Abstract

Nonlinear wavelength conversion is essential for many classical and quantum pho-tonic applications. The underlying second-order nonlinear optical processes, however, generally exhibit limited spectral bandwidths that impact their application potential. Here we use a high-Q X-cut lithium niobate microdisk resonator to demonstrate both second-harmonic generation and spontaneous parametric down-conversion on chip. In particular, our lithium niobate microresonator, with its wide-range cyclic phase matching and rich optical mode structures, is able to achieve ultra-broadband spontaneous parametric down-conversion, with a bandwidth over 400 nm, inferred from recorded spectra of the down-converted photons. The produced biphoton pairs exhibit strong temporal correlation, with a coincidence-to-accidental ratio measured to be 43.1. Our device is promising for integrated quantum photonics where optical frequency could be used as a degree of freedom for signal processing.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (4)

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X.-F. Ren, G.-C. Guo, and M. Lončar, “Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 25, 6963 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, H. Liang, R. Luo, W. C. Jiang, X.-C. Zhang, and Q. Lin, “Nonlinear optical oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Express 25, 13504 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (11)

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3, 531 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, “Second-harmonic generation in aluminum nitride microrings with 2500%/W conversion efficiency,” Optica 3, 1126 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rao, M. Malinowski, A. Honardoost, J. R. Talukder, P. Rabiei, P. Delfyett, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically-poled thin film lithium niobate wafer-bonded on silicon,” Opt. Express 24, 29941 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. C. Jiang and Q. Lin, “Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36920 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Ni, M. Wang, Z. Fang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in an on-chip LiNbO3 microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 6, 014002 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Inagaki, Y. Haribara, K. Igarashi, T. Sonobe, S. Tamate, T. Honjo, A. Marandi, P. L. McMahon, T. Umeki, K. Enbutsu, O. Tadanaga, H. Takenouchi, K. Aihara, K.-I. Kawarabayashi, K. Inoue, S. Utsunomiya, and H. Takesue, “A coherent ising machine for 2000-node optimization problems,” Science 354, 603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. McMahon, A. Marandi, Y. Haribara, R. Hamerly, C. Langrock, S. Tamate, T. Inagaki, H. Takesue, S. Utsunomiya, K. Aihara, R. L. Byer, M. M. Fejer, H. Mabuchi, and Y. Yamamoto, “A fully-programmable 100-spin coherent Ising machine with all-to-all connections,” Science 354, 614 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Reimer, M. Kues, P. Roztocki, B. Wetzel, F. Grazioso, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, T. Johnston, Y. Bromberg, L. Caspani, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs,” Science 351, 1176 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, C. Marquardt, A. B. Matsko, H. G. L. Schwefel, and G. Leuchs, “Nonlinear and quantum optics with whispering gallery resonators,” J. Opt. 18, 123002 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Breunig, “Three-wave mixing in whispering gallery resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 569 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Fürst, B. Sturman, K. Buse, and I. Breunig, “Whispering gallery resonators with broken axial symmetry: Theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 2, 20143 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. Förtsch, G. Schunk, J. U. Fürst, D. Strekalov, T. Gerrits, M. J. Stevens, F. Sedlmeir, H. G. L. Schwefel, S. W. Nam, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “Highly efficient generation of single-mode photon pairs from a crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonator source,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 23812 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, J. Song, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, “Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Grassani, S. Azzini, M. Liscidini, M. Galli, M. J. Strain, M. Sorel, J. Sipe, and D. Bajoni, “Micrometer-scale integrated silicon source of time-energy entangled photons,” Optica 2, 88 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, F. Bo, S. Wan, W. Li, F. Gao, J. Li, G. Zhang, and J. Xu, “High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 23072 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

A. E. Willner, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, and O. F. Yilmaz, “All-optical signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 660 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22, 30924 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Bussieres, C. Clausen, A. Tiranov, B. Korzh, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, H. Herrmann, C. Silberhorn, W. Sohler, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Photon. 8, 775 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jin, F. Liu, P. Xu, J. Xia, M. Zhong, Y. Yuan, J. Zhou, Y. Gong, W. Wang, and S. Zhu, “On-chip generation and manipulation of entangled photons based on reconfigurable lithium-niobate waveguide circuits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 103601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Kuo and G. S. Solomon, “Second-harmonic generation using 4-bar quasi-phasematching in a GaAs microdisk cavity,” Nat. Commun. 53109 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Commun. 41818 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lin, J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, and N. Yu, “Wide-range cyclic phase matching and second harmonic generation in whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 181107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491, 421 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Guenter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, J.-Y. He, C.-A. Lee, and H. Niu, “High-quality LiNbO3 microdisk resonators by undercut etching and surface tension reshaping,” Opt. Express 20, 2811 (2012).

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

S. Ramelow, L. Ratschbacher, A. Fedrizzi, N. Langford, and A. Zeilinger, “Discrete tunable color entanglement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 253601 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. B. Nasr, S. Carrasco, B. E. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, M. C. Teich, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrabroadband biphotons generated via chirped quasi-phase-matched optical parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 183601 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photon. 1, 165 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro-optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photon. 1, 407 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Halder, A. Beveratos, N. Gisin, V. Scarani, C. Simon, and H. Zbinden, “Entangling independent photons by time measurement,” Nat. Phys. 3, 692 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Fujii, N. Namekata, M. Motoya, S. Kurimura, and S. Inoue, “Bright narrowband source of photon pairs at optical telecommunication wavelengths using a type-II periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 12769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

M. H. Dunn and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Parametric generation of tunable light from continuous-wave to femtosecond pulses,” Science 286, 1513 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, “1.5 µm band efficient broadband wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in a periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abe, E.

K. De Greve, L. Yu, P. L. McMahon, J. S. Pelc, C. M. Natarajan, N. Y. Kim, E. Abe, S. Maier, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. H. Hadfield, A. Forchel, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum-dot spin-photon entanglement via frequency downconversion to telecom wavelength,” Nature 491, 421 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afzelius, M.

F. Bussieres, C. Clausen, A. Tiranov, B. Korzh, V. B. Verma, S. W. Nam, F. Marsili, A. Ferrier, P. Goldner, H. Herrmann, C. Silberhorn, W. Sohler, M. Afzelius, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory,” Nat. Photon. 8, 775 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

M. Förtsch, J. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Commun. 41818 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aihara, K.

T. Inagaki, Y. Haribara, K. Igarashi, T. Sonobe, S. Tamate, T. Honjo, A. Marandi, P. L. McMahon, T. Umeki, K. Enbutsu, O. Tadanaga, H. Takenouchi, K. Aihara, K.-I. Kawarabayashi, K. Inoue, S. Utsunomiya, and H. Takesue, “A coherent ising machine for 2000-node optimization problems,” Science 354, 603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Xu, H. Okayama, and M. Kawahara, “1.5 µm band efficient broadband wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in a periodically domain-inverted LiNbO3 channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3559 (1993).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscope image of fabricated X-cut LN microdisks. (b) and (c) Transmission spectra of typical high-Q cavity resonances of the employed device in the telecom and visible bands, respectively. Both modes are quasi-TM polarized. Experimental data are shown in red and blue, and theoretical fittings are shown in black. (d) and (e) Schematics of the experimental setups for SHG and SPDC, respectively. VOA: variable optical attenuator; WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; LPF: longpass filter; BPF: bandpass filter; TBPF: tunable bandpass filter; SPD: single-photon detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical mode characterization of the LN microresonator. (a) Transmission spectrum of the device in the telecom band, for quasi-TE polarization. (b) Transmission spectrum of the device in the visible band, for quasi-TM polarization. (c) Detailed transmission spectrum of the fundamental cavity mode used for SHG. (d) Detailed transmission spectrum of the second-harmonic mode. In (c) and (d), experimental data are shown in red and blue, and theoretical fittings are shown in black.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Second-harmonic generation in the LN microresonator. (a) Recorded spectrum of the SHG signal in the visible, produced by pump light in the telecom band. (b) Power dependence of the SHG signal on the fundamental pump.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Broadband SPDC. (a) Recorded SPDC spectrum, generated by a pump wave at 774.66 nm in the visible. The spectrometer used for recording the spectrum has a cutoff wavelength around 1590 nm. The pump power is 115 µW. (b) Detailed SPDC spectrum in the wavelength range of 1505–1595 nm, showing multiple pairs of emission lines symmetrically located around the degenerate SPDC signal at 1549.32 nm, indicated by the black arrow. Blue and red arrows highlight two conjugate mode families. Two big arrows indicate a pair of strong peaks, one at 1517.85 nm and the other at 1582.12 nm. Blue and red dashed boxes indicate two coarse WDM channels, which are later used to select two conjugate SPDC wavebands for characterizing the temporal correlation of the broadband biphotons. (c) Polarization properties of the SPDC, where the PL spectra for TE and TM polarizations are shown in blue and red, respectively. The spectrum of TE polarization is shifted along the vertical axis for better comparison with the TM polarization. Inset: experimental setup for characterizing the polarization properties of SPDC, from point A shown in Fig. 1(e).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Temporal correlation of the produced conjugate biphoton pairs. (a) and (b) Experimental setup, and coincidence counts as a function of relative time delay, for a single mode pair at wavelengths of 1517.85 and 1582.12 nm. Experimental data are shown as blue circles and a Gaussian fitting is plotted as a magenta curve. The single photons are detected by two InGaAs SPDs, with a gated time window of 40 ns, gate frequency of 2.5 MHz, quantum efficiency of 15%, and data acquisition time of 6 hours. No background subtraction is performed. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of over 800 ps is due to detector timing jitter. (c) and (d) Experimental setup, and coincidence counts as a function of relative time delay, for broadband multiple mode pairs. The two selected wavebands have an identical bandwidth of 16 nm, with one centered at 1531 nm and the other centered at 1571 nm. In (a) and (c), SPDC signals are from point B shown in Fig. 1(e). Insets of (b) and (d) present accidental coincidence counts as functions of relative time delay, with experimental data shown as gray dots and theoretical fittings as magenta curves.

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