Abstract

Recently even the low-end mobile-phones are equipped with a high-resolution complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This motivates using a CMOS image sensor for visible light communication (VLC). Here we propose and demonstrate an efficient demodulation scheme to synchronize and demodulate the rolling shutter pattern in image sensor based VLC. The implementation algorithm is discussed. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance and processing latency are evaluated and compared with other thresholding schemes.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).
  3. J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Boubezari, H. L. Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Data detection for smartphone visible light communications,” Proc. CSNDSP’14, 1034–1038.
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).
  10. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
    [Crossref]
  11. C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (2)

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Boubezari, R.

R. Boubezari, H. L. Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Data detection for smartphone visible light communications,” Proc. CSNDSP’14, 1034–1038.
[Crossref]

Bouridane, A.

R. Boubezari, H. L. Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Data detection for smartphone visible light communications,” Proc. CSNDSP’14, 1034–1038.
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. C.

Chen, S. H.

Chen, W.

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y. C.

Chow, C. W.

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Ghassemlooy, Z.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

R. Boubezari, H. L. Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Data detection for smartphone visible light communications,” Proc. CSNDSP’14, 1034–1038.
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Han, D.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

He, J. H.

Hsieh, D. H.

Hsu, C. W.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jhang, T. W.

Kuo, H. C.

Li, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, K.

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. F.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. L.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. H.

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, I. C.

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, P.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Minh, H. L.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

R. Boubezari, H. L. Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Data detection for smartphone visible light communications,” Proc. CSNDSP’14, 1034–1038.
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Png, L. C.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Retamal, J. R. D.

Tang, X.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Tsai, C. T.

Tsai, H. M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Underwood, I.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Wang, W. C.

Wang, Z.

Wei, L. Y.

Wu, P. Y.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Youn, C. H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zhang, M.

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE Netw. (1)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C. H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: from fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw. 28(6), 41–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

C. W. Hsu, C. W. Chow, I. C. Lu, Y. L. Liu, C. H. Yeh, and Y. Liu, “High speed imaging 3× 3 MIMO phosphor white-light LED based visible light communication system,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 7907406 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Luo, M. Zhang, Z. Ghassemlooy, H. L. Minh, H. M. Tsai, X. Tang, L. C. Png, and D. Han, “Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications,” IEEE Photonics J. 7, 7904242 (2015).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. D. Retamal, H. M. Oubei, B. Janjua, Y. C. Chi, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, T. K. Ng, D. H. Hsieh, H. C. Kuo, M. S. Alouini, J. H. He, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33656–33666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Chow, C. Y. Chen, and S. H. Chen, “Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26080–26085 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Liang, C. W. Chow, and Y. Liu, “Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17505–17510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Wang, C. W. Chow, L. Y. Wei, Y. Liu, and C. H. Yeh, “Long distance non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light signal detection based on rolling-shutter-patterning of mobile-phone camera,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10103–10108 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” Proc. OWC’12, 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

R. Boubezari, H. L. Minh, Z. Ghassemlooy, and A. Bouridane, “Data detection for smartphone visible light communications,” Proc. CSNDSP’14, 1034–1038.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A proof-of-concept experimental setup of the VLC using LED Tx and mobile-phone CMOS image sensor Rx.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Flow diagram of the synchronization and demodulation processes, (b) photo of a rolling shutter pattern, and (c) 1 x 1080 matrix of grayscale value pattern.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Flow diagram showing the working principle of EVA thresholding scheme.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental grayscale value pattern and the applied EVA thresholding scheme (red curve), (b) a “zoom-in” grayscale value pattern after the two headers are removed.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured BER performances against different payload bit length (a) without and (b) with the linear interpolation at a low illumination of 250 lux.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured processing latencies of different schemes used.

Metrics