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weng, G. E.

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wille, A.

B. Reuters, J. Strate, A. Wille, M. Marx, G. Lükens, L. Heuken, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Semi-polar {1101} blue and green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on micro-stripe patterned Si (100),” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(48), 485103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. F.

J. C. Lee, Y. F. Wu, Y. P. Wang, and T. E. Nee, “Temperature and current dependences of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(23), 5143–5146 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xian, Y. L.

S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H. D.

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C. B.

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, M. S.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Xu, X. G.

Q. Mu, M. S. Xu, X. S. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. J. Lv, Z. H. Feng, X. G. Xu, and Z. W. Ji, “Influence of the InGaN/GaN quasi-superlattice underlying layer on photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 76, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. N. Wang, Z. W. Ji, H. D. Xiao, M. Q. Wang, S. Qu, Y. Shen, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of injection current and temperature on electroluminescence in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Physica E 59, 56–59 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xue, F.

Y. H. Liu, X. Q. Meng, S. Yu, F. Xue, and X. Wan, “The optical and structural study of a blue emitting structure with dual InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 116(1), 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. F.

H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yasunaga, D.

A. Hori, D. Yasunaga, A. Satake, and K. Fujiwara, “Temperature dependence of electroluminescence intensity of green and blue InGaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3723–3725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y. H.

Yen, W. Y.

Yi, H. X.

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ying, L.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.

Yu, S.

Y. H. Liu, X. Q. Meng, S. Yu, F. Xue, and X. Wan, “The optical and structural study of a blue emitting structure with dual InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Spectrosc. 116(1), 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B. P.

G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

L. Sun, G. Weng, M. Liang, L. Ying, X. Lv, J. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Influence of p-GaN annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs,” Physica E 60, 166–169 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. L.

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W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
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G. E. Weng, W. R. Zhao, S. Q. Chen, H. Akiyama, Z. C. Li, J. P. Liu, and B. P. Zhang, “Strong localization effect and carrier relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InGaN quantum dots emitting in the green,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10(1), 31 (2015).
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Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
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W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
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L. H. Zhu, Q. H. Zheng, and B. L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangularshaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
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J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. L. Zhang, C. B. Xiong, J. L. Liu, Z. J. Quan, L. Wang, and F. Y. Jiang, “High brightness InGaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes with strain modulation layers grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 114(4), 1049–1053 (2014).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
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W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
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Chin. Phys. B (1)

Q. Wang, Z. W. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Mu, Y. J. Zheng, X. G. Xu, Y. J. Lv, and Z. H. Feng, “Influences of excitation power and temperature on photoluminescence in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” Chin. Phys. B 24(2), 024219 (2015).
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C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, L. C. Chang, and Y. A. Chen, “Nitride-based blue light-emitting diodes grown with InN/GaN matrix quantum well,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(4), 255–260 (2014).
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H. Sun, Z. W. Ji, H. N. Wang, H. D. Xiao, S. Qu, X. G. Xu, A. Z. Jin, and H. F. Yang, “Transfer and recombination mechanism of carriers in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 093508 (2013).
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S. J. Huang, Y. L. Xian, B. F. Fan, Z. Y. Zheng, Z. M. Chen, W. Q. Jia, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Contrary luminescence behaviors of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes caused by carrier tunneling leakage,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(6), 064511 (2011).
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S. W. Feng, C. Y. Tsai, H. C. Wang, H. C. Lin, and J. I. Chyi, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with trimethylindium treatment during growth interruption,” J. Cryst. Growth 325(1), 41–45 (2011).
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W. Liu, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, X. Li, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, J. P. Liu, S. M. Zhang, H. Wang, and H. Yang, “Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 33(6), 061502 (2015).
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Opt. Express (3)

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L. H. Zhu, Q. H. Zheng, and B. L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangularshaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
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G. Wang, X. Tao, J. Liu, and F. Jiang, “Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diodes on silicon with different quantum-well structures,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(1), 015018 (2015).
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Superlattices Microstruct. (2)

J. Zhang, X. J. Zhuo, D. W. Li, Z. W. Ren, H. X. Yi, J. H. Tong, X. F. Wang, X. Chen, B. J. Zhao, and S. T. Li, “Efficiency-droop reduction in blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with low temperature p-type insertion layer,” Superlattices Microstruct. 73, 145–151 (2014).
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D. Yang, L. Wang, Z. B. Hao, Y. Luo, C. Sun, Y. J. Han, B. Xiong, J. Wang, and H. T. Li, “Dislocation analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum dots grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Superlattices Microstruct. 99, 221–225 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Logarithmic current–voltage characteristics of the sample at various temperatures between 6 and 350 K.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Injection current-dependent EL spectra of InGaN/GaN MQWs measured at 6 (a), 100 (b), 160 (c), 300 (d), and 350 K (e). The weak peaks on the low energy side of the main EL peak are phonon replicas of the main peak.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 EL peak energy and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as a function of injection current for the InGaN/GaN LED at 6 (a), 100 (b), 160 (c), 300 (d), and 350 K (e). The critical currents ICF and ISN, corresponding to the initial minimum of FWHM in (a)–(c) and (d) and (e), respectively, are shown by the arrow as a guide to the eye. (f) Schematic diagrams indicating the possible mechanism of carrier transfer and distribution in the MQWs structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Temperature dependence of the EL peak energy and FWHM for green MQWs measured at 5 µA and within the temperature range of 6–350 K. The inset is that for blue MQWs measured at 5 µA and within the temperature range of 6–300 K. (b) Injection current dependence of EQE at the temperatures of 6, 100, 160, 260, 300, 330, and 350 K.

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