Abstract

Complex assemblies of light-emitting polymer nanofibers with molecular materials exhibiting optical gain can lead to important advance to amorphous photonics and to random laser science and devices. In disordered mats of nanofibers, multiple scattering and waveguiding might interplay to determine localization or spreading of optical modes as well as correlation effects. Here we study electrospun fibers embedding a lasing fluorene-carbazole-fluorene molecule and doped with titania nanoparticles, which exhibit random lasing with sub-nm spectral width and threshold of about 9 mJ cm−2 for the absorbed excitation fluence. We focus on the spatial and spectral behavior of optical modes in the disordered and non-woven networks, finding evidence for the presence of modes with very large spatial extent, up to the 100 µm-scale. These findings suggest emission coupling into integrated nanofiber transmission channels as effective mechanism for enhancing spectral selectivity in random lasers and correlations of light modes in the complex and disordered material.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

2016 (3)

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gierschner, S. Varghese, and S. Y. Park, “Organic single crystal lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

A. Tomkeviciene, J.V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Jankauskas, and G. Sini, “Structure properties relationship of carbazole and fluorene hybrid trimers: experimental and theoretical approaches,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 13932e42 (2014).

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bachelard, S. Gigan, X. Noblin, and P. Sebbah, “Adaptive pumping for spectral control of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 426 (2014).

S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e8 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Light-emitting electrospun nanofibers for nanophotonics and optoelectronics,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 298(5), 487–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Choi and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing mode alterations by single-nanoparticle perturbations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041101 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, R. Mooiweer, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113031 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

N. C. Murphy, R. Wortis, and W. A. Atkinson, “Generalized inverse participation ratio as a possible measure of localization for interacting systems,” Phys. Rev. B 83(18), 184206 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Quochi, “Random lasers based on organic epitaxial nanofibers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “Random lasers explained?” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 246–248 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anastasiadis, S. H.

Anglos, D.

Atkinson, W. A.

N. C. Murphy, R. Wortis, and W. A. Atkinson, “Generalized inverse participation ratio as a possible measure of localization for interacting systems,” Phys. Rev. B 83(18), 184206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bachelard, N.

N. Bachelard, S. Gigan, X. Noblin, and P. Sebbah, “Adaptive pumping for spectral control of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 426 (2014).

Barbarella, G.

N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baronas, P.

P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beier, H. T.

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bixler, J. N.

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanco, A.

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bliokh, Y.

Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boilot, J. P.

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[Crossref]

Caixeiro, S.

S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Camposeo, A.

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Light-emitting electrospun nanofibers for nanophotonics and optoelectronics,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 298(5), 487–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chaikina, E. I.

Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaput, F.

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
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S. H. Choi and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing mode alterations by single-nanoparticle perturbations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041101 (2012).
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B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
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A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
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B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
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N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
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A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
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Das, R. N.

Del Carro, P.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
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J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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R. G. S. El-Dardiry, R. Mooiweer, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113031 (2012).
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J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
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Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
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S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
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S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
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N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
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Giannelis, E. P.

Gierschner, J.

J. Gierschner, S. Varghese, and S. Y. Park, “Organic single crystal lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 348–364 (2016).
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N. Bachelard, S. Gigan, X. Noblin, and P. Sebbah, “Adaptive pumping for spectral control of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 426 (2014).

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N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
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B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
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S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
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P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
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S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
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L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
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Jakubiak, R.

Jankauskas, V.

P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
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A. Tomkeviciene, J.V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Jankauskas, and G. Sini, “Structure properties relationship of carbazole and fluorene hybrid trimers: experimental and theoretical approaches,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 13932e42 (2014).

Jenne, M.

S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
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S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
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P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
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S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
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J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
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S. H. Choi and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing mode alterations by single-nanoparticle perturbations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041101 (2012).
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J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
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S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
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R. G. S. El-Dardiry, R. Mooiweer, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113031 (2012).
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K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
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C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
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Leonetti, M.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e8 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
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N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lizárraga, N.

Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
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M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e8 (2013).
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M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
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M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
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S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
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L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
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Marelli, B.

S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
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B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
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Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
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L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
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L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
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V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
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L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
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R. G. S. El-Dardiry, R. Mooiweer, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113031 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morello, G.

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosk, A. P.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
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S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
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L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neves, A. A. R.

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
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N. Bachelard, S. Gigan, X. Noblin, and P. Sebbah, “Adaptive pumping for spectral control of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 426 (2014).

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B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
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Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
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Omenetto, F. G.

S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Park, S. Y.

J. Gierschner, S. Varghese, and S. Y. Park, “Organic single crystal lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref]

Persano, L.

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
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A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
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B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
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Pisignano, D.

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Camposeo, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Light-emitting electrospun nanofibers for nanophotonics and optoelectronics,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 298(5), 487–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polini, A.

V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polo, M.

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Psyllaki, M.

Quochi, F.

F. Quochi, “Random lasers based on organic epitaxial nanofibers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2010).
[Crossref]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Resta, V.

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

Rockwell, B. A.

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, C.

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sapienza, R.

S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schierle, S.

S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sebbah, P.

N. Bachelard, S. Gigan, X. Noblin, and P. Sebbah, “Adaptive pumping for spectral control of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 426 (2014).

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Silvestri, L.

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Simokaitiene, J.

P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sini, G.

A. Tomkeviciene, J.V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Jankauskas, and G. Sini, “Structure properties relationship of carbazole and fluorene hybrid trimers: experimental and theoretical approaches,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 13932e42 (2014).

Smith, C. L. C.

S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spadaro, D.

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

Stabile, R.

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stassinopoulos, A.

Sznitko, L.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szukalski, A.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tavazzi, S.

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, R. J.

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tjerkstra, R. W.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomkeviciene, A.

P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tomkeviciene, J.V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Jankauskas, and G. Sini, “Structure properties relationship of carbazole and fluorene hybrid trimers: experimental and theoretical approaches,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 13932e42 (2014).

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Türck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vaia, R. A.

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vannahme, C.

S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Varghese, S.

J. Gierschner, S. Varghese, and S. Y. Park, “Organic single crystal lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref]

Viola, I.

N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volyniuk, D.

A. Tomkeviciene, J.V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Jankauskas, and G. Sini, “Structure properties relationship of carbazole and fluorene hybrid trimers: experimental and theoretical approaches,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 13932e42 (2014).

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “Random lasers explained?” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 246–248 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wortis, R.

N. C. Murphy, R. Wortis, and W. A. Atkinson, “Generalized inverse participation ratio as a possible measure of localization for interacting systems,” Phys. Rev. B 83(18), 184206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. V.

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshimote, R.

Zacharakis, G.

Zhang, D. Z.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. Sanchez, B. Lebeau, F. Chaput, and J. P. Boilot, “Optical properties of functional hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. 15(23), 1969–1994 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Krämmer, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, T. Grossmann, M. Jenne, S. Schierle, L. Jørgensen, I. S. Chronakis, A. Kristensen, and H. Kalt, “Random-cavity lasing from electrospun polymer fiber networks,” Adv. Mater. 26(48), 8096–8100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mat. (1)

S. Caixeiro, M. Gaio, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto, and R. Sapienza, “Random lasing: silk-based biocompatible random lasing,” Adv. Opt. Mat. 4(7), 998–1003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

J. Gierschner, S. Varghese, and S. Y. Park, “Organic single crystal lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(3), 348–364 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. H. Choi and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing mode alterations by single-nanoparticle perturbations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041101 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dyes Pigments (1)

P. Baronas, K. Kazlauskas, G. Kreiza, V. Jankauskas, A. Tomkeviciene, J. Simokaitiene, S. Grigalevicius, J. V. Grazulevicius, and S. Jursenas, “Differently linked fluorene-carbazole triads for light amplification,” Dyes Pigments 123, 370–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

F. Quochi, “Random lasers based on organic epitaxial nanofibers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Polym. Phys. (1)

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

A. Camposeo, M. Polo, P. Del Carro, L. Silvestri, S. Tavazzi, and D. Pisignano, “Random lasing in an organic light-emitting crystal and its interplay with vertical cavity feedback,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(8), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e8 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macromol. Mater. Eng. (1)

A. Camposeo, L. Persano, and D. Pisignano, “Light-emitting electrospun nanofibers for nanophotonics and optoelectronics,” Macromol. Mater. Eng. 298(5), 487–503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

V. Fasano, A. Polini, G. Morello, M. Moffa, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Bright light emission and waveguiding in conjugated polymer nanofibers electrospun from organic salt added solutions,” Macromolecules 46(15), 5935–5942 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

N. Ghofraniha, I. Viola, F. Di Maria, G. Barbarella, G. Gigli, L. Leuzzi, and C. Conti, “Experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in random lasers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6058 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Hokr, J. N. Bixler, M. T. Cone, J. D. Mason, H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, G. I. Petrov, L. A. Golovan, R. J. Thomas, B. A. Rockwell, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Bright emission from a random Raman laser,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4356 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (6)

S. Gottardo, R. Sapienza, P. D. García, A. Blanco, D. S. Wiersma, and C. López, “Resonance-driven random lasing,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 429–432 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, “Random lasers explained?” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 246–248 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Bachelard, S. Gigan, X. Noblin, and P. Sebbah, “Adaptive pumping for spectral control of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 426 (2014).

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, R. Mooiweer, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra,” New J. Phys. 14(11), 113031 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Tomkeviciene, J.V. Grazulevicius, D. Volyniuk, V. Jankauskas, and G. Sini, “Structure properties relationship of carbazole and fluorene hybrid trimers: experimental and theoretical approaches,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 13932e42 (2014).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Mujumdar, V. Türck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

N. C. Murphy, R. Wortis, and W. A. Atkinson, “Generalized inverse participation ratio as a possible measure of localization for interacting systems,” Phys. Rev. B 83(18), 184206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Bliokh, E. I. Chaikina, N. Lizárraga, E. R. Méndez, V. Freilikher, and F. Nori, “Disorder-induced cavities, resonances, and lasing in randomly layered media,” Phys. Rev. B 86(5), 054204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Persano, M. Moffa, V. Fasano, M. Montinaro, G. Morello, V. Resta, D. Spadaro, P. G. Gucciardi, O. M. Maragò, A. Camposeo, and D. Pisignano, “Optimization of electrospinning technique for the realization of nanofiber plastic laser,” Proc. SPIE 9745, 97450R (2016).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

A. Camposeo, F. Di Benedetto, R. Stabile, A. A. R. Neves, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Laser emission from electrospun polymer nanofibers,” Small 5(5), 562–566 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the setup for SSCC experiments, analysis of mode fluctuations and simultaneous fluorescence imaging. Samples are irradiated at normal incidence. The L3 lens (focal distance = 300 mm) is mounted on a micrometric linear translation stage for mode reconstruction along the direction (X) perpendicular to the slit long axis (bottom-right inset). Collections filters are longpass components removing the excitation line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Molecular structure of Fl-Cz-Fl, geometrically optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level using density functional theory [27]. The blue segment indicates nitrogen atom. (b) Dark-field optical micrograph of electrospun, TiO2/Fl-Cz-Fl-doped PS fibers. Scale bar: 50 µm. (c) STEM image showing TiO2 clusters (dark spots highlighted by arrows) embedded in the fibers. Scale bar: 5 µm. (d) Random lasing emission intensity for the mode at 419.9 nm vs. excitation fluence. Intensity data are averaged over 10 excitation shots.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of single-shot spectra measured with excitation fluence of 17 mJ cm−2 (two bottom curves), and 42 mJ cm−2 (two top curves), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Evolution of the single-shot emission spectra upon increasing the number of excitation pulses. Excitation fluence 30 mJ cm−2. (b) Averaged emission spectra calculated by using a varying number, N, of single-shot spectra. From top to bottom N = 1, 10, 25, 50, 75, respectively. Spectra are shifted vertically for better clarity. (c) Dependence of the laser emission intensity on the number of single-shot spectra used for averaging. (d) Emission spectra collected for varied excitation areas. From bottom to top, the excitation area is 0.07, 0.13, 0.21, 0.33, and 0.47 mm2, respectively. Excitation fluence 25 mJ cm−2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CCD image showing an intensity map for the spectrally and spatially(YS)-resolved emission for the nanofiber random laser. YS is the sample coordinate parallel to the long axis of the monochromator slit. The arrows indicate brighter lasing regions. (b) Intensity profile, obtained integrating the image in (a) over all the Y-positions for each wavelength. λα = 412.5 nm, λβ = 417.7 nm, and λγ = 419.9 nm indicate three exemplary wavelengths used for the subsequent detailed SSCC analysis. Dashed line: eventually amplified spontaneous emission signal. (c) Overall, spectrally and spatially(XS)-resolved random lasing mode pattern, calculated summing up over the Y direction each image obtained for a given position of the collection lens, and composing sub-images along the X direction. Intensity data in (a-c) are averaged over 10 excitation shots. (d) Far-field fluorescence pattern recorded simultaneously with the map in (a), for the position XS = 160 µm in (c). Scale bar: 50 µm. The dashed circle highlights the ~250 µm sample region, which is excited directly. Excitation fluence: 42 mJ cm−2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Spatial distribution of overall set of random lasing modes in the excitation region. (b-d) Spatial distributions of modes for λα (b), λβ (c) and λγ (d), respectively. Excitation fluence: 42 mJ cm−2. Intensity data are averaged over 10 excitation shots.

Equations (1)

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l locλi ~ 1 IP R λi = I λi ( x,y )dxdy [ I λi ( x,y ) 2 dxdy ] 1/2

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