Abstract

Near-field and far-field optical properties of plasmonic materials can be tailored by coupling the existing structures. However, fabricating 3D coupled structures in the solution by molecular linkers may suffer from low yield, low stability (particle aggregates), long reaction time, complex surface modification or multiple purification steps. In this report, stable 3D plasmonic core-satellite assemblies (CSA) with a ~1 nm interior gap accompanied by high field enhancement (|E/Einc|>200) are formed in a few seconds through a single polyelectrolyte linker layer. In addition, by covalently binding different reporter molecules and core particles, three distinct Raman tags based on this CSA backbone are demonstrated and compared with conventional fluorophores in terms of stability. This general assembly method can be applied to any type of colloidal particles carrying stable surface charge, even non-plasmonic nanoparticles. It will facilitate the development of various robust Raman tags for multiplexed biomedical imaging/sensing by efficiently combining constituent particles of differing size/shape/composition. The CSA backbone with an embedded high field not only makes the brightness of Raman tags more comparable to the fluorophores and can also be utilized in the platform of molecule-light quantum strong coupling.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

5 December 2017: A typographical correction was made to the abstract.


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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, C. Wang, Z. Han, S. Shrestha, A. C. Overvig, M. Lu, A. Stein, A. M. Agarwal, M. Lončar, and N. Yu, “Controlling propagation and coupling of waveguide modes using phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(7), 675–683 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kneipp, “Interrogating cells, tissues, and live animals with new generations of surface-enhanced Raman scattering probes and labels,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1136–1141 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Oseledchyk, C. Andreou, M. A. Wall, and M. F. Kircher, “Folate-targeted surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering nanoprobe ratiometry for detection of microscopic ovarian cancer,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1488–1497 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

S. Suzuki, S. Kaneko, S. Fujii, S. Marqués-González, T. Nishino, and M. Kiguchi, “Effect of the molecule–metal interface on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering of 1, 4-benzenedithiol,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(2), 1038–1042 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J.-W. Park and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Strong resistance of citrate anions on metal nanoparticles to desorption under thiol functionalization,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1665–1682 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kang, P. T. So, R. R. Dasari, and D.-K. Lim, “High resolution live cell Raman imaging using subcellular organelle-targeting SERS-sensitive gold nanoparticles with highly narrow intra-nanogap,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1766–1772 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Borsley, S. Flook, and E. R. Kay, “Rapid and simple preparation of remarkably stable binary nanoparticle planet-satellite assemblies,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7812–7815 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

C. Rossner and P. Vana, “Planet-Satellite Nanostructures Made To Order by RAFT Star Polymers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(46), 12639–12642 (2014).
[PubMed]

A. Rose, T. B. Hoang, F. McGuire, J. J. Mock, C. Ciracì, D. R. Smith, and M. H. Mikkelsen, “Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic nanopatch antennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4797–4802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Park and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Structural study of citrate layers on gold nanoparticles: role of intermolecular interactions in stabilizing nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(5), 1907–1921 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Battocchio, F. Porcaro, S. Mukherjee, E. Magnano, S. Nappini, I. Fratoddi, M. Quintiliani, M. V. Russo, and G. Polzonetti, “Gold nanoparticles stabilized with aromatic thiols: Interaction at the molecule–metal interface and ligand arrangement in the molecular shell investigated by SR-XPS and NEXAFS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(15), 8159–8168 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y. Wang, B. Yan, and L. Chen, “SERS tags: novel optical nanoprobes for bioanalysis,” Chem. Rev. 113(3), 1391–1428 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Indrasekara, B. J. Paladini, D. J. Naczynski, V. Starovoytov, P. V. Moghe, and L. Fabris, “Dimeric gold nanoparticle assemblies as tags for SERS-based cancer detection,” Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2(10), 1370–1376 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, F. Wang, H. Yin, and M. Hong, “Nonuniform distribution of capping ligands promoting aggregation of silver nanoparticles for use as a substrate for SERS,” Adv. Nanopart. 2(2), 104–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

M. F. Kircher, A. de la Zerda, J. V. Jokerst, C. L. Zavaleta, P. J. Kempen, E. Mittra, K. Pitter, R. Huang, C. Campos, F. Habte, R. Sinclair, C. W. Brennan, I. K. Mellinghoff, E. C. Holland, and S. S. Gambhir, “A brain tumor molecular imaging strategy using a new triple-modality MRI-photoacoustic-Raman nanoparticle,” Nat. Med. 18(5), 829–834 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xu, H. Kuang, C. Xu, W. Ma, L. Wang, and N. A. Kotov, “Regiospecific plasmonic assemblies for in situ Raman spectroscopy in live cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(3), 1699–1709 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, and J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat. Commun. 3, 825 (2012).

N. Gandra and S. Singamaneni, ““Clicked” plasmonic core-satellites: covalently assembled gold nanoparticles,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(94), 11540–11542 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Gandra, A. Abbas, L. Tian, and S. Singamaneni, “Plasmonic planet-satellite analogues: hierarchical self-assembly of gold nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2645–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-K. Lim, K.-S. Jeon, J.-H. Hwang, H. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. D. Suh, and J.-M. Nam, “Highly uniform and reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering from DNA-tailorable nanoparticles with 1-nm interior gap,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 452–460 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Ansar, R. Haputhanthri, B. Edmonds, D. Liu, L. Yu, A. Sygula, and D. Zhang, “Determination of the binding affinity, packing, and conformation of thiolate and thione ligands on gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(3), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S.-Y. Chen and A. A. Lazarides, “Quantitative amplification of Cy5 SERS in ‘warm spots’ created by plasmonic coupling in nanoparticle assemblies of controlled structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(28), 12167–12175 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Tam, P. P. Joshi, A. Karpiouk, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging and plasmon resonance coupling of gold nanoparticles for selective detection of cancer,” Nano Lett. 9(8), 2825–2831 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(1), 013001 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 2115–2120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 709–711 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. E. Wong, F. Rehfeldt, P. Hänni, M. Tanaka, and R. Klitzing, “Swelling behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayers in saturated water vapor,” Macromolecules 37(19), 7285–7289 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

V. Zucolotto, M. Ferreira, M. R. Cordeiro, C. J. Constantino, D. T. Balogh, A. R. Zanatta, W. C. Moreira, and O. N. Oliveira, “Unusual interactions binding iron tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine and poly (allylamine hydrochloride) in layer-by-layer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(16), 3733–3737 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. B. Sukhorukov, E. Donath, H. Lichtenfeld, E. Knippel, M. Knippel, A. Budde, and H. Möhwald, “Layer-by-layer self assembly of polyelectrolytes on colloidal particles,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 137(1–3), 253–266 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. M. Pope, T. Sato, E. Shoji, D. A. Buttry, T. Sotomura, and N. Oyama, “Spectroscopic identification of 2, 5-dimercapto-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole and its lithium salt and dimer forms,” J. Power Sources 68(2), 739–742 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Ramsden, Y. M. Lvov, and G. Decher, “Determination of optical constants of molecular films assembled via alternate polyion adsorption,” Thin Solid Films 254(1), 246–251 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Tronin, Y. Lvov, and C. Nicolini, “Ellipsometry and x-ray reflectometry characterization of self-assembly process of polystyrenesulfonate and polyallylamine,” Colloid Polym. Sci. 272(10), 1317–1321 (1994).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Mabuchi, T. Takenaka, Y. Fujiyoshi, and N. Uyeda, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of citrate ions adsorbed on gold sol particles,” Surf. Sci. 119(2–3), 150–158 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abbas, A.

N. Gandra, A. Abbas, L. Tian, and S. Singamaneni, “Plasmonic planet-satellite analogues: hierarchical self-assembly of gold nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2645–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A. M.

Z. Li, M.-H. Kim, C. Wang, Z. Han, S. Shrestha, A. C. Overvig, M. Lu, A. Stein, A. M. Agarwal, M. Lončar, and N. Yu, “Controlling propagation and coupling of waveguide modes using phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(7), 675–683 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, and J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat. Commun. 3, 825 (2012).

Andreou, C.

A. Oseledchyk, C. Andreou, M. A. Wall, and M. F. Kircher, “Folate-targeted surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering nanoprobe ratiometry for detection of microscopic ovarian cancer,” ACS Nano 11(2), 1488–1497 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansar, S. M.

S. M. Ansar, R. Haputhanthri, B. Edmonds, D. Liu, L. Yu, A. Sygula, and D. Zhang, “Determination of the binding affinity, packing, and conformation of thiolate and thione ligands on gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(3), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balogh, D. T.

V. Zucolotto, M. Ferreira, M. R. Cordeiro, C. J. Constantino, D. T. Balogh, A. R. Zanatta, W. C. Moreira, and O. N. Oliveira, “Unusual interactions binding iron tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine and poly (allylamine hydrochloride) in layer-by-layer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(16), 3733–3737 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barrow, S. J.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battocchio, C.

C. Battocchio, F. Porcaro, S. Mukherjee, E. Magnano, S. Nappini, I. Fratoddi, M. Quintiliani, M. V. Russo, and G. Polzonetti, “Gold nanoparticles stabilized with aromatic thiols: Interaction at the molecule–metal interface and ligand arrangement in the molecular shell investigated by SR-XPS and NEXAFS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(15), 8159–8168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benz, F.

R. Chikkaraddy, B. de Nijs, F. Benz, S. J. Barrow, O. A. Scherman, E. Rosta, A. Demetriadou, P. Fox, O. Hess, and J. J. Baumberg, “Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities,” Nature 535(7610), 127–130 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borisov, A. G.

R. Esteban, A. G. Borisov, P. Nordlander, and J. Aizpurua, “Bridging quantum and classical plasmonics with a quantum-corrected model,” Nat. Commun. 3, 825 (2012).

Borsley, S.

S. Borsley, S. Flook, and E. R. Kay, “Rapid and simple preparation of remarkably stable binary nanoparticle planet-satellite assemblies,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7812–7815 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brennan, C. W.

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S.-Y. Chen and A. A. Lazarides, “Quantitative amplification of Cy5 SERS in ‘warm spots’ created by plasmonic coupling in nanoparticle assemblies of controlled structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(28), 12167–12175 (2009).
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J.-W. Park and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Strong resistance of citrate anions on metal nanoparticles to desorption under thiol functionalization,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1665–1682 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Fabrication process of a CSA backbone and Raman tags based on the backbone. The zeta potential (ζ) of particles at each step of forming intrinsic CSA (without Raman reporters) is shown. (B) TEM images of CSA with silica coating (CSA@SiO2). (C) TEM images of desiccated CSA. The average size of core particles in (B)(C) is 50 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental extinction (A) and scattering (B) spectra of core particles, CSA and CSA@SiO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Simulated extinction spectrum of core, CSA and CSA@SiO2 (B) The CSA resonance wavelength and resonance shift relative to 50 nm core particles versus different gap sizes (C) Calculated field amplitude enhancement of CSA with 1 nm interparticle gap. The |Einc| is 1.373x108 V/m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

From left to right: dark-field images, Raman images and the corresponding Raman spectra of Raman Tag1 (red) and Raman Tag2 (blue), Raman Tag3 (green) and the intrinsic CSA backbone (black).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized Raman intensity, (A) 1300 cm−1 (B) 1550 cm−1, of four CSA@SiO2 clusters acquired at 0 min, 5 min and 10 min over the period of continuous laser illumination. (C) Normalized Raman intensity of the three Raman Tags and normalized fluorescence intensity of free Cy5 acquired over the period of continuous laser illumination.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulated resonance wavelength of CSA under three gap sizes and refractive indices of the PAH layer. The experimental resonance wavelength is 620 nm.

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